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'rice 35c. Yearly Subscription $3.50 F 

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CONTRIBUTORS 

MR. MARSHALL FRY w* # & jt 

MISS LETA HORLOCKER ^ * + 

MISS KATHERINE HUGER j* * j* 

MRS. ANNA B. LEONARD ^ & * 

MISS ELIZABETH MASON * * s 

MRS. RHODA HOLMES NICHOLS * 

MRS. WORTH OSGOOD > * * jt 
MRS. ADELAIDE ALSOP-ROBINEAU 

MR. CHARLES VOLKMAR j» .* jt 

MISS MARY CHASE PERRY * * * 



FOR: 



fl M§HTfiLY: 
WKSBZUBRs 

THE: 





Copyrighted 1899 by the Keramic Studio Publishing Co., New York and Syracuse 





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UiiUiud ut lul Ojiumn run offlLu jj auLuma euii iiuuu. 



MRS. ANNA B. LEONARD'S 

GOLD PUT UP IN POWDER FORM. 

28 East 23rd Street, New York. 



The Thousand Island 
Summer School of Art 

Thousand Island Park, St. Lawrence River, N. Y. 
The most picturesquely and healthfully located Art School in America. 
OPEN JUNE J5th TO SEPTEMBER 30th. 

Instruction in all branches of Painting, Drawing and Sketching, from nature, 
landscape, figure and still life. Special attention given to Tapestry Painting, 
Lantern Slide and Transparency Painting, Pen Drawing for process engraving 
and Landscape Photography. 

TUITION— $10.00 per month, $25.00 whole season. 

ADDRESS BEFORE JUNE 1st, 

A. G. MARSHALL, Director, 

Care of "Talent," 61 World Building, New York. 

Address June 1st to October 1st : Thousand Island Park, Jefferson Co., N. Y. 

U!lll!ll!ll!lllllllllI!llllllllllIIIII!l!!lllinillllll!IIIIII!ll!llllllllllllllllllll!ll!lliIllllllllIIIIIIII!IIIIIIII!IIIII!IIIII!l!llllIi:| 

I COOLEY'S GOLDS, 1 

I BRONZES, OILS, Etc. | 

And all Requisites used for China Decorating | 

These preparations are for sale at retail at all stores | 

| handling Artists' Materials, and at wholesale by Jobbers of | 

| Artists' Supplies. If your dealer does not have what you | 

| want send direct to us and we will ship promptly. We are also | 

| IMPORTERS and DEALERS (Wholesale and Retail) IN 

1 White China For Decorating; 1 



OUR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 
AND PRICE LISTS 

W'il be sent on receipt of 20 cents, which amount will be 
deducted from first order for China, or refunded on return 
of Catalogue in good condition. Your favors solicited. 



Boston China Decorating Works 



I 38 TENNYSON STREET 

1 L. COOLEY, Proprietor 



BOSTON = 



s Established 1860 

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MISS SARA B. VILAS, 

112 West 11th Street, New York 
GENERAL PURCHASING AGENT. 
TROUSSEAUS AND TAILOR-MADE GOWNS. HOUSE FURNISHINGS, 
ARTISTS' MATERIALS, Etc. 



LANTERN SL IDE 
PAINTING . . . . 



A. G. MARSHALL- 



IS IN GREAT DEMAND 



Teaches according to correct art principles 

Lessons by Mail, .... $1.00 each 
Set of Electric Light Colors, . . 1.00 

N. B.— Send ten cents for valuable Aids to Freehand and Mechanical Drawing, 

costing nothing to make. 
A. G. MARSHALL, care of "TALENT," 61 World BIdg., NEW YORK. 

The COMBINATION 

BOX and 

PALETTE (PATENTED) 

......For China Painting 

Designed by MISS ROSE 

Is the most complete yet made. No one who has once used 
the Palette will do without it ; saves time and colors. The 
covered Palette may be used with or without the box. 

Price, $1.25; with box, $3.75. For sale 
ly Teachers or Dealers in Artists' Materials, 
or direct from 

MISS A. A. ROSE 
502 Bedford Avenue 

Brooklyn 







DESCRIPTION ggra 

ji own, barrel hubs and hanger, 2 1-8 inch dr 
ich green. Gents' framea, 22, & 

:a and high grade equipment, throughout. OUR WKITTE 



Iroquois Bicylces $16-75 

400 of the famous Iroqnol. Model 8 Bicycles will be 

sold at $16.75 each, jnsl"ne-tLii<l their real value. 

UIOQUOIS VrvJ.E WORK J'ailed 

because their wheels were too expensively built, 

and we have bunt-lit the entire plant ■.. 

sale, at SO cents en the dollar. With it we got 400 

Model 3 Iroquois Bieycli B, lln 

Made to .ell «t $60. To advertise our n 

have concluded to sell these WO at jil I 
stand us, and make the marvelous oB 
Model 3 Iroquois iiiri/c/e at $I6.7B, 
while they last. The wheels are strictly up-to- 
date, famous everywhere for beauty and good 
quality. 
. The Iroquois Model S Is too well known 



rip, lot 



e.iie'tlie- 



' agei 



'i and e 



and we will ship C. O. D. for the balance „. 

approval. If you don't find it the mo,t wunderful Bicycle Offei 

ORDER TO-DAY if yon dont want to be disappointed. 50 

WE HAVE BICYCLES L 






Shelby 1 1-i in. 






wanted, 

tion and 
expense. 



erywhere 



bu; 



id it back 
cash in full with ord... 
*1 1 5 and up. Second- 
it JllLir.lt 1GEN1 
mrned their bicycles last year. This year we offer wheels and cash 
ItEK USE of sample wheel to agents. Write for our liberal proportion. We 
the greatest Exelnain Bicycle llon.e in the world, and are perfectly reliable ; 
— In Chicago, to any express company and 



J. L. MEAD CYCLE CO., Chicago, III. 



FOR CHINA AND GLASS DECORATION. 
SUPERIOR LIQUID LUSTRES. 



HALL'S Roman Gold and Bronzes 

The Best Selected Powder Colors, First Quality Brushes, Oils, Etc., Etc. 

Send for samples of my SUPERIOR and SECOND QUALITY GOLD. No better manufactured. ^gSftS ££*"• 

JAHES F. HALL, 34 N. 15th Street, PHILADELPHIA. 



When writing to Advertisers, plet 



ntion this Magazine, 



\ 




Vol. I, No. % 



NEW YORK AND SYRACUSE 



May W9 




His magazine is the outgrowth of an in- 
creasing demand for practical designs 
and instructions for students of keramics. 
Now that the decoration of china is no 
longer a fad, but a serious • study, a pro- 
fession, or means of livelihood to thousands outside of pot- 
teries, something more is required of decorators than the 
stereotyped spray of flowers and the inevitable butterfly. 
Students have gone beyond that, and are clamoring for good 
designs which lead to a higher standard ; they are going into 
the work more seriously, realizing it to be a life-long study. 
That hesitating touch of the amateur is fast disappearing, as 
the understanding of design and technique increases; there- 
. fore the demand for a higher standard in the studios. 

It will be the aim of the KERAMIC Studio to help all 
those who are struggling in their efforts to reach higher ideals. 
There will always be articles and designs for beginners, with 
all the encouragement we can give. Many students live far 
from teachers and receive no aid except that which can be 
found in magazines, which makes it all the more necessary to 
give careful and practical instruction. 

The magazine being edited by teachers of wide experi- 
ence, who realize the needs and demands of pupils, will devote 
its columns to the study and development of keramic arts. 

We will cheerfully criticize, without charge, any work of 
our subscribers sent to us, expecting only that the expressage 
be prepaid. This will assist in correcting any faults in design, 
technique or firing. We will have articles and designs from 
the best artists, so that the style of touch and treatment may 
be varied, giving a broad basis upon which to build individual 
work. 

"We have received much encouiagement from decorators 

all over the country, and we hope, through the serious work 

of the magazine, to receive the help and encouragement of 

everyone interested in the advancement of this beautiful art. 

4> 

Subscribers not quite understanding an)/ of the treat- 
ments, or wishing to ask questions, are at liberty to write to the 
editors, who will reply in the next number of the magazine. 

We would be glad to have subscribers write and tell us 
what they would like in the way of designs, articles and instruc- 
tion, and we will try to accommodate them as soon as possible. 

Our first number does not contain the regular amount of 
instructions for beginners, as we have published matter per- 
taining particularly to our introduction as a new magazine. 

4« 

We invite all decorators to submit designs, particularly 
upon the subjects or motifs suggested by the continuous 
articles on design or historic ornament. It would be gratify- 
ing to receive some designs on the Egyptian motif given in 



the present number. We will publish the best one, with 
criticisms of the others, giving to the successful competitor a 
sheet of designs. We would be pleased, also, to have sub- 
mitted to us articles on subjects of interest to workers in any 
department of keramic art. 

4= 

We wish to call special attention to the keramic alphabet 
designed for us by Mr. Albert Marshall, pupil of William 
Chase, and head of a summer art school on the St. Lawrence. 
Every letter has behind it a keramic form, whose name begins 
with that letter. They are all good classic shapes, and we 
wish our potters and modellers would take examples from 
them and give us some good new-old forms for decoration. 
4= 

In the historic ornament series, if any subscriber would 
like the design adapted to another shape, we will give the 
adaptation in the earliest possible number. 

Lack of space prevents our giving the article on Boutet 
de Monvel, as seen from the china painter's point of view, and 
the notices of the exhibitions now going on — "The American 
Artists," "The Landscape Painters," "The Ten Painters," and 
"The Academy of Design." These articles will appear in the 
June number. 

4= 

Miss Horlocker's plate design teaches simplicity of floral 
decoration, both in its grouping of blossoms and in the balanc- 
ing of color. This will be valuable in class work, where a 
pupil needs brush practice in forming and shading a petal 
with one stroke of the brush. Without a knowledge of that 
stroke, the work will look opaque and very amateurish, — the 
beauty of mineral colors being in their transparency. 
4, 

The Secretaries of Clubs are asked to send items of their 
monthly and annual meetings, their course of study, etc. It 
will be an encouragement and aid to those who reside in 
remote places and have not the advantages of cities. 
4= 
In the June number there will be the first of a series of 
articles on the distinguishing marks of china. 
4 

It would be interesting to receive articles from those who 
have experimented in the decoration of American china. In 
our exhibition at Paris we should put our work upon china 
from American potteries, if possible. There is nothing more 
beautiful for enamel than the wares from the Trenton pot- 
teries ; but, alas, their shapes for table service are limited. 
Yet if decorators demand unceasingly, good forms, fine texture 
and perfect glaze, there surely will be a response from the 
potteries. It will require the combined effort of all decorators 
to bring this about. It must be a possibility, with all the 
varied soil and clay this country contains ; and it should be 
more a matter of pride with us to bring this about. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



THE VISITOR IN NEW YORK 

The The Visitor always takes a walk up Fifth Avenue 

Galleries ^ rom ' Twenty-third Street to Fortieth, at least. In 
that way he sees most of the best pictures open to 
public view, in the shortest possible time — I mean the best of 
the pictures that come and go. The Metropolitan Museum 
of Art is always with us, and the poor can go with us to see 
those works of "bigotry and virtue" at any time. There are 
other galleries, of course, but they are too scattered for the 
limited time of birds of passage. 

Just now most attention is centered on the exhibitions, 
and the galleries have less of interest than usual. There are 
some good things, though most we have seen before. 

At Knoedler's, the portrait of Pope Leo by Chartran still 
shocks the beholder's sense of the fitness of things. It should 
have been named "Mephistppheles." It is strange how Chartran 
always brings out the vicious traits of character. The Visitor 
saw a lot of portraits, in the same gallery last year, painted by 
the same man. They were presumably portraits of society's 
finest; but when the Visitor encountered the shock of all 
those eyes levelled directly at her, she felt as if she were in 
a Paris cafe full of roues and demi-mondaines. And yet they 
are brilliantly painted, and true — too true — to life. In the 
same gallery there hangs a Cazin and a Corot that assure you 
that there is still "balm in Gilead." Though "man be vile" 
Nature is still wholesome and true. 

Another lot of uncomfortable portraits to look upon are 
to be found at Boussod-Valadon & Co.'s. These are by Caro- 
lus Duran. When one sees the portraits painted here by the 
men whose names have loomed up from "across the pond," 
one has a sad feeling of disillusion. There are Madrazo's, 
too, across the avenue at Oehme's. When those men come 
over to paint America's four hundred and carry home their 
golden reward, the Visitor wonders if they think "any old 
thing" will go down with "ces parvenus Americans." There 
are some fine things at Boussod-Valadon's by Hitchcock. The 
Visitor would gladly have carried away one, especially, geese 
and a windmill in the long, rank, yellow Autumn grass. 

Durand-Ruel had a room full of Sisely. The uneducated 
visitor had a dreary sense of a lot of uninteresting subjects, 
very uninterestingly painted. The Visitor admires Monet ; 
but those who follow after! — a long, long way after,— Pissaro 
is another — are painfully monotonous and wearyful. 

By the bye, there was a fine example of this same master 
(Monet) at Durand-Ruel's — just a river with reeds on the 
hither side, and trees and bushes over the water. You could 
almost hear the reeds rustle and the water murmur, and the 
Visitor vows she saw the ripples move, and could breathe the 
fresh air, and feel the gentle breeze. 

Here are still some interesting panels of Puvis de Chau- 
vannes. We wish we could see more of them. The soul of 
Durand-Ruel is with the impressionists, the luminarists and 
the modern school in all its vagaries and struggles for truth. 
At present its galleries are open for " The Ten Painters " — of 

whom, later. 

© © © 

The There has just been an exhibition of Japanese 

E h'b'tions Art D J ects at tlie American Art Galleries. II 
the decorators would make it a part of their 
religious duty to attend everything of this kind that takes 
place, or take a walk through Vantine's or other Oriental 
shops every week, they would find their stock of ideas greatly 
increased and themselves inspired to originality. 

At the Kano Oshima collection, we noticed especially a 



long necked bottle of old Chinese celadon, with white flowers 
and insects in relief, and incised under the glaze. The haw- 
thorne, cherry, plum and Japanese quince are finely decora- 
tive, used as the Orientals use them, stiffly and yet naturally 
drawn. The same motive is used on another old Chinese 
vase with black enamel body. 

There were several vases with the famous peach-blow 
glaze, shading from light to dark ; an old Chinese vase, a blue 
glaze covering the entire surface, with dragons and flowers 
incised under glaze. 

The soft colorings and fine gold work of the overglaze 
Satsuma decorations are especially pleasing to the artistic 
sense, the creamy crackled body of the ware brings the whole 
decoration together in such a subdued and refined effect. A 
unique specimen of Satsuma Koro had views of castles and 
waves beautifully drawn in silver and colored enamels on a 
blue ground, with a silver open work cover. 

But the gem ot the collection was a vase of peach blow 
enamel over a silver ground, which gave the effect of golden 
sunlight shining through a ruby vase. It is the work of Nami- 
kawa, the celebrated enamel artist of modern Japan 

© © © 
The Some choice plates were shown in one of the 

Shoos shops that may give a suggestion. The rims were 
of olive green (warm in tone) with garlands of small 
roses and forget-me-nots intertwined. The flowers in each 
garland seemed to melt into the green, which was rather dark, 
and there was no gold except on the extreme edge. It is a 
plate that can be generally used. 

Many of the new English importations are in yellow and 

gold. 

[ A color which looks weak by gaslight, but which in daylight makes a 
brilliant effect on the table.— ED.] 

In undecorated china there is a new punch bowl called 
the " Hobson." 

The new lamps are not so high, but have a large base and 
larger bowl. 

China decorators, generally, are anxious to know about 
M. T. Wynne's removal. She has been on East Thirteenth 
for so many years that it will seem as though losing a home 
to give up that little shop, yet to be further up town will be 
much more convenient. 

There is something very refreshing about the Celadon 
china of the Japanese. This year there seems to be a better 
quality and it would make an excellent ground for over- 
glaze decoration — say white enamel — which would make a 
charming service for a summer cottage. 

All china painters will remember the shapes 
with dragon handles that were used during the 
reign of the Royal Worcester imitations. They 
are now to be found on the top 
shelves of most china shops, but 
they are well adapted for the 
lustre deco- 
rations. 




KERAMIC STUDIO 




mz;mm 




For Treatment see page II 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




TREATMENT FOR STUDY OF VIOLETS ( FOR china ) 

Marshall Fry, Jr. 

FIRST PAINTING — After the position of spray has been 
located on plate, and general forms indicated with 
sketching pencil, the flowers may be washed in with violet 
No. 2, banding blue and Copenhagen blue. It seems most 
natural to begin with the important cluster, in which are 
found the deepest darks and sharpest lights, and the latter, 
when noted, enable one to see what value and accent to give 
the less prominent portions of study. The leaves require 
moss, royal, brown and shading greens, also lemon yellow- 
The work should be kept very delicate and simple for first 
painting, reserving detail and dark accents for the second. 
For background wash a little Albert yellow under large 
bunch, continuing towards edge of plate with a mixture of 
yellow brown and brown green. The light tint at left of plate 



is Russian green, the dark side at top being ruby toned down 
with banding blue, and the suggested blossoms at the right 
are Copenhagen blue. The straggling violets should be 
brushed in while background is still moist. The piece is now 
ready for a hard firing. 

SECOND PAINTING — Flowers may be retouched with same 
colors employed before, using violet No. 2 for crisp touches 
and banding blue in pale washes, adding a bit of yellow brown 
to centers. Leaves will need light washes of lemon yellow and 
moss green, with detail suggested with royal and brown 
greens. Background can be made deep and rich at bottom 
by painting over with brown green and yellow brown, merg- 
ing into Copenhagen blue at the left. Wash deep blue green 
and Russian green over dark color and suggested flowers at 
the top. 

A THIRD PAINTING is often necessary, which consists of 
washes and accents, using about the same colors as before. 

Second and third firings should be lighter than the first. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



S 




HINTS ON UNDERGLAZE 

Charles Volkmar 

IMPI.ICITV, a most important rule, applies to 
all decoration, but especially to underglaze. 
The limited resources of the palette require 
a simple interpretation of nature, and con- 
sequently a simple treatment, which adds 
greatly to the artistic charm. It is important to have a cer- 
tain knowledge in drawing, for to simplify is difficult. 

In underglaze decoration perfectly even colors should not 
be sought, on the contrary the mingling of colors, showing a 
vibration of tone, enhances its charms. Such subjects as lend 
to a free treatment produce the most satisfactory results. If 
minute details are desired, overglaze or china decoration, is 
more advantageous. The metals used in the production of 
colors are very few, i. <?., iron, copper, cobalt, manganese, anti- 
mony and oxide of cromium. These oxides alone, will resist 
the action of the glazes. 

The degree of heat generally required for underglaze is 
about 2,000 Fahr. or deep orange color of the ware, neverthe- 
less, good results can be obtained at a lower degree of heat. 
The bisque or body, to produce the best results, should be of 
an earthern ware nature, known as a "Faience" body. A 
porcelain body is too hard, and will not take a soft glaze as 
successfully. The underglaze palette contains no red, the 
nearest approach to red, is a brick color, obtained from an earth 
or clay found at Thevier, called the earth of Thevier, and the 
color made from it is known in the market as red T. 

The decorator must rely principally on contrast, to obtain 
a red quality. Only such flowers as Chrysanthemums, Peonies, 
Pansies, Poppies, Lilies, etc., which can be produced without 
positive reds, are suitable. Red should be introduced in such 
a manner that, should it be unsuccessful, it would not be 
missed. The slightest gas in the kiln will destroy even the 
limited red we have. When red has been injured by gases in 
the kiln, it fires a warm gray. 

To obtain a good treatment of flesh tint in underglaze it 
requires rich green surrounding, the latter giving color values 
to the red. Maroon or pink when worked over the red, often 
produces a rich quality. Transparent underglaze, that is, 
underglaze colors used without relief white, can be fired at 
the same degree of heat as china colors, using the same style 
of kiln. Underglaze should not be fired with overglaze china 
decoration, but each process fired separately. Be careful not 
to fire at less than china heat, a little stronger will do no harm. 

The best colors to be used are: — Maroon, made out of 
oxide of cromium ; French green, made out of oxide of copper; 
Light green, made out of oxide of cromium ; Black, oxide iron, 
cobalt and manganese ; Matt blue, made out of oxide of cobalt ; 
■ King's blue, also oxide of cobalt; Yellow, out of oxide of anti- 
mony; Orange, out of the same; Claret brown, made out of 
oxide of iron ; Dark brown, also iron ; and Red T, out of the 
earth of Thevier or iron. The preparation of colors is very 
simple: Take a small quantity of each color and grind on a 
clean glass or porcelain slab, using as a medium a preparation 
of gum tragacanth, which is obtained by dissolving the gum by 
means of a slow heat. A small amount of gum arabic can be 
added to the tragacanth with advantage. It is best to put 
the colors on flat dishes, say individual butter plates or some- 
thing similar, and when not in use cover with water, to keep 
in good condition. Should the}/ become dry or gritty, they 
must be reground. It is very important that the colors pre- 
sent a smooth surface after being applied. 



In painting commence on a small tile, drawing in your 
subject very carefully, with a hard lead pencil. Only draw 
the outline. The lead pencil marks will disappear in the fire. 
Be careful in painting not to be misled by the pencil markings, 
taking them for colors. Now soak the tile in clean water for 
a few seconds before beginning to paint. The amount of 
soaking depends more or less on the absorbent quality of the 
bisque which is to be employed. 

You can use both sable or camel's hair brushes, bristle 
brushes to removecolor are useful. A small sponge will also 
be handy for the same purpose. Lay in your large masses 
first with a firm coating of color, working your browns into 
the greens, or as your fancy leads you. Dark brown and 
claret brown, are very useful, and are used to a large extent, 
fine background can be obtained by working French green with 
claret brown or dark brown. If an outline is desired dark 
brown is the best color. The painting must be strong and 
firm, but at the same time, not too heavy as it would interfere 
with the glazing. 

[TO BB CONTINUBD.] 

VIOLETS IN WATER COLOR 

Rhoda Holmes Nicliolls 

OF all flowers perhaps the violet is the most difficult to 
paint, unless when treated in a decorative way and 
single flowers are shown. In the bunch the forms are so lost 
and confused that few are able to in terpret them successfully. 
Pictures of them either run to hard realistic studies, or mere 
suggestions with masses of color. The plate by Marshall Fry 
is a delightful exception — artistic, suggestive, dainty, with 
enough mystery to excite the imagination. 

In copying the little groups in water color, search care- 
fully for the form, and see that the paper is carefully prepared, 
wet it thoroughly and place it over damp blotting paper, 
pressing the two together until they become as one sheet — 
any drawing board will do to place the paper on. Draw with 
the tip of the point of the brush, a delicate sensitive line. 
Cobalt is the color that erases most easily. Paint first the 
tender light flowers using a little cobalt blue and rose madder 
and Hooker's green. When the flowers begin to dry, add the 
markings. The centers of the flowers must be most carefully 
manipulated, they are so suggestive of the violet. For the 
darkest blossoms use French blue, aligarin crimson and a little 
indigo, varying the colors and allowing them to vanish. 
Hooker's green No. 2, toned with some of the violet mixture 
already on your palette will give you the leaves and stems. 

The student often makes the mistake of sitting too far 
away from the flowers and losing the drawing. It is always a 
good plan in small forms like these to sit close to the object. 
Get up frequently and look at your work in the distance and 
compare with the original. In painting white violets it is a 
good plan to cover the white almost entirety at first, otherwise 
the study is apt to be pitched too high, white is apt to be 
influenced by its surroundings, the color and tone vary a very 
great deal. The stems should be carefully studied, their lights 
and shadows and general grace helping the flowers and giving 
them finish. The same can be said of the leaves, although they 
are single, occasionally and in some lights there is a good deal of 
subtile modeling which is by no means easy to render. The 
light in the leaves is blue, when the light shines through the 
leaves it is inclined to yellow. To qualify green use either rose 
madder or aligarin crimson. The single flowers are even more 
beautiful in form than the double and are less difficult to paint. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




For Treatment see page \ \ 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




For Treatment see page 14 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




ARBUTUS 

Mary Chase Perry 

\a XE m ust take advantage of the early Spring, 
if he would have nature-studies, from 
which the student may gain suggestions 
for his work during the rest of the year. 
I say "gain suggestions" advisedly — 
not merely to copy. No wood flower is more delicately 
suggestive of Spring, nor more gracefully adaptable to all 
the varying forms of decorative fancy, than the trailing 
arbutus. It may be found in most sections throughout this 
country, and the first pleasure of seeking its haunts will follow 
into its closer study-adaptation, especially if you have that 
happy faculty of becoming imbued with the spirit of the envi- 
ronment in which you find it. The blossoms are in allshades 
of pink, some so delicate that they are almost pearly in tone, 
and are usually of the larger variety. Others are a clear, pure 
pink or with a still deeper coloring so that they have a pur- 
plish cast on the edges of the petals. Little, crisp dashes of 
crimson frequently mark the buds and half open flowers. 
The leaves are oblong, and are either pointed or with the apex 
rounded, sometimes into one, and sometimes into two ovals. 
They are thick and waxen in texture, and show all the shades 
of yellow green to a dense dark green, with much brown and 
red in the mature stages. The stems are dark and straggly 
with many little shoots thrusting out aggressively. Become 
acquainted with all of these phases if possible, so that the char- 
acter of tli£ whole growth will be familiar to you. You may 
study its various forms with as much of an analytic or botani- 
cal understanding as you choose, and with profit, yet without 
the instinct of the little plant as it grows, you will have lost 
the real sense of its expression. 

Use any medium you choose, or the one with which you 
have the greatest facility, so that you will not be trammeled 
by an unmastered technique. Either pencil, water color or 
direct work upon china will serve, as long as you tell the story. 
Note carefully all the characteristics of a single little spray — 
the delicate curves of the petals, which are united more than 
half way, but which are more often painted quite separate. 
Take good notice of the many degrees of development from 
the bud to the open flower and the different drawing each 
blossom shows in the various positions. Observe well the 
manner in which it is attached to the wiggly stem, with the 
long, slender cup and tiny calyx. Then the depth in the 
center of the cup gives the flower, tiny as it is, quite as dis- 
tinct an individuality of its own as if it were as large as a day 





lily. In portraying it, if this characteristic is lost, it is left 
flat and expressionless and entirely without meaning. You 
will see that the leaves are apt to group above the masses 
of flowers in the natural growth, as they have 
been required to protect the blossoms in the 
early Spring, as they frequently burst open 
before the snow has left the ground. 

A few moments of study after this manner 
will not be misspent, but will acquaint you with 
little touches and signs which will recur to you 
long afterward, when, perhaps, you are making 
use of the flower for a decorative motive, without 
the plant itself at hand. 

It would be well worth while to make out- 
lines or colored sketches of the various parts, as 
suggested in the black and white drawings, to 
keep as short-hand notes, adhering to realistic 
coloring. Sacrifice nothing of the truth in these 
detached sketches. It is one thing to have made 
this truthful delineation of the flower, and quite 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



another to adapt it pleasingly from a dec- 
orative standpoint, although no plant 
lends itself more readily in following out- 
lines or filling in spaces. However, as 
long as you have retained its first char- 
acteristic, you will be safe in allowing a 
certain license in its further application, 
both in arrangement and color. 

The black and white drawings show 
some of the many ways in which the 
arbutus can be applied pleasingly. First, 
in a simply natural arrangement, with 
the delicate, pale flowers in the cluster 
thrown out by deeper ones beneath, and 
the whole softened by shadowy sugges- 
tions of those which are almost lost in 
the background. A similar suggestion is 
shown in connection with a deep ground, 
so that the flowers and leaves cut directly 
into the dark tint. It is very effective 
when carried out on a chocolate or tea- 
set, with deep green, Roman purple or 
Copenhagen blue dusted on for the bor- 
der. Another way shows the flower in 
festoons. This, with tiny gold or enamel 
lines and spirals alternating, makes a 
most dainty decoration for cups or small 
vases. The two borders are semi-conven- 
tional in treatment, and can be developed 
in various ways. With a deep color or 






flat gold back ground and with enamel spar- 
ingly used to accentuate the pattern ; or a very 
rich effect can be gained by etching with acid, 
and covering solidly with gold or other metal. 
But simplest of all for the beginner is the 
monochrome effect, using a single light green 
or red or blue and strengthening with deeper 
touches of the same color. The little pitcher 
shows an arrangement in panel form, framed 
with raised paste or enamel dots, which can 
be elaborated as much more as the worker 
chooses. 

These adaptations can be varied to infini- 
tude, with each time, a pleasing result. In 
making use of the black and white suggestions 
do not try to adhere to them closely, but let 
your rendering suggest another and different 
one. Use with it bits of the wood things 
which chance to grow near it in different 
climates— in the north, ground pine; in the 
south, the many hued gaelix leaves or the 
various fern fronds. 

You will soon find that by beginning with 
a tiny thing, and making the most of it, pres- 
ently you will have a great thing at your com- 
mand. 

The word "Keramic" is from the Greek 
Keramos, derived from Keras, a horn. The 
first drinking vessels were made from the 
horns of animals and the first designs of the 
potter were naturally copied from these shapes. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




FAVRILE GLASS 

KatJierine M. Huger 

T has been said that the history of glass is the his- 
tory of civilization — from the opaque blue glass 
found at Thebes down to the time of the Jewish 
captivity when Egypt was particularly rich in 
treasures of artistic glass making. From the 
Egyptians this art passed to the Phoenicians, thence to the 
Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, later to the 
Venetians, the window makers of the Middle Ages, and finally 
to the artists of our own day. 

It would seem as if the whole art of glass making must 
have been explicated during these epochs, yet the recently 
discovered Favrile glass is believed to be an entirely new 
formula, the outcome of a number of experiments carried 
on by Mr. Louis Tiffany of New York. Picture to yourself the 
beauty of a soap bubble, the shifting sun-lit clouds, the magic 
colors of a flame ! Silver shimmers and golden webs — trans- 



ably while the glass is in a fluid state other qualities and 
colors of glass are dropped into it directed by the craftsman 
and the artist. When the glass is blown these art forms and 





colors grow with the form itself, making a beautiful whole; 
not a form decorated, but a decorated form created. "The 
part is in the whole." Of course texture can be modified by 
rolling — some parts of the surface left smooth, others crinkled, 
or sown with bubbles as some writer has expressed it ; then 
another variety is obtained by blowing the lustre over the 



parent, opaque, lustrous, irridescent — from rainbow hues to the 
deep sea's blues and greens blended with a craftsman's skill 
and guided by an artist's inspiration into forms of grace and 
beauty — and you have a faint conception of what the Favrile 
glass is. Its artistic suggestiveness and the readiness with 
which it combines with itself, color with color and glass over 
glass, has led to the production of a number of beautiful 
objects, each one marked by a strong individuality, not only 
novel in color and form, but enhanced by carving, and by 
cutting through one layer of glass down to one of another 
color, by enrichments of metallic lustres, and irridescent irra- 
diations of scintillating colored lights rivaling the opal, en- 
trancing the artist and delighting the connoisseur. The glass 

is said to be not only boundless in color but non-absorbent whole or parts, inside or out; thus its delicate susceptibility to 
and practically indestructible. How it is made is quite handling enables the artist to express his most poetic fancy in 
another matter, a secret that can only be guessed at. Prob- color and in form. No doubt suggestions arise firing the 





COPYRIGHT 1899. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



1 1 



imaginations, unexpected results revealing undreamt of beau- 
ties, and form and color and texture follow readily the hand 
and the mind behind it. The art is distinctly a creative one — 
each independent creation is a separate expression of the union 
of artistic feeling and responsive craftsmanship. To the query, 
" How is this glass made?" Mr. Tiffany replies: "It is made 
by a careful study of the natural decay of glass — checking 
this process by reversing the action in such way as to arrive 
at the effects without disintegration." At the same time he 
refers us to Sir David Brewster, who says : "There is perhaps 
no material body that ceases to exist with so much grace and 
beauty when it surrenders itself to time, and not to disease, 
as glass. In damp locations where acids and alkalies prevail 
in the soil the glass rots as it were by a process which it is 
difficult to study— it may be broken between the fingers of an 
infant, and in. this state we generally find in the middle of it a 
fragment— a thin fiber of the original glass which has not 
yielded to the process of decay. In dry localities where 




Roman, Greek and Assyrian glass has been found the decom- 
position is exceeding!}/ interesting and its results singularly 
beautiful. At one or more points in the surface of the glass 
the decomposition begins. It extends around that point in a 
spherical surface so that the first film is a minute hemispheri- 
cal one of exceeding thinness. Film after film is formed in a 
similar manner till perhaps twenty or thirty are crowded into 
the tenth of an inch. They now resemble the sections of a 
pear or an onion and we see brilliant colors of thin plates 
when we look down through their edges, which form the sur- 
face of the glass. These edges being exposed to the elements 
decompose. * * * *" Finally," he says, " when a drop of 
water, alcohol or oil is applied to this or any other specimen, 
the fluid enters between the films and the polarized light and 
the splendid colors disappear." To catch and hold this 
witchery of color and permanently imprison its beauty in the 
bosom of the glass has been a triumph of the nineteenth 
century. 



TREATMENT OF RUSSIAN DESIGN ON CUP AND 
SAUCER 

Anna B. Leonard 

THE lower part of the cup and the center of the saucer 
should be a dark color, green being preferable. The 
upper part of the cup and the outer part of the saucer is in 
gold, the design coming between the gold and the color. The 
darkest parts of the design are painted in a dark blue ( dark 
blue, a touch of deep blue green and ruby purple). The 
pear-shaped ornament filled in with dots can be painted in 
carmine No. 3, and the space between the two lines forming 
an arch can be painted in light green. The tiny black squares 
are of ruby purple. The entire design is outlined in the finest 
lines of paste, and it may be considerably elaborated by fol- 
lowing the lines with enamel dots. The ornaments represent- 
ing wings are painted in light green, and the five loop 
ornament should be a turquoise blue (deep blue green and 
night green). The settings for jewels (enamel) should be made 
of paste dots, as fine as possible and as near together without 
touching. This simple design can be used very effectively on 
the rims of plates. 

TREATMENT OF HAWTHORN 

Let a Ho r locker 

AFTER design is drawn and properly placed on the plate, 
first lay the green leaves and delicate background sur- 
rounding the flowers, fading the edges off gently into the 
white china, or by using an ivory glaze all over the surface 
left clear of the decoration, thus blending it all into a soft 
even glaze. This glaze is used similarly to a wash of water 
over the surface of water color paper, to blend the edges 
softly into the background. Before washing in the color on 
the flowers, take a short pointed brush, a "digger," and round 
out the petals clear and clean, suggesting the shadowy flowers 
in the background, indicating the centers. Then wash the 
pink delicately in the foremost flowers, filling in centers care- 
fully and with finish. Let your first painting be clear, simple, 
suggestive, with color tones evenly balanced. 

SECOND PAINTING — Do not begin by painting all the 
parts a second time, but aim to bring forward those leaves 
and flowers desired to give character and individuality to 
your design, accenting the edges of leaves and stems and 
petals with a few crisp touches. 

Colors for palette : Moss green, brown green, blue green, 
lemon yellow, yellow brown, sepia brown, Copenhagen blue, 
rose pompadour (with */ flux for first wash of flowers), carmine 
No. 2 or Fry's pink for second painting, ivory glaze. 

•fi •? 
TREATMENT OF PLATE DESIGN 

E. Mason 

THE outside border of the plate should be ground laid with 
blue green, bringing the same color down into that 
portion of the design crossed by lines. The medallions in 
which the flower sprays are shown should be left white, the 
flowers being painted in natural colors. Those medallions in 
which are hung the festoons should be tinted in blue green, 
the color being applied wet, not ground laid. This gives a 
paler tone of the border color. . The festoons, as well as all 
the rococo design, are to be carried out in raised paste. 
The color plan may, of course, be varied. The outside border 
in rose for grounds, the medallions in Russian green, make 
a very effective combination. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




PLATE DESIGN IN ROSES 



Take one-fourth bronze green No. 10 and three-fourths gold 
for the dark border and oval medallions, model the 
design in raised paste. In the second fire use Roman gold 
on scroll and green gold on leaves and red gold on roses, or 
tint a pretty green grey, or use green lustre in dark border, 
model scroll work in gold, and paint garlands in natural 
colors. 



If desired, the garlands can be modeled in enamel instead 
of paste. The Dresden Aufsetzvveis in tubes is the best for this 
work. Tint it with Carmine No. 2, or rose, to make a pretty 
pink. Use canary or jonquil for a pretty yellow — apple green 
for leaves. After firing, paint and shade as you would the flat 
design. A few suggestive leaves of grey or pale brown in flat 
colors will improve design. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



'* 




PERSIAN DESIGN FOR TOP OF INKSTAND 



THE top should be gold, with the design in color. The 
lower part of the inkstand should be a dark rich green, 
with only a band of gold at the top. After drawing on the 
design, follow it with raised paste, making a line as fine and 
as even as possible. The darkest parts of the design should 
be painted in a very dark blue (dark blue, a touch of deep 
blue green, and ruby purple). The spaces left white are to be 
filled in with white enamel: Fill the little round settings 



with turquoise blue enamel, to represent jewels. The three 
loops within the heart-shaped ornament are to be filled with 
light green enamel. The spaces covered with dots are to be 
tinted with apple green and dotted with moss green. The 
extreme edge of this top has a beading of paste dots. 

This design makes a charming library set, the tray, letter 
weight, etc., to be decorated in a similar manner as the ink- 
stand. 




i4 



KERAMIC STUDIO 






HISTORIC ORNAMENT 

EGYPTIAN 

RIMITIVE art is the art of the savage tribes. 
In form and color the designs are more 
adapted to textiles and wood carving. 
They are of no special date, as the savage 
to-day employs about the same motives as those of earlier 
times. The most ancient form of ornament is the Egyptian. 
The more ancient, the more perfect. All trace of the in- 
fancy of Egyptian art is lost, and there has been a 
gradual decline in purity of both form and color since the 
earliest known specimens. In form the lines are symmetrical 
and stiff — very few are flowing, and those are found mostly in 
later work. They follow the 
laws of nature in all ornament, 
and however stiff and conven- 
tional, they are always true. 
In firmness and justness of 
drawing the Egyptians have 
never been surpassed, rarely 
equaled, even by the Greeks, 
especially in hieroglyphics. Their motives are symbolical and 
spiritual ; there is a rigidity in all forms, but a rigidity with a 
purpose. The result proves them right. There is hardly a 
more characteristic art in the world than 
the Egyptian. The color as well as the 
form is flat and conventional, no shading, no 
. shadow. The ancient Egyptians used the 
primary colors : red, blue and yellow ; some- 
times green with black and white ; later, 
purple and brown were introduced. In their 
primitive art — the art instinctive — they used 
only the primary colors ; later, in their civil- 
ized art — the art traditionary — they used 
secondary colors, rarely with equal success. 
We have in the illustrations, the lotus, sacred flower of 
Egypt; the papyrus and lotus, in the conventional cluster, so 
often pictured in the hands of kings ; the head of the sacred 
bull "Apis," with the sun between his horns ; and the winged 
disc supported by two serpents, the royal emblem of Egypt. 
There is also a suggestion of the stripes so much used in 
Egyptian designs. In the natural lotus blossom the outer 
row of sepals are dark green, the inner light green, the petals 
purple and the heart yellow. In the conventionalized form, 
the sepals are sometimes green, sometimes 
blue, the petals red on a yellow ground, or they 
follow the natural colors. The base of the 
calyx is often painted yellow and marked with 
red. The buds are painted green or blue. 
The papyrus is a green or blue fan with the 
saw teeth at the top filled in with yellow. The 
yellow used is always a deep rich color. 
"Apis" has a red disc above his head, yellow 
or orange horns, red ears, white face marked 
with red, pale blue on eyes and nose. There is a rainbow 
effect in the rays underneath, the first row is blue, then green, 
yellow and red. The lines and small stripes follow the same 
color scheme with purple, black, white and gold sometimes 
added. 




V//ii\V 




HBISilBllllll 



The emblem of Ra, head of the sacred royal house of 
Rameses, is variously treated in colors. The original of this 
sketch has the disc red, the wings in three sections, the upper 
row blue, the next green and 
the lower row blue, the ridge 
along the top of wing red, 
the feathers outlined in 
black and white. The ser- 
pents are green, with red 
heads and cross bands. The 
stripes in band underneath 
are alternating bh 
red, white. 




" WHlSii 



Application to 
Modern 
Design 



On the stein, the emblem of Ra is out- 
lined in raised gold and filled in with colored 
enamels. You can, if you prefer, use the 
flat colors painted in rich tones and outlined 
in either flat or raised gold. The back- 
ground of this figure is a band of gold with alternating stripes 
of color outlined in black. The plain band is of gold or deep 
yellow. The upper band has the lotus in natural colors, out- 
lined in gold on a black ground. The scroll-like stem is green. 
The lines above and below in some color outlined in gold. 
The decorative band on base will also be in colors already 
given, on a black ground. The handle gold. 

LUSTRE TANKARD 

MAKE a careful tracing of the three panels and surround- 
ing paste work, transferring to the china and fixing the 
drawing of figures and all flat work with outlining black. The 
scroll work fix with cobalt blue water color, as that will rub 
off after firing, leaving the drawing in white. Lay in the 
background of the figures in gold, the lower half being shaded 
with red bronze. Back of the scroll work, in the upper part 
of the panel, is green bronze No. 10 mixed with one-third 
gold. The lustre surrounding the panels are, in the upper 
half light green, the lower half irridescent rose, which will 
come out from the first fire a bright changeable bluish green 
and red. Lay on the lustres with your largest square shaders, 
using a separate one for each color, if possible, otherwise wash- 
thoroughly in turpentine and then in alcohol, and dry before 
using in another color. Use the lustre from the bottle with- 
out any further mixture. Do not try to make even ; a shaded 
effect is much more desirable. Have china perfectly free from 
dust or moisture. Avoid bubbles in putting on the lustre, 
smoothing them out with the brush, but do not go over lustre 
after it is once on, as it will show brush marks. Keep out of 
the dust and put away in a closet to dry. Do not dry by 
artificial means, as the lustre is liable to be injured. The 
irridescent rose will go on much more tliickly than the green, 
but unless very stiff do not thin with essence. Put green 
lustre on top and base scrolls of handle, gold on outer and 
inner flat parts, red bronze on design in sides, gold on the top 
of tankard down to scroll work on the outside and three to 
four inches down inside. It is now ready for the first fire. 
The two side panels and treatment for second fire will be given 
in the second number of the magazine. 

For light tints in lustre, thin with essence and pad lightly 
with a silk pad until tacky. The thinner lustres, such as light 
green and yellow, do not need the admixture of essence. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



iS 




i6 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




For Treatment see page \ I 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



•7 




NATIONAL LEAGUE OF MINERAL PAINTERS 

Mrs. Worth Osgood 

^few years ago when the interest in American 
keramics was not so widespread and compre- 
hensive as it is to-day, a number of devoted 
porcelain painters combined in an effort to 
give greater impetus to the founding of a 
distinctively American School of Keramic Art. Believing that 
a higher place for keramics could only be won through artists 
imbued with a love of country, and realizing that it is a patri- 
otic obligation as well as privilege to arouse and foster the 
national element, these loyal promoters succeeded in combin- 
ing the forces of local keramic clubs scattered throughout the 
country into a federation known as the National League of 
Mineral Painters. 

This was in 1892, just prior to the World's Fair. The 
desire to show the world that American mineral painters were 
doing creditable work and the opportunity that the exposition 
offered for comparing and studying the characteristics of 
widely separated clubs, served to stimulate the purpose of 
those ready to fall into line and assist in raising the standard 
of American keramics. Since the Fair annual exhibitions have 
been held, notably those in Atlanta, Cincinnati and New York. 

These exhibitions have proved a most important factor 
in demonstrating the possibilities of American pottery and 
American decoration in substituting breadth for narrowness 
and in eliminating artificial borrowings of foreign decorations. 
A notable feature in the exhibitions of the last two years is the 
adaptation of American history and life, to the decorated wares. 

One artist-potter, to whom the federation owes much in 
the matter of encouragement, has used to fine advantage the 
legends of Sleepy Hollow and stirring scenes of the Revolu- 
tion. Another aspiring young man gives us from time to time 
sketches of ranch life so familiar through the illustrations and 
writings of Frederic Remington and Theodore Roosevelt. 

Joel Chandler Harris' " Brer Rabbit" stories furnished one 
artist with material for a quaint series of sketches. Occasion- 
ally a plantation character sketch looks out at you suggesting 
possibilities in unexplored fields. 

The North American Indian has contributed rather more 
than his share of decoration, and is now being supplanted by 
military and naval heroes of the war. 

The League has just entered upon its third triennial 
which includes the period of the Paris International exhibi- 
tion. One needs but to note this, to comprehend the deep 
significance of the unusual activity and interest manifested by 
the allied clubs. 

The annual comparative exhibition for 1899 will take 
place in Chicago, commencing on May 17th. 

A congress of members representing the federation will 
be held during this exhibition. The work for the coming year 
will be mapped out and counsel taken as to means and oppor- 
tunities for augmenting the usefulness of the National League 
of Mineral Painters. 

The organizations represented in the League are: 

New York Society of Keramic Arts. 

Chicago Ceramic Association. 

Mineral Art League of Boston. 

Wisconsin Keramic Club. 

Brooklyn Society of Mineral Painters. 

Detroit Keramic Art Club. 

Jersey City Keramic Art Club. 

Louisville Keramic Club. 



Bridgeport League of Keramic Art. 

Columbus Ceramic Club. 

Providence Keramic Club. 

Denver Pottery Club. 

In order to be able to look over the whole field of work 
and to make the attainment of League aims more rapid and 
efficient a system of circular letters was devised and the 
schedule for each allied club sent out September 1st. 

The advantages of personal communication afforded by 
this chain of letters must certainly appeal to all. Surely no 
club needs to be urged to use its opportunity in this direction. 
SCHEDULE FOR MAY. 

New York Society of Keramic Arts replies to Denver ; sends to Bridgeport it s 

April letter from Denver. 
Chicago Ceramic Association receives Providence letter. 
Mineral Art League of Boston receives Louisville letter from Providence. 
Wisconsin Keramic Club recieves reply from Jersey City ; sends to Detroit 

its May letter from Jersey City, 
Brooklyn Society of Mineral Painters receives Wisconsin letter from Jersey 

City. 
Detroit Keramic Art Club receives Jersey City letter from Wisconsin. 
Jersey City Keramic Art Club replies to Wisconsin ; sends to Brooklyn its 

April letter from Wisconsin. 
Louisville Keramic Club receives reply from Providence ; sends to Chicago 

its May letter from Providence. 
Bridgeport League of Keramic Art receives Denver letter from New York. 
Columbus Ceramic Club receives New York letter from Denver. 
Providence Keramic Club replies to Louisville ; sends to Boston its April 

letter from Louisville. 
Denver Pottery Club receives reply from New York ; sends to Columbus its 

May letter from New York. 

Another line of usefulness along which League efforts 
have been promoted and which also serves as a means to the 
end is the course of study issued yearly by the Educational 
Committee. Following is a synopsis of subjects for 1898 and 
1899: 



Mrs. Worth Osgood, President, 
402 Madison Street, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 



Mes. L. Vance Phillips. 

Ch'in Educational Committee, 

32 East 58th St.. New York. 



NATIONAL LEAGUE OF MINERAL PAINTERS. 

SUBJECTS FOR ORIGINAL TREATMENT. 





Flow 


■ers. 


Orn 


aments. 


Figures. Ef 


mdsc 


apes. 


% 


Dog\ 


rood 




Studies 


of Japanese Lines. 






z 
















A 








National Mi 


live for Frieze Sect 


on. 




ft 


Combine 


flowers 












< 


of thre 
of trees 


2 species 




Char 


tefer Sketches. 







At the present moment much interest is evinced in this 
progressive movement by unassociated bodies. Many times 
this year has the National League been called upon to answer 
this question, " How do you benefit us?" 

A comprehensive answer to this question requires more 
space than remains at my command ; but by assuming another 
point of view and looking at the benefits you can give to the 
federation you may find sufficient suggestions for the solution; 
you can add power to an institution which stands for higher 
conditions; you can aid in arranging a sphere of work which 
will bring to us the realization of the ideals for which we are 
striving; you can stimulate the energies of the united clubs 
by entering the lists, and measuring your strength with theirs 
on a friendly field; and the history of those efforts and 
achievements will redound to the honor of your city, your 
club and yourself long after the need of a League of Mineral 
Painters has passed awav. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




LEAGUE Mrs. Vance Phillips, Chairman of the Ed- 

NOTES ucat ' ona l Committee of the League, has been 

teaching in the principal cities of the far West, 

and has done much towards furthering the interests of the 

League. 

In the course of study for the coming year, there will be 
competitive designs for a government table service. The 
League will in due time request sealed drawings to be for- 
warded. These will be placed in the hands of competent 
judges. On application to the President, Mrs. Worth Osgood, 
a valuable paper on "White House China" will be loaned for a 
month. 

The annual exhibition of the National League of Mineral 
Painters will be held in Chicago, commencing May 15th, 
under the auspices of the Chicago Ceramic Association, the 
entertaining club. The President of the League, Mrs. Worth 
Osgood of Brooklyn, will attend, and hopes that as many 
representatives as possible from the different clubs may be 
present, so that she may hold a meeting there during the ex- 
hibition, that plans may be discussed and arranged for the 
next year's work. 



C LUB 



The New York Society of Keramic Arts 
N"FWS ^ e ^ lts April meeting at the Waldorf. After 
the business was disposed of, a paper was read 
by Mrs. Wait on " China Hunting in America." 

At a meeting of the Brooklyn Society of Mineral Paint- 
ers, a paper on "Italian Keramic Art" was read by Miss 
Drake, and another, "The Conundrum of the Workshops," 
by Miss Shields— the latter paper prefaced by the reading of 
Kipling's poem of that title. 

The Jersey City Club is one of the clubs that adheres 
strictly to the League course of study. The same subject is 
taken by all the members and is carried out in treatment 
upon similar pieces of china purchased by the club. Then at 
the next meeting the Avork is shown and a medal is given to 
the most artistic design and best technique. 
[ This is an excellent plan for any new club.— ED.] 

On February 28th the Louisville Keramic Club held its 
ninth annual election of officers, having been organized on 
that day in 1891 by Mrs. Anna B. Leonard, now of New York 
City. The members still manifest an ambition to advance in 
all branches of keramic arts, and while no especial line of work 
is taken up during the year, it is gratifying to note that there 
is no lack of energy, and that the result of regular application 
and study is most encouraging. Makv Grant, President. 

A most interesting and enthusiastic club has been recently 

organized in Poughkeepsie, N. Y., known as the Poughkeep- 
sie Keramic Club. Its aim is for mutual benefit in the study 
of keramics. This club was formed by the members of Miss 
Lela Horlocker's class of 1898. Great interest has been shown 
in the club, and we may hope to hear from them in the future. 



Mrs. J. N. Hinkley, President; Mrs. S. H. Brown, Vice-Presi- 
dent; Mrs. S. L. DeGarmo, Recording Secretary; Mrs. San- 
ford Stocton, Corresponding Secretary; Mrs. E. M. Meeks, 
Treasurer. 

The Mineral Art League of Boston held its annual exhi- 
bition at the Thorndike Hotel the latter part of February. 
In spite of bad weather the attendance was large and sales 
good. There was a general evenness of work, but no new de- 
parture into anything especially original. The members gen- 
erally considered it an improvement upon their last one, 
saying there were fewer imitations of special artists than for- 
merly. The dark rich background effects were particularly well 
done and well fired. Very few of the members have taken up 
conventional treatment, and there was a scarcity of decorative 
work in raised gold or enamels. The lustre effects over color 
were charming and shows greater possibilities on these same 
lines. There were some original poster effects upon steins 
and tankards, with appropriate decorative borders and mottoes. 
Silhouettes were very cleverly used also by this promising 
artist, who shows a decided fondness for Japanese lines. 
There was a handsome vase with roses and cupids, having 
over the entire surface a filmy gold effect, which was rich with- 
out being gaudy, and that idea could be applied to advantage 
over smaller surfaces. The vase was one of the most striking 
and original pieces there, but being placed in a very poor light, 
one could get only an impression of it. This club does not 
make individual exhibits, but the work is scattered here and 
there, three or four artists exhibiting upon the same table. 

[ It would be interesting to hear from the different clubs upon that sub- 
ject.-ED.] 

The February meeting of the Bridgeport Keramic Art 
Club was held at the residence of Mrs. George F. Bushnell. 
Mrs. Kinsley being absent, Mrs. Doremus presided. The 
club has procured one hundred pictures for the purpose 
of circulating among the children of the public schools, to be 
used in connection with their course of study and school work. 
The water color members of the club painted and donated 
beautiful portfolios in which to enclose the pictures, accord- 
ing to classification, and they were presented to Miss Mary 
Holzer, a club member and principal of the Lincoln school, to 
be circulated and used at her discretion. Following the usual 
order of business was the introduction of Mrs. Plorace C' 
Wait, a member sorosis, who spoke upon the subject of "Staf- 
fordshire: Memories in New England." Mrs. Wait had a 
most charming personality, and her eager listeners were 
carried with a learned grace, through the potteries of Staf- 
fordshire, and entertaining art sections of foreign countries, 
pausing longest in the literary journey at Holland, thecountiv 
of Delft in all its entertaining phases. They halted there to 
learn the methods of success acquired by the untiring, noble 
and generous Hollanders, in their advanced style of water 
colors and other works of art. Much of the old blue ware of 
Connecticut and of the New England States were productions 
from Staffordshire and the foreign potteries. The members 
of the circle felt much regret that time compelled Mrs. Wait 
to turn her attention from the gifted accounts of her travels 
in the ait sections abroad, to the many pieces awaiting criti- 
cism, submitted by the members of the circle. After a care- 
ful and prolonged study of the generous display of china and 
water colors, Miss Genevieve Allis was awarded first prize in 
water culors, making her a gold medalist. Honorable men- 
tion was given to a handsome piece of orchids done by Miss 
Mary A. Jackson. The meeting was adjourned with unani- 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



19 



mous expressions of thanks and appreciation for one of the 
ablest critics that has visited the club. 

Denver, Colorado. 
Dear Mrs. Leonard : 

As the founder of this club, of course you are more or 
less interested in it, but as you have not been with us for 
some time, you do not know as much about us as in the past. 
I am going to tell you a little about our work and plans. 
This is the tenth year of the club's existence, and all along 
the membership has been very creditable. We are still limited 
to twenty-five active members. The club being small we are 
well acquainted with each other. We hold our meetings reg- 
ularly the first Monday in each month in the homes or studios 
of the members. During the past three years we have added 
an associate list. When one has been an active member for 
three years she may enter the associate list by so stating the 
fact at the annual meeting. Thus the associate members are 
all old members. They often attend the meetings, and in this 
way we keep their interest. Through all the ten years, with 
one exception, we have held an annual exhibition. These 
exhibitions are looked upon as one of the events of the year 
in Denver. The attendance is always large, and much interest 
is shown in the work. To show the public that we may have 
improved, we think, this year, being the tenth anniversary, we 
will have one table devoted to articles decorated ten years ago. 
Last year we sent a club exhibit of about seventy pieces to 
the Omaha exposition, and were liberally rewarded with 
medals and diplomas of honorable mention. Just now we are 
much interested in the National League and its annual exhi- 
bition. We .are also much pleased with the Round Robin 
letters. The exchange of ideas is an excellent plan. Although 
we are so far from the great cities, we are on the line of travel 
and often derive some benefit from some one who has seen or 
heard something which we have not. The club is in a flourish- 
ing condition, and we hope in the future to do more than in 
the past. Ida C. Failing, 

ALICE M. Parks, President Denver Pottery Club. 

Secretary and Treasurer. 

THE Miss Josephine M. Culbertson of Brooklyn 

oTTrnTO^ anc ' Miss Ida A. Johnson gave an art recep- 
tion at their studio April 5th. 

M. Francois Maene gave an exhibition in New York of 
pupils' work, both from Philadelphia and New York, which 
was particularly well received. 

Mrs. L. Vance Phillips announces that she will be assisted 
this year in her School of Keramic Art at Chautauqua by 
Marshall Fry, Jr., and Mrs. S. V. Gulp. 

Miss Anna Shaw, of the New York Society of Keramic 
Arts, gave a private view of her miniatures, at her studio, 
April nth. She will study in Paris during the summer, 
resuming her classes upon her return. 

Mrs. Mary Alley Neal and Miss Mary Taylor, both mem- 
bers of the New York Society of Keramic Arts, were repre- 
sented at the Academy of Design at the last exhibition of 
water colors. Miss Cuddy, of the Brooklyn Society of Min- 
eral Painters also had work hung at the Academy. 

An interesting letter from M. Louise McLaughlin was 
read before the Advisory Board of the National League of 
Mineral Painters, in which she related her success in making 
a new pottery, which we hope to see exhibited in New York. 



F 



She claims for it, fine texture, lightness and durability. If 
only a few more Keramists had her indomitable will and un- 
ceasing energy ! 

Mrs. Howard MacLean of the New York Society of 
Keramic Arts shows some interesting work done in Berlin 
under the famous masters, Herr Aulich, (brother of our distin- 
guished decorator in Chicago) and Herr Matthias, both of the 
Royal Berlin Factory. It was only by special favor that Mrs. 
MacLean received instructions, and she promises to give the 
Keramic Studio a paper on this subject. 

FOR BEGINNERS 

TO avoid confusion as to the make of colors you must use, 
we shall adopt the Lacroix colors as our standard in 
giving instructions, or in writing the treatments of designs 
when they are not given by the artists themselves. It is very 
confusing to a beginner to go to one teacher and then to 
another who uses an entirely different set of colors ( or the 
same colors with different names). Take any magazine con- 
taining keramic instructions and each writer uses a different 
make of colors. This may be clear to decorators of experi- 
ence, but most confusing to beginners. Therefore, to be fair 
to our advertisers and to make it more convenient and less 
confusing to students, we will publish a chart of colors with the 
Lacroix as the standard, opposite which will be the names of 
corresponding colors put up by other firms. We now have 
seven sets of colors, and the chart will not be closed until this 
first number is out, so that any other dealer or decorator may 
be included who advertises colors. This is the only way out 
of a difficulty that has confronted us. By this method we 
use a standard and give a key to other palettes, which will 
save the student from constantly purchasing new outfits. 

For the ordinary palette the following colors will be 
needed, which can be procured either in powder or tubes : 
Mixing yellow, silver yellow, orange yellow, yellow brown, deep 
red brown, carnation Nos. 1 and 2, Capusine red, violet of 
iron, brown green, moss green v, moss green j, apple green, 
green No. 7, emerald stone green, night green, beep blue 
green, brown No. 3, brown 108, brown 4 or 17, ultramarine 
blue, dark blue, ruby purple, light violet of gold, deep violet 
of gold, pearl grey and carmine No. 3. 

Mediums that will be necessary from time to time are : 
Dresden thick oil, balsam copaiba, oil of lavender, oil of cloves, 
English grounding oil and turpentine. 

The necessary brushes are : Square shaders Nos. 3, 8 and 
10, pointed shaders Nos. 3, 5 and 8, a No. o and No. 1 sable 
rigger for paste and enamel. 

A covered palette is preferable, as the colors remain 
fresher and cleaner; a steel palette knife and also a horn 
palette knife. 

[ Some of the colors not in the Lacroix list the editors have used to advan- 
tage and will always give readers the benefit of experiments and tests.— ED. 

"Terra cotta is simply baked clay; but much skill is 
necessary in its composition to ensure the right degree of 
hardness. The principal material is common potter's clay, 
with which a certain quantity of broken earthen ware is 
mixed ; these are kneaded together, moulded into form and 
fired in the kiln. Properly burnt, terra cotta is harder and 
more durable than stone." — [From " Hancock's Pottery and 
Porcelain."] 



20 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



CONGRATULATIONS FOR THE " KERAMIC STUDIO" 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 
I have noted the indications of the times, and so was not 
surprised, only pleased, that culmination has come so soon. 
A new and good magazine we are bound to have, and I am 
glad you have the grit to take hold of it. Of my own per- 
sonal influence or help, in any form that you can a'pply them, 
be assured you have perfect surety. With heartfelt interest 
and best of wishes for yourself and undertakings, 
Yours, 

Laura Howe Osgood, 
President National League of Mineral Painters. 

Mrs. Carrie B. Doremus, President of the Bridgeport 
Society of Keraniic Arts, congratulates us and says the mem- 
bers of the Society will give the KERAMIC STUDIO a hearty 
welcome. 

Corona, Long Island. 
Your letter was duly received. * * We are certainly 
in need of a good technical paper on that subject, conducted 
on a broad and liberal basis. Will be glad to help you all I 
can. Yours very sincerely, 

Charles Volkmar. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 
I am very glad to know that the keramic fraternity are to 
have the benefit of your practical experience through your 
new venture, of which I have but recently heard. I am sure 
that it will be conducted on broad and liberal lines, and that 
we shall all get both profit and pleasure from it. Wishing 
you all success, I am, 

Yours most cordially, 

Ida A. Johnson, 
President Brooklyn Society of Mineral Painters. 

The Louisville Keramic Club sends its best wishes to the 
projectors of the KERAMIC STUDIO for its long life and 
success. Mary B. Grant, President. 

Perdue University, La Fayette, Ind. 
I shall be most happy to join you in a paper which will 
devote its energies to keramic art. It appears to me that the 
pasture is green and wide and needs much fertilization, much 
deep ploughing and planting, before a real harvest can be 
hoped for; still I am not only willing but anxious to work. 
* * * Yours, Laura Fry. 

Denver, Colo. 
* * We are so glad that you are going to start a new 
magazine. It is bound to be a success. I will gladly help 
you all I can. * * Ida C. FAILING, 

President Denver Pottery Club. 

Chicago, III. 
I am delighted that you will edit a paper which will be a 
help to the keramic painters. I always was in hopes that 
somebody would start a magazine that knew something about 
it. You may put me down as a subscriber before I see it and 
I will make you a colored study. Which flower would you 
wish? If. I can be of any assistance to you in your enterprise 
I will gladly give it. I will do all I can for you. 

Yours truly, 

F. B. Aulich. 

Dearborn, Mich. 
Wishing you best success for your undertaking of pub- 
lishing a magazine. I will make you a colored study and will 
do my best to help any good thing. 

Yours respectfully, 

Franz A. Bischoff. 

Mrs. L.Vance Phillips finds time in her busy life to write: 

San Francisco, Cala. 

Under the guidance of Mrs. Anna B. Leonard the forth- 
coming Keramic Studio can but be a success. Her knowl- 
edge of art and her generous appreciation of all that is best 



in her fellow artists are well known to me. I can only think 
of her as giving freely to china painters the best instructions 
to be had, and to patrons absolutely fair treatment from a 
business standpoint. I not only bespeak success, but gladly 
offer all friendly services. 

Elizabeth College, Charlotte, N. C. 
Am glad you are going to start a magazine devoted to 
our profession, which 1 am sure will be a success if managed 
by such clever and energetic hands. I shall be glad to con- 
tribute to it. * * * Yours very truly, 

Anna Sudenberg. 

Detroit, Mich. 
* * * I am certainly glad that you are about to start 
a keramic magazine. You have my hearty interest and sup- 
port. I am about to start for Louisville and Cincinnati, and 
will do all I can for you. Yours sincerely, 

Mary C. Perry. 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
I wish the Keramic Studio every possible success. 

Mrs. Filkins. 

Detroit, Mich. 
In response to yours, I will say that we are most heartily 
glad to hear of the prospects of a good journal being pub- 
lished in the interests of keramic art. We have thought for 
a long time that the country is in need of such a publication. 
We come in touch with artists throughout the country, and 
if your publication is what you can easily make it, we will 
cheerfully lend a helping hand to do what we can for you. 
Wishing you every success, I remain, 

Yours truly, 

H. J. CAULKINS. 

New York City, N. Y. 
The proof cover of the magazine promises well, and I 
wish you every success in the new venture. I have no time 
to prepare any new paper, but freely send for your acceptance 
as good-will gift a little word sketch written in my "first love" 
days of keramics. I regret delay. 

Yours sincerely, 

S. E. Le Prince, 
President New York Society of Keramic Arts. 

St. Louis, Mo. 
I wish you the greatest success, and I will do all I can 
for you to make it so. A good magazine would be just the 
thing. We need it. With you both to edit it, I can think of 
nothing better for us. Yours, 

K. E. Cherry. 

Chicago, III. 
I would be very glad to see a good magazine on keramics, 
and shall be glad to see a copy of the new venture. It will 
have to be right "up to date'' in the work to be a success, for 
the people who are making a serious study are far ahead of 
any magazine of which I know. 

Sincerely yours, 

Henrietta Zelblin. 

Detroit, Mich. 
I was very much pleased to hear you were about to pub- 
lish a magazine on keramic art, as the public interested in this 
work is certainly very much in need of a good one. I will be 
glad to furnish you with studies for the same at any time. It 
is needless to wish you success, as your connection with same 
already assures it. Very truly yours, 

Geo. Leykauf. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
I beg to say that I like the form in which you propose to 
publish the Keramic Studio. A first class journal in this 
line is sure to meet with success. A. B. Cobdex. 



K€EM£OT§ 

K ^ JUNE:MDCCCXCIX Price 35c. Yearly Subscription $3.50 (f 



f 



C0NTRIBUT0R5 

MR. MARSHAL FRY j» s * * 
MISS KATHERINE HUGER ^ * * 
MRS. ANNA B. LEONARD ^ > j* 
MRS. RHODA HOLMES NICHOLLS * 
MRS. WORTH OSGOOD j* ^ > ^ 
MRS. ADELAIDE ALSOP-ROBINEAU 
MISS MARY CHASE PERRY * * <* 
MR. A. G. MARSHALL * * * & 
MRS. MARY ALLEN NEAL * ^ j* 
MRS. N. A. CROSS j* ' .* ^ * j* 



MGSZIHE: 

THE: 





Copyrighted 1899 by the Keramic Studio Publishing Co.. New York and Sy 




[ The ei.'ire cont mts of Ms Magazine are cohered hy the general copyright, and the articles mast not he reprinted teithoat special permission. ] 

CONTENTS FOR JUNE, J 899 



Editorial Notes, 

Is Our Method of Teaching Correct ? 

Hints for Treatment of Rose Study, 

Treatment of Roses in Water Colors, 

Historic Ornament (Assyrian), 

Sevres Decoration for Plate,. 

Hepatica Decoration for Cup and Saucer, 

Treatment of Hepatica Cup and Saucer, 

Figures for Tankard, 

Tankard Lustre continued (Second and Third Fire), 

Treatment of Plate Design (Sevres), 

A Practical Talk on Design, 

League Notes, 

Club Notes, 

In the Studios, 

Treatment of Figure by Chaplin, 

Persian Decoration for Plate, 

The Boutet de Monvel Exhibition, 

Treatment for Persian Plate, 

Specific Treatment for Arbutus, 

For Beginners — Tinting, 

Raised Paste, 
Color Chart, 

Origin of the Manufacture of Porcelain in Europe, 
Visitor in New York — Galleries — Exhibitions, 
Supplement — Roses, 





PAGE 


• 


21 


• 


22 


Marshal Fry, Jr., 


23 


Ityoda Holmes cNscholls, 


23 


(Adelaide Alsop-^bineau, 


24-25 


<Anna B. Leonard, 


26 


A. G. Marshall, 


27 


Mary Allen Neal, 


21 


(Adelaide Alsop-lfebineau, 


28 


(Adelaide Alsop-^bineau, 


29 


(Anna C B. Leonard, 


29 


Katberine cM. Huger, 


30-31 


. 


32 


♦ 


33 


. 


33 


Adelaide Alsop-Robineau, 


34-35 


Anna 5& Leonard, 


36 


Adelaide Alsop-Robineau, 


37-39 


Anna B. Leonard, 


39 


Mary Chase 'Perry, 


39 


. 


39 


. 


40 


. 


40 


. 


41 


, , 


42 



Marshal Fry, Jr. 



OUR JULY SUPPLEMENT. 



.■■■ifpmififty 



Will be a beautiful Half-Tone, printed in one color, of a 

.^CHOCOLATE POT^ 

BY MRS. ANNA B. LEONARD. 



nnnnn- 



. . The Chocolate pot is French in style, and is particularly attractive in the exquisite 
detail of design, which is a combination of raised gold, enamel and turquoise blue. 



Vol. I, No. 2 



NEW YORK AND SYRACUSE 



June 1899 




HE china decorator may wonder why, in a 
magazine devoted strictly to the Keramic 
Arts, we give so much space to the reports 
of exhibitions of oil and water color work. 
Here is the reason : We have gotten too 
much into the way of considering decorative art as entirely 
apart from Art in general. It is the china decorator's loss. 
We must see our decorative work in the same big way as the 
painter in oils before we can do big work, and work that will be 
art as long as the world lasts, and longer than any canvas. 
If a great artist can look at his work from a decorative stand- 
point, we should be able to judge our decorative work on its 
purely artistic merits, apart from decorative technique. In 
all our criticisms on pictures, you will find a meaning to apply 
to your own work, if you will only read closely and thinkingly. 
If men like Boutet de Monvel and Robert Reid, Puvis de 
Chauvannes and Sargent, do not feel it out of their line to 
decorate, neither should we feel that we are wasting our time 
in learning how good painting can teach us larger art truths, 
to apply to our own work. 

Mr. Aulich's halftone study of pansies for the July num- 
ber is particularly graceful and can be used most charmingly 
in monochrome, also in dull blues. Arranged simply in blue 
on rims of plates, it would make an attractive breakfast service. 

The Persian plate design must be carefully executed and 
should resemble the inlaying of jewels. If neatly done, there 
will be a refined elegance about it, but if coarsely executed it 
will look over-decorated. The proper environment for such 
a plate is upon a perfectly appointed dinner table. It requires 
the rich accessories of plate and glass. 

A, 

The Exhibition of the National League of Mineral 
Painters will be fully written up in our next number, and the 
comparison of work from different sections of the country. 
One can see the advantages of these League Exhibitions. 

The series of articles upon historic ornament are particu- 
la.ly valuable to students, not only as inspiration for new 
decorative ideas, but as a study of ancient pottery, making 
us compare the primitive efforts to the results of our modern 
methods. 

All students will be charmed with the practical rose study 
by Marshall Fry, Jr. It is full of valuable suggestions and 
can well be adapted to any keramic form. It can be used as 
a whole or in part, and it will be most useful in a class-room. 
Mr. Fry's work is always noticeable for its exquisite refine- 
ment, even when he is most lavish in color. Its fascination 
grows upon one. 

4= 

There is a booklet on Rookwood Pottery, by Rose G. 
Kingsley, that is extremely interesting to keramists, as well 



as to those who know nothing of the subject. The one for- 
eign artist, Shirayamadani, who has been at Rookwood for 
eight years, is an individual member of the National League 
of Mineral Painters. Miss Kingsley says : "The same generous 
spirit which has prevailed in Rookwood from its inception, has 
given these decorators every encouragement for wider oppor- 
tunities of study. Several have been sent to Europe for a 
summer, and Shirayamadani was sent back to Japan for some 
months, pour se retremper in his native art, and took with him 
some magnificent specimens of Rookwood to present to his 
Emperor. Not only talent is needed in such work, but a very 
thorough training and education in drawing is necessary 
before coming to the pottery. And when there, a fresh edu- 
cation has to begin; for as Mrs. Storer [founder of the pottery] 
truly says, "The greatest artist living would only make daubs. 
of Rookwood decoration unless he took time and infinite 
pains to learn the methods. Not only each color has to be 
studied, but every dilution and every mixture of color, making 
an endless multiplication of effects and possibilities. Therein 
lies the secret of the attraction of keramic work. It is eter- 
nally new, the ever-changing; it is like the search for the 
philosopher's stone. Anyone who has tried to study it scien- 
tifically, or even dipped into its chemical possibilities, is drawn 
on by its elusive fascinations." 

It is most gratifying to receive the great number of con- 
gratulatory letters upon the appearance and general tone of 
KERAMIC STUDIO. We shall try to improve with each num- 
ber, giving a magazine that is helpful and instructive. 

4> 
The letters of inquiry from our friends and subscribers 
came too late to be answered in this number, but will be 
answered fully in the July number. 

4= 
The designs by Miss Huger suggest underglaze treatment 
in blue and white. But the Pond Lily design would decorate 
a salad bowl or fish set charmingly in overglaze, by using 
either a ground of gold or dusted color, and outlining design 
in black without any shading. The Japonica design would 
make an effective decoration on a vase in underglaze, with 
green or rich brown and white. 

4, 

In visiting an exhibition — any exhibition —oil, water 
color, china — try to see things in two ways. First, as a 
seeker after the beautiful in general. Find what you admire, 
then think ik,hy you admire. When you have found that out, 
look again at the picture or other work of art as a seeker after 
the beautiful in particular, as applied to your line of work. If 
it is the color you admire, think how you can manage to use 
that color effect in your work. If the design, make notes of 
it for future reference. If it is the background of a portrait, 
think how you can utilize it in your miniature painting on 
ivory or porcelain. In this way everything will be fish that 
comes to your net. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




IS OUR METHOD OF TEACHING CORRECT ? 

STUDENTS, as a rule, are not serious enough in 
the study of keramic art, which makes them 
more or less dependent upon their instruct- 
ors. The method in the studios may beat 
fault. Do we as teachers mystify our 
pupils, or do we help them ? Are we making them independ- 
ent workers? Are we building a foundation of knowledge 
sufficiently strong for more original work? To be sure there 
are pupils who care only to be copyists, but perhaps the sub- 
ject has not been made sufficiently attractive to inspire the 
proper ambition. There certainly is not the necessary, careful, 
and conscientious work among students. 

To be a successful decorator, there should be, above every- 
thing else, good drawing, quickness, sureness of touch, and 
extreme neatness, with a love for all the detail. It is a good 
plan to have in our studios fine specimens of work, either in 
the original or reproductions. If that plan is impossible, 
direct a pupil to some place where these things may be seen 
and studied, not to be copied exactly, but that the students 
may receive impressions upon which to build other designs. 
It is most instructive to study the technique in work from 
foreign potteries ; not the usual factory specimen, but that 
which has come from the skilled hands of artists. We need 
not encourage a pupil to copy the work, but to study the won- 
derful handling which should give the necessary inspiration 
for more perfect technique. 

There is positively no excuse for sending out ugly work 
from the studios, for even the beginner can obtain simple 
effects at first, which are often more beautiful that those 
which have more pretensions. The main thing is to keep the 
pupil thoroughly interested, explaining the motif of the 
design, how it should conform to the shape of the china, the 
chemistry of the colors, the mediums and the firing. A 
teacher must give the best that his or her brain prompts, and 
if she finds that the pupil desires a branch of instructions 
which she is incapable of giving, he or she should acknowledge 
it, and conscientiously send them where such knowledge can 
be obtained. I am happy to say that I know teachers who 
follow this rule, and that it always redounds to their credit, 
instead of proving an injury or loss. The study of keramics is 
a life-long study, and to be able to master one branch of it 
thoroughly is better than to attempt all its branches indif- 
ferently. 

A pupil may have a taste or inclination for one line of 
work, while she has no desire for another — it is better to cul- 
tivate and perfect her in that especial line. She will be inter- 
ested and enthusiastic — after a time she will wish to broaden 
her work, and then another line may be studied. By this 
method we may bring out the temperament and individual 
style of the decorator, and not have so much work that is 
imitative. • 

•f •? 

Cincinnati Museum Association, i 
May 2d, 1899. * 

I take pleasure in informing you that the two prizes were 
awarded in the competition for the best design in overglaze 
decoration of the cup and saucer in Miss Riis's class in the 
Art Academy. The winners were: First prize, Miss H. Belle 
Wilson, Harrisonville, Missouri ; second prize, Miss Alice L. 
Jones, 834 Second street, Louisville, Ky. The first prize was 



offered by the Academy and consisted of a subscription for a 
year to such magazine as the winner of the prize might select. 
As a second prize your offer of a copy of your magazine for 
one year was awarded. You will be pleased to know that the 
winner of the first prize also chose your magazine, so that the 
prizes are identical, except that they are given in the way indi- 
cated. Will you please place the names on your mailing list, 
and send us the bill for the copy offered by us. 
Yours very truly, 

J. H. GEST, Ass't Director. 

i? & 

Mr. Edwin AtLee Barber, whose articles in The Sun on 
old American pottery will be remembered, has published a 
volume on "Anglo-American Pottery" which will be of value 
and interest to those collecting such ware. In his book Mr. 
Barber considers first the Liverpool ware, the oldest Anglo- 
American pottery, and then the Staffordshire pottery. The 
author has made a list far more complete than any previous 
writer on the subject, describing some 339 designs found on 
plates and other articles, besides many that occur on pitchers 
and jugs only, so that his two lists contain 378 numbers. A 
check list of American designs is in two parts, one part con- 
taining the designs printed in dark blue, the other those 
printed in various colors. The arrangement of the book will 
add to its value as a book of reference. We can commend it 
to all interested in the study of American keramics. 

No better illustration of the advances made in the art of 
painting on china has been afforded the people of Kansas City 
than the first exhibit of the Kansas City Keramic Club at the 
Midland Hotel. Although this Club was only organized a few 
months ago, the display of decorated china and miniatures 
was one that would have been a credit to any city, and some 
of the work shown was of an unusually high order. This fact 
becomes more pleasing when one knows that all the members 
of the club are Kansas City women, many of whom have re- 
ceived no instruction in the art outside of that city. The 
prizes were awarded thus: Best general exhibit, Mrs. J. C. 
Swift; best flower piece, Mrs. W. G Baird ; best cup and 
saucer, Miss Ward ; best set of any kind, Mrs. Fred C. Gunn ; 
best miniatures, Miss Florence Carpenter ; honorable mention, 
Miss Dorothea Warren, Miss Bayha, Miss Ward and Mrs. 
G F. Mitchell. Altogether the exhibit was far better than 
any of the many visitors had thought of seeing, and the annual 
exhibit of the Keramic Club will be looked forward to with 
much pleasure in coming years. 

The French Ambassador, M. Cambon, has presented to 
the Government and the American people, through President 
McKinley, two magnificent Sevres vases from the French 
National Pottery, at Sevres. The gift was from the late Pres- 
ident of the French Republic, Felix Faure, and commemorated 
the opening of the new Franco-American cable, on August 17, 
1898, when President McKinley and President Faure ex- 
changed the first message over the new line. The vases and 
pedestals stand from six to eight feet high, and are of a deep 
blue, characteristic of the finest Sevres ware, as well as in 
happy accord with the prevailing colors of the Blue Room. 

The Sevres factory is a Government institution, on the 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



23 



banks of the Seine, between Paris and Versailles. It was 
created by Louis XV because the soil furnished a porcelain 
clay entirely novel in the modelling of fine articles. Ever 
since the factory has been protected by French rulers. The 
most prominent artists of France, both painters and sculptors, 
have been attached to this factory. There is probably not a 
royal palace in Europe that does not possess one or more cel- 
ebrated specimens of the Sevres ware. The White House 
itself possesses a Sevres service which always appears at state 
dinners. 

Without doubt the most unique feature of Newcomb 
College, New Orleans, is the pottery, a little, low, brick 
building completely bowered over by oak trees, wherein 
the exquisite art of the potter is pursued to a rare perfection. 
The pottery was started some four years ago, and was, as can 
welj be imagined, an important and rather venturesome 
departure. The success, therefore, which has attended the 
undertaking has been remarkable and must be doubly a source 
of pride to the community that Southern girls are fashioning 
from Mississippi and Louisiana clay jugs, jars and other earth- 
enware articles whose beauty and finish are finding a place in 
the art centres of the country. Miss Sherrer is the able 
master of this department, and under her guidance inspection 
of the work takes an added charm. It is a little education to 
go through the workroom and watch the potter turning the 
soft clay into slender rose jars and squatty bowls and queer- 
shaped vases of the pupils' designing, and see the young artists 
decorating the ware; now gracing a tall jug with banana 
leaves, now a plaque, rimmed with a quaint design of cotton 
plants, now a jar wearing an odd decoration of sugar cane and 
reed grasses. From girl to clay and from clay to finished 
vase, all, one might say, are indigenous to Louisiana soil. 
The distinguished color of the ware is blue and bluish green 
upon white and buff, and again black and yellow and green 
upon dark red. — Exchange. 

HINTS FOR TREATMENT OF ROSES STUDY 

Marshal Fry, Jr. 

FIRST PAINTING.— The pink flowers should be painted in 
with a pale wash of Pompadour Red, and touch of Yellow 
near the calyx. The yellow ones require Yellow Brown, Albert 
Yellow, Brown Green and Violet No. 2. The red roses are 
done with Ruby or Roman Purple. 

The leaves and background need Moss, Royal, Brown, 
Shading and Russian Greens, Violet No. 2, Copenhagen Blue, 
Meissen Brown and Black. The dark color in the lower right 
hand corner is black mixed with Copenhagen blue. When 
the color in the background is used thin, a little "ivory glaze" 
may be mixed with the paint with agreeable results. There 
being no carmine to injure, the piece may be given a hard 
firing. 

SECOND PAINTING. — Retouch pink roses with rose, also 
a little Yellow Brown and Brown Green; yellow ones with same 
colors used before ; and the red ones may be strengthened in 
darkest parts with Finishing Brown. A wash of Rose over light- 
est side will give brilliancy. The background will need about 
the same colors used in first painting, adding a touch of Yellow 
Red for the warm glow under the red roses. 

The third painting enables one to add accents and washes 
where needed. More Ruby may improve the red roses, and a 
little Blood Red may also be employed. 



TREATMENT OF ROSES IN WATER COLORS 

Rlioda Holmes Nicholls 

IF flesh and roses are the two most exquisite subjects to 
paint, surely we have now a most delightful opportunity. 
The coloring is superb, especially the pale tones of the pink 
roses, as closely resembling the human flesh tones. There is 
no medium in which Roses can be depicted so well as in 
Water Color. There is something in the medium which 
particularly lends itself to the subtle quality of the petals of 
the roses. The secret of getting this quality is entirely in the 
manipulation of the color and the quantity of water used. If 
too much water is used and too little color, it will fade away 
when dry, and leave the ghost of what was intended. So the 
student must not be discouraged if success is not achieved the 
first time. Water colors require much experience before you 
can master the medium. The thoroughly artistic qualities 
repay the amount of labor required. 

The paper best adapted for this delicate subject is What- 
man's 75 lb. or 90 lb. paper ; it is thin and therefore keeps 
damp — being close to the wet blotting paper underneath. 
This renders it a little more difficult for those not accustomed 
to work on wet paper, and if the student is not careful it will 
all run into chaos. It all depends how the different strokes 
are put on. 

Draw the roses carefully with Rose Madder; the principal 
leaves, too, should be suggested. Then blot in the background 
without which the flowers will have no value. Begin at the 
top left-hand corner and paint the whole background as far as 
the roses ; that is as much as you can manage at one time. 
Keep it wet and paint it a little fuller in tone than it appears, 
allowing for it to dry a little lighter. The colors to use are 
Antwerp Blue, Emerald Green, broken with Indigo, and at the 
lower portion introduce Aligarin Crimson and French or 
Cobalt Blue. Try and keep the background wet for a long 
time, so as to be able to blot in the color of the roses before 
it is dry and also the shadowy leaves. 

The colors used in the pink roses are Rose Madder, a little 
Hooker's Green, and Indian Yellow; here and there a touch 
of Vermillion and possibly a little touch of Cobalt Blue. 
Remember always that Rose Madder is a cool color and helps 
to form the greys without much blue. 

The drawing is of the utmost importance, and the sharp- 
ness of the toucli will give the vitality to the work. Some of 
the lights should be lifted out with blotting paper that 
has been cut to a sharp edge. At the very end of the 
painting a little Chinese White mixed to give the tone 
should be added, as on the edges of the principal rose and on 
the stem. 

It is now time to consider the other side of the back- 
ground. The chief difficulty will be to unite the two sides. If 
they have dried too much, pull them up with a bristle brush, 
and then continue to paint — use Indigo, Light Red and Indian 
Yellow. Further down add a strong tone of Burnt Sienna, 
merging into Indigo and Raw Sienna. Work the leaves into 
this, the same way as on the other side. For the dark roses 
use Aligarin Crimson and Cobalt Blue added to the back- 
ground color. For the tea roses use Cadmium, Rose Madder 
and Cobalt Blue. 

Many of our readers will not want to copy this literally, 
but will make an arrangement for themselves out of it. The 
main group is a picture in itself. Observe how the interest 
has been centered there, the other flowers only echoing the 
color and form. 



24 



KERAMIC STUDIO 





HISTORIC ORNAMENT 

ASSYRIAN 

EXT in order after the Egyptian comes the As- 
syrian Art, a combination of the Egyptian and 
Persian; essentially a borrowed art, of the 
secondary or traditionary period. It shows 
also, later, the influence of the Romans and 
Greeks. The forms lack the simplicity and strength of the 
Egyptian, and the designs are not in so just proportions. If 
we confine ourselves however to the forms that are essentially 
Assyrian, we can make designs with a characteristic and 
artistic feeling. The Assyrians took few natural objects as 
models: — the man, the horse, the lion, a flower similar to the 
lotus of Egypt, and the pineapple (their sacred tree of life) 
are the only living things utilized. The other forms are 
purely geometrical. The colors are a dark blue, red, green, 
orange, buff, white, black and gold ; a dull pink is sometimes 
used for outlining. 




ground, the faces dull pink and the bands on caps green. 
The sacred tree is in red brown with white between the 
double lines, the alternate spaces between the stripes are 
pale green, the pineapple cones in orange marked with red 
brown. The pineapple and lotus design is in orange, pale 
green and red brown. The other designs are made in dif- 
ferent arrangements of the colors given in the beginning of 
the article. 

In the stein design, the upper band is of buff, the tree 
of life ornament in the colors already given, the treatment 
of the second band with lion the same as above. In the 
lower band, the pineapple cones are in orange, the flower 
in pale green, the double lines white and the outlining in 




red brown. The shingle effect has the double lines in white, 
the upper half of shingle pale green, the lower half buff. The 
handle is in red brown or dark blue. All lines not otherwise 
described are in black. 

You will notice that we have not made a single change in 
any. one motif. We have simply taken what we wanted and 



The only motif for designing that the Assyrians seem to 
have originated is the lozenge shape diaper, the original of 
the intricate Arabian and Moorish designs, and the shingle 
effect. 

We have for motifs this time the Assyrian lion, the em- 
blem of the Sun with a figure on either side (presumably the 
souls of men), the sacred pineapple tree, a pineapple and 
lotus design, and some notes of diaper and band designs. 

In the originals, the lion is in orange on a dark blue 
ground, the outlining in dark blue. The bands above and 
below are also in dark blue, the small discs in buff with orange 
centers and the narrow bands on either side in orange. The 
emblem of the Sun has the center of the disc buff, the next 
circle pale green and the outer circle red brown, the double 
lines a dull pink. There should be buff rays from center to 
outside rim, The figures are in orange on a dark blue 




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KERAMC STUDIO 



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combined anew. Notice also that the heaviest effect is kept unless you are confining yourself to a border design. Then if 
for the base, the upper band being simplest, the second that is heavy you must have base of heavy color to balance, 
heavie-r and the last most elaborate. In making a design An easy way for measuring is to make a large circle by 

tracing around a plate, folding the circle into eight and 
marking the lines. Then turn wrong side out and fold in six, 
and mark. Open this out and lay on table, lay article to be 
divided on center, measuring from the edge on either side to 
be sure it is right. Then mark on the China the eight, 
sixteen, six or twelve points of division, whichever you wish. 




from these motifs, see that your design balances, do not let it 
be top heavy. If you have a heavy ornament at the top, you 
must have as heavy a design or heavier at the base to balance, 





CU*suU^ Oa^-GUfc^c*^. 



26 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




Photo, by SCHERER, New York. 



SEVRES DECORATION FOR PLATE-ANNA B. LEONARD 



For Treatment see page 29 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



27 




HEPATIC A DECORATION FOR CUP AND SAUCER- A. G. MARSHALL 



TREATMENT OF HEPATICA CUP AND^SAUCER 

Mary A lien Neal 

THE design for cup and saucer is of the " Hepatica," one of 
the earliest spring flowers, and the coloring should be 
very delicate. A charming scheme of color for this would be 
in the violet tones. First draw the design carefully with 
India ink and a very fine crowquill pen, so the color can be 
removed without erasing the design, if it does not go on 
successfully at first. Cover the dark rim of cup and saucer, 
also the center of the saucer and base of cup with a coat of 
English grounding oil, pad until smooth and tacky with 
cotton covered with a piece of chamois skin, then apply with 
a piece of soft cotton, Royal Purple powder color, clean the 
edges carefully, as any of the particles of color left on the 



China will show after firing. For the flowers use Light Violet 
of Gold with a little Deep Blue Green, using the same color 
stronger for shading, the centers of Jonquil Yellow, also 
stamens, with an occasional dot of Blood Red. For the leaves 
use Brown Green and Shading Green. The little half opened 
leaf of which you see the underside is of a pinky tone. For 
this use Russian Green and a little Rose, the fuzzy part put in 
with a very fine brush, in line touches of Blood Red quite thin, 
the stems make a pale green with the same lines for the 
delicate fuzz. Another scheme of colors would be to have the 
edges, center and base of cup of green lustre, the flowers pink, 
painting delicately with Rose, shading with the same and using 
the same green for leaves and stems, edging the lustre with 
fine gold lines. Finish cup and saucer with gold handle and 
rims. 



28 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




FIGURES FOR TANKARD (see May number), adapted from designs in the " Dekorative Vorbilder." 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



29 




TANKARD LUSTRE— Continued 

SECOND AND THIRD FIRE. 

(Sec May number fur first fire. ) 

E will begin now to put the lustres on the 
figures. Use one color at a time, putting 
it on wherever used all around the tank- 
ard, going over the surface with a quick 
and wide sweep of the brush. The lustre 
will blend itself somewhat, so, unless the color is too uneven, 
leave it alone after putting it on, for if you work over it you 
are liable to make it spotty or show the brush marks. Here I 
wish to repeat the first instructions to make them clear in 
your minds. Use the lustres from the bottles, just as they 
are, unless very sticky, then thin with Essence. They are all 
a yellow brown color before firing except orange which is 
grey. If possible have a separate square shader for each color 
and mark the handles so you can tell them apart. Never use 
lustre brushes for anything else. Wash them out in turpen- 
tine first and then in alcohol, if you must use one brush for 
two or more colors. The yellow and rose are the most sensi- 
tive to the influence of other colors, so keep distinct brushes 
for them at any rate. Keep the work clean and free from dust. 

The colors used in the panels are as follows : 

Center Panel. — Face, hands and sticks supporting grape 
vine, broivn. Tunic, cap (except slashes), and one side of 
bunches of grapes, purple. Hair, shoes, diagonal band in coat 
of arms, and design on same, border of tunic, hock glass (ex- 
cept where the wine is), and the orange in bunch of fruit in 
upper right hand column, orange. Slashes in cap and other 
half of bunches of grapes, violet. Ground work of shield, wine 
in glass, cherries and apple in upper right hand corner, and the 
right bottle in upper left hand corner, ribbons tying trellis, 
ruby. Stein in hand, helmet in coat of arms, blue grey. Legs 
of figure, leaves on grape vine, feather in cap and left bottle in 
upper left corner, light green. 

PANEL WITH Boar's HEAD.— Cap, waist and apron shaded 
with blue grey, leaving high lights white. Face, hands and 
hair, brown. Boar's head and carrot in mouth, legs of boy, 
pumpkin, ears of corn, squash and carrots in the bunches of 
vegetables, orange. Knee breeches, bean pods, and turnips in 
the bunches of vegetables, yellow. All leaves, light green. The 
bean flowers, rose. The bit of drapery at the top and the beet 
in the bunch of vegetables, ruby. Tray and rim of platter, 
copper. Bottom of platter, platinum. 

FIGURE WITH Fish. — Face and hands, brown. Cap and 
napkin over arm shaded with blue grey, also legs. Waist, knee 
breeches and shoes, olive grey. Rim and base of gravy ewer, 
rim of tray, rim and handle of spoon, platin urn. Body of ewer, 
bottom of tray, bowl of spoon, copper. All leaves and bodies 
of fishes in top ornaments, light green. Hair of boy, fish on 
tray, belt, cat tails and heads of fishes in top ornaments, orange. 
Bows at the knees, fins of fishes, shells and lilies, rose. 

Next go over the green lustre on body of vase and handles 
with the same light green. 

If the irridesccnt rose on base comes out spotted, go over 
it again with the same color. If it comes out fairly clear but 
uneven, it is all right to wash orange over it. If it comes out 
even and pretty, you can leave it that color if you wish, other- 
wise go over it with orange. Go over all your gold with a good 
even wash. When all is thoroughly dry you can model the 
raised work in paste for gold. It is then ready for second fire. 

When it comes out go over all the colors that need 
strengthening with a wash of the same color. Go over all the 



hair and shoes with brown, also shade the lower half of boar's 
head and fish with the same. Go over the carrot in mouth of 
boar with orange heavier than on the boar's head itself. Go 
over ruby on shield with orange. Shade some leaves darker 
than others. See that your gold and bronze are heavy enough, 
otherwise go over them again. Go over paste with two good 
washes of unfluxed gold, drying between. See that your black 
outlines are strong and distinct with a good glaze, if other- 
wise, go over them again. If after the third fire anything 
needs retouching you can safely give the extra fire. 

It is advisable for this work to use White China, as Beleek 
is less sure to come out as you expect it with lustres. 

TREATMENT FOR PLATE DESIGN— (Sevres in Style) 

THE rim of the plate is Dark Blue under the glaze, with the 
medallions left white for decoration. Any dark color 
dusted on the rim could be used. The design is drawn on the 
dark blue with a Chinese White in water color, as pencil marks 
or India ink will not show on the dark blue. A better plan 
is to draw the design in a very thin line of gold— (any remnant 
of discarded or dusty gold will do) — it requires very little. 
After the scrolls and flowers have been modeled in the paste, 
prepare your palette for painting the small roses in the 
medallions, using the Lacroix colors, Rose Pompadour, Car- 
mine No. 3, Apple Green, Brown Green, Night Green, Emerald 
Stone Green, Deep Red Brown, Mixing Yellow, Moss Green 
and Yellow Brown and Ruby Purple (German). 

First wash in the pink roses very delicately with Rose 
Pompadour, barely enough color to keep the drawing, which 
at first is only in masses. The high lights are lifted out with 
a clean brush. Rose Pompadour stands a hard fire, and for 
that reason in the small roses it is a good color to start with, 
but it must be used delicately. These little roses are then 
touched up with Carmine No. 3, a deeper wash in the center, 
and a little detail work in the petals, with just an occasional 
touch of Deep Red Brown to strengthen. It is a great mistake 
to work these little roses up too much — they must be painted 
in a broad and crisp manner — vary the position of the roses — 
as well as the tone. Some of them can be delicately painted 
at first with Carmine No. 3, to give a variety. The deep 
roses are painted in Ruby Purple and Rose Pompadour, half 
and half, and touched up after firing with the Ruby. 

For the first firing, the leaves are delicately massed with 
Apple Green and Mixing Yellow, with a few stronger touches 
of Brown Green and Night Green, or Brown Green and Emer- 
ald Stone Green. The stems must have crisp touches of Deep 
Red Brown. A certain warmth is added by using Deep Red 
Brown for some of the leaves In the second firing darker 
leaves are added, and these are more effective near the roses. 
Just as much depends upon the surrounding foliage for the 
character of the roses, as the painting of the flowers. Often 
the petals have very little paint upon them, but the leaves give 
the clear crisp edge. These are the most fascinating little flow- 
ers to paint — they look so simple, and yet to do them well, is 
extremely difficult. The secret being to make every brush 
mark tell, and to keep the color clean. Try to succeed with 
them., for there is something wonderfully attractive about 
these miniature roses that appeals to every one. Then too 
they require the environment of grace and elegance and are 
especially beautiful for table service. 

After carrying out the design in the raised parts and little 
roses a few touches of Turquoise enamel in the scrolls make a 
charming finish. 



3o 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



A PRACTICAL TALK ON DESIGN. 

K. M. Huger 
ESIGN is the placing together of lines or forms in a given space 
so as to make an agreeable impression on the mind through 
the eye, that is to say through the cultivated eye, for to "know 
what we like" is one thing, but to like what we should like is 
quite another. So soon as we are in possession of two or more 
lines and a given space, an arrangement can be made of greater or less beauty 
according to the appreciation of the artist for contrast, fitness, proportion, balance, 
action and spacing. 

Take a square, which is one of Mr. Dow's first problems and try the experi- 
ment; you will find that this process of arrangement contains the germ of all 
design and composition, whether it be in picture making, architecture, poetry, 
music, the drama, or what not. 




We must have contrast, repetition, series, action and quiet spacing. Imagine 
a play where there were no pauses, a musical composition with no restful chords, 
a design equally elaborate throughout, a picture without quiet spacing. The eye, 
mind and ear would weary of them all. Wornum has said in his "Analysis of 
Ornament " that the first principle of ornament is repetition — a measured succes- 
sion in series of some one detail (which in itself may be varied), in borders or 
mouldings for instance. This stage of ornament corresponds to melody in music 
— a measured succession of diatonic sounds. They both arise from rhythm — in 
music called time — in ornament called proportion or symmetry. The second stage 
in music is called harmony or a combination of sounds or melodies paralleled in 
ornamental art, where a combination or measured succession of forms is followed 
upon identical principles. Ornament consists, then, in something more than a 
mere artistic elaboration of either natural or conventional details. The highest 
mere imitative skill will engender but fanciful vagaries powerless to satisfy the eye 
and mind if not arranged in any order of combination of harmonic progression, let 
the motif be what it will. Then, too, if the designer wishes to ensure a lasting 
market in the civilized world he must be able to gratify an elegant cultivated 
taste, not by mere technique, but by such an aesthetic character as was attained 
by the Egyptians in their varicolored glass, in the figured cups of Sidon, the 
shawls of Miletus, the terracottas of Samos, the bronzes of Corinth, which com- 




JAPQN IC ft- SPOTTING- 




VMTEfU.!L.Y. SPOTTING' 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



V 



manded the markets of the ancient world and are treasures 
in the art collections of to-day. We have then, to study- 
shape and contrast, harmony and variety, and in all cases, aes- 
thetically, an effect that will delight the mind through the 
eye. And whatever other principle we may sacrifice, a good 
effect must be obtained. Use what symbols we will, they 
must be made subject to the principles of design or the result 
will be a mere crudity in art. The ornamental principle of 
symmetry may be introduced in pictorial art, in which case 
the picture becomes an ornamental design. Most of the pic- 
tures in the early epochs of art were so treated, of which 
Giotto's frescos furnish a good example. Any picture com- 
posed merely on principles of symmetry and contrast becomes 
an ornament. Any ornamental design in which these two 
principles of symmetry and contrast have been made sub- 
servient to naturalistic arrangement or mere imitation, has de- 
parted from the province of ornament into that of picture- 
making. 

♦ 

The very principles of nature are frustrated when you 
represent a natural form in a natural manner and yet apply it to 
uses with which it has, in nature, no affinity whatever. "One 
is apt to act on the general theory that nature is beautiful," 
says Warnum, "and therefore ornamental details derived im- 
mediately from nature must ensure beautiful designs, whereas, 
the truth is directly contrary to this. Natural objects must 
be made to conform to artificial shapes, or more or less con- 
ventional lines." 

Sometimes the natural object itself is made erroneous use 
of — and this is one of the most fatal abuses of nature. A man's 
head for a beer mug, a boot as a match box, a basket form to 





hold a liquid, the half of a hen as an egg dish, etc. There is 
a very great difference between ornamenting a utensil with 
natural objects and substituting these natural objects for the 
utensil itself. In the latter case, however true the detail to 
nature, the design is utterly false. In all true ornament art 
must aid nature, the natural and the artificial must be com- 
bined. The Italian Trecento is a good example of mixing 
conventional flowers and foliage with tracery and geometrical 
design. 

In no worthy style of ornament have natural details ever 
yet prevailed. The details of all great styles are largely de- 
rived from nature, but are ahvays conventionally treated, and 
theory and experience seem to show that this is the true sys- 
tem. A plant is said to be conventionally treated when the 
natural order of its growth or development is disregarded. 

When both of these are observed the treatment is natural 
and so can only be a picture or a model and not an ornament. 
To be an ornament or a design it must be applied as an acces- 
sory decoration to something else — it must cover or fill a 
definite space. There can be no question that the motive of 
ornament is not the representation of natural images to the 
mind but the rendering the object ornamented as agreeable as 
possible and therefore the details of decoration should have 
no independent character of their own, but be kept purely 
subservient to beauty of effect — and this cannot be thorough- 
ly or satisfactorily done without adopting conventional 
arrangement whether flowers, foliage, figure or what not. 

♦ 

The designer must ever remember that the effect of the 
whole should never be interfered with by attraction to detail. 
As soon as you lose sight of the zvlioje the ornament may 
become a work of art but not a decoration. An artist may be 
capable of producing perfect forms and colors and yet show 
the grossest ignorance of arrangement and application, deco- 
ratively speaking. A power of exact imitation of natural 
objects is quite compatible with a total ignorance of orna- 
mental art. The Egyptians are eminent for the adaptation 
and conventional treatment of their local natural types, such 
as the lotus, the scarabseus, etc. Their arrangements are 
almost exclusively a mere symmetrical repetition of motifs. 
Geometric figures are well used where emphatic flatness is 
required, such as wall or floor patterns, etc., thus adhering to 
fitness in design. The covering of only portions of a place 
requires far higher ornamental ability than is involved in an 
"all over" pattern, here space relations must be considered — 
variety, contrast, proportion and sympathy of line, all come 
into play. The principles applicable to one article may be 
quite the reverse of those applicable to another, however, and 
it is the designer's place to suffer no mere ornamental predi- 
lection to interfere with the practical excellence of his design, 
and above all things to remember that special attraction to 
secondary details is not a merit but a capital defect in design. 

I am indebted for suggestion upon these principles which 
I would both pratice and advocate to R. N. Wornum and J. 
Ward in their late works on ornament. 

The Rookwood pottery was established by Maria Long- 
worth Nichols, now the wife of Bellamy Storer, who was re- 
cently appointed minister to Spain. Perched on one of the 
great hills overlooking the smoky city, it is one of the pictur- 
esque bits of Cincinnati, while its products have spread the 
fame of the city in art circles: 



]2 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




J^EAGUE Mrs. Worth Osgood, the energetic President 

NOTES ° f tllG NationaI League of Mineral Painters, 
has arranged a Congress of china painters in 
Chicago, during the League exhibition, which will be conducted 
just about the time this number of KERAMIC STUDIO is issued 
— but a full account will be published. She will have the plan 
for the next year's course of study arranged, and there will be 
interesting papers and discussions each morning. It is only 
by combined effort that the American decorators can elevate 
the standard of work in this country and make it more fully 
appreciated commercially. 

Mrs. Fanny Rowell Priestman of the New York Society of 
Keramic Arts, who was the successful competitor for the League 
Medal for the best model of cup and saucer, has announced 
that the Wheeling Pottery of West Virginia has purchased 
the model, and that the cups and saucers will soon be for sale 
at the shops. It should be a matter of great pride to all 
members of the League who should decorate at least one of 
them. The form is extremely simple and graceful and will 
lend itself to a beautiful decoration. The mere fact of her 
being successful in selling the model should encourage others 
to make similar models — perhaps then we may have more 
artistic forms for the potteries. Decorators and potters should 
be more closely allied. 

The central subject of interest at present in the world of 
National League of Mineral Painters is the Annual Exhibition 
at the Art Institute, Chicago, opening May 24th, continuing 
by invitation until June 1st. Reception Tuesday evening, 
May 23d. 

The annual meeting will open the Keramic Congress, held 
by courtesy of the entertaining club in the Central Art Asso- 
ciation, Fine Arts Building. The Educational Committee will 
lead the first section. The council and representatives of 
the various clubs will assist in arranging the schedule of work 
for the new year. 

Mrs. Kinsley, President of the Bridgeport Mineral Art 
League, will furnish a paper on the " League Course of Study/' 
Mrs. Wagner, President of the Detroit Keramic Art Club will 
give us a paper on "The Value of Federation." Mrs. T. Venette 
Morse, Central Art Association, will address the Assembly, 
subject, " Skeletons in the Professional China Closet." 

The second section will be led by Mr. Charles Binns, rep- 
resentative of the Trenton Keramic Art Co. 

Mr. Hasburg will lecture before the Congress Saturday 
afternoon, May 27th, in the lecture hall of the Art Institute. 
Separate programs will be printed as it will be an illustrated 
lecture with experiments on the manufacture of glass. 

Patriotism urges us to employ American wares, and in 
order to do this with greater intelligence, we have invited the 
attention of artist potters, and potteries connected with col- 
leges, to this Keramic Congress. 



Professor Woodward will present the lines of work in 
Newcomb pottery, connected with Newcomb College, New 
Orleans. 

President Taylor of Rookwood, will encourage the national 
element in this exhibition by sending a few choice specimens 
of Rookwood's latest productions. 

Paris Exposition business will occupy one morning. It 
is a matter of regret that we are not able to send complete 
program for this issue. 

Exhibition Secretary Mrs. Anna B. Leonard will take 
charge of the records of these meetings and supervise the 
making up of the annual report, a copy of which will be fur- 
nished each local club directly after the close of the exhibition. 

An afternoon reception with an exhibition of water color 
designs in the Fine Arts Building is tendered by the Chicago 
Keramic and Central Art Associations to League members 
and friends. 

Mrs. N.A.Cross, President of the Entertaining Association, 
has by her effectual efforts succeeded in enlisting the interest 
of many artists to make this exhibition a successful and note- 
worthy one in the history of our League. 

The California Keramic Club, 219 Post street, San Fran- 
cisco, was added to the "Roll of Clubs, National League of Min. 
eral Painters," April 10th. Its thirty members are active 
workers and investigators, and their enrollment is especially 
gratifying. Their officers are : Miss Helen Bacon, President ; 
Mrs. T. W. Church, Vice-President ; Mrs. T. S. Taylor, Secre- 
tary ; Mrs. S. V. Culp, Corresponding Secretary; Miss M. C. 
Taylor, Treasurer. 

Mrs. Worth Osgood, President. 

The Chicago Keramic Association has arranged its perma- 
nent headquarters with the Central Art Association in the 
Fine Arts Building. The rooms are artistically decorated, the 
color scheme being a neutral green, which makes a very har- 
monious background for the pictures and many art collections 
the rooms contain. 

Club members who may wish to dispose of their produc- 
tions, have the privilege of placing their work on sale and a 
competent saleswoman is in charge. All work must pass the 
criticism of a jury composed of well known artists before it is 
accepted for sale. 

The members are busy arranging the details for the 
exhibition of the National League of Mineral Painters, which 
opens at the Art Institute May 23d. Great interest is mani- 
fested by the artists in the coming exhibition, which from the 
many letters and enquiries which are pouring in from all parts 
of the country promises to be a great success. 

The following artists will take part in the Congress : Mr. 
Franz Bischoff, Mrs. Wagner, Detroit; Mr. Bemis, Trenton 
Pottery, The Rookwood Pottery-, Cincinnati; Mrs. Kinsley, 
Bridgeport; Mr. Volkmar, New York; Miss Parks, Denver; 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



11 



Mr. Wm. D. Gates of the American Terra Cotta and Keramic 
Co., Chicago; Mr. F. Bertram Aulich, Chicago; Mrs. T. Ve- 
nette Morse of Central Art Association, Chicago. 

Mr. J. H. PLasburg, Chicago, will lecture on the " Manu- 
facture of Keramic Colors, Enamels and Glazes," May 27, 
1899, at the Art Institute, Chicago, at 2 P. M. 

The lecture will be illustrated by practical demonstra- 
tions, in which raw materials sand, lead, alkali, etc., will be 
mixed, put into crucibles, and fused in specially constructed 
furnaces at temperatures as high as 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit. 
Following is the programme: Brief history of glass; compo- 
sition of glass; classification of glass, china, pottery; classifi- 
cation of Keramic colors — basic colors, acid colors, neutral col- 
ors, fused colors, mixed colors ; incompatible combination of 
colors; how glass and fine colors are made; description of the 
apparatus; mining of the raw materials; melting the mixture 
of raw materials into colored glass; testing the progress of the 
melt; removal of the mass from crucible; grinding the colors 
(or glass) ; application of the color to china medallions ; firing 
the medallions; distribution of the fired medallions to the 
audience. 

The annual election of the National League of Mineral 
Painters takes place in the rooms of the Central Art Associa- 
tion at 1 1 A. M. 

The Chicago Keramic Association will hold its annual 
meeting and election Saturday, May 7th, in room of the Cen- 
tral Art Association, at 2 P. M. 

N. A. Cross, 
President of Chicago Ceramic Association. 

Chicago, May 1st, 1899. 

£LUB The Denver Pottery Club held its annual 

NEWS exnib ' tion > Ma Y 3 d and 4th- at the Brown 
Hotel. Miss Parks, Miss Hubbert and Mrs. 
Case will represent the club at the Keramic Congress in 
Chicago. 

At the annual meeting of the California Keramic Club, 
the following members were elected to office : Miss H. Baem, 
President; Mrs. T. S. Church, Vice-President; Mrs. T. S. 
Taylor, Second, Vice-President ; Mrs. S. V. Culp, Secretary ; 
Miss M. Taylor, Treasurer. 

The Jersey City Keramic Art Club held its meeting at 
Hasbrouck Hall. Papers were read by Madame Le Prince, 
Miss Humble and Mrs. Bull. The subject for competition 
being dogwood and Japanese lines. Medal was awarded to 
Mrs. Gluck for dogwood plate. Honorable mention to Miss 
Mulford for Japanese design. 

The Detroit Keramic Art Club held an exhibition, includ- 
ing both china and water colors, from April 17th to the 22d - 
The members were well represented. Mr. Bischoff contrib- 
uted largely to the success of the exhibition. The work shows 
more and more each year, the professional touch, both in the 
clearness of color and the individuality of the decorator. As 
the club is preparing for its second spring exhibition at the 
Museum of Art, beside that of the National League at Chi- 
cago, the members are especially busy. 

The Bridgeport League of Keramic Art held its April 
meeting at the residence of Mrs. Swan. This club follows 
very closely the League's course of study. The subject for 
criticism being, "Dogwood— the China to be Decorated being 
Pitchers." Papers on Japanese art were read by Mr. Frank- 



Muni and Mrs. Carrie Doremus. Mrs. A. B. Leonard was 
critic for the china. The May meeting was held at the resi- 
dence of Mrs. Torrey, when the business of the year was fin- 
ished, followed by a discussion on •'Woman in Art." 

The New York Society of Keramic Arts gave a private 
view of the work of members that was sent to the League Exhi- 
bition, at Chicago. The banquet room at the Waldorf was used 
for the purpose, and the members were most successful in giving 
an artistic exhibition. Quite an innovation was introduced in 
arranging the china upon polished tables, instead of the usual 
drapery. This gave an air of dignity to the exhibition, reliev- 
ing it from that frivolous look of the charity bazaar, which a 
lot of flimsy drapery invariably gives. This society would 
like its work to stand alone, without depending on the acces- 
sories. Just as work is shown in art collections at museums. 

The annual meeting of the Mineral Art League of Boston, 
was held April fifteenth. The reports of secretary and treas- 
urer showed the League in prosperous condition. The follow- 
ing officers were elected: Mrs. Grace Beebe, President ; Miss 
Emma Carrol and Mrs. Gertrude Davis, Vice-Presidents; Mrs. 
Caroline L. Swift, Recording Secretary; Miss M. M. Bakeman, 
Corresponding Secretary; Miss A. I. Johnson, Treasurer. A 
vote of thanks was tendered to the retiring officers, expressing 
appreciation of the pleasant and efficient manner in which 
they had filled the various offices. Letters were read from Mrs. 
Worth Osgood, President of National League of Mineral 
Painters, and from the Denver Pottery Club. 

JN THE Mr. A. B. Cobden gave his thirteenth annual 

STTJDTOS exn ibition of china painting, the work of his 
pupils, on May nth, 12th and 13th. Studio, 
No. 13 South Sixteenth street, Philadelphia. 

Miss Henrietta Barclay Wright of Minneapolis (member 
of New York Society of Keramic Arts), will have classes in 
Chicago for one month, commencing May 25th. 

Miss Strafer of Cincinnati, who has been closely associ- 
ated with the Rookwood pottery for a number of years, will 
open a studio in New York this autumn to pive instructions 
in miniature painting on ivory. 

Mrs. Rhoda Holmes Nicholls will have classes for out door 
sketching during the summer at Kennebunk- 
port, on the coast of Maine. Although not a 
keramist, Mrs. Nichols is in great sympathy 
with us, and advises students to make their 
original sketches in water color, when they 
can afterwards be adapted to china. 





34 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



TREATMENT OF FIGURE BY CHAPLIN 

Flesh Palettes. 



(Mrs. Vance Philips) 


LACROIX 


PRY'S 
POWDER COLORS 

(Mrs. Aisop-Robineau) 


Blonde 


fPompado 


in" It] 


IX 


Carnation 1 1 
Canary ) % " 


IX 


Flesh 1 


Brunette 


jPompado 
(Yel. ochre 


urlf] 

W 2 A 


IX 


Carnation 1 | 
Yel. ochre 2 f 


IX 


Flesh 2 


Pomp. 2 


fPompado 
(.Flux 1 


ur 1 




Carnation 1 

Flux 1 


Pompadour 1 


Pomp. 1 


fPompado 
[Flux 1 


rr 3 




Carnation 3 
Flux 1 


Pompadour 2 


Reflected 
Ligh 


I Pompadoi 
L 1 Vcl. brow, 


r If) 

H/ S fli 


- 


Carnation 1 ) 

Wo fll 

Yel. brown 2 ) ' 


* 


Reflected light 


Cool 
Shadov 


( Turq. gree 

A Violet ofir 

( Grey for flc 


11* 1 
onlUflt 

sh 1 \ 


X 


Deep blue green 1*1 
Violet of iron 1 
Neutral grer 1 


n4 


Cool shadow 


Tender 
Shadow 


( Cool shad< 
A Pearl grey 

( Touch oft 


1 

u-q. green 




Cool shadow 1 
Pearl grev 1 
Touch of blue green 


Tender shadow 


Warm 
Shadow 


( Sepia brow 
' \ Violet of ir 


on 1 




Sepia brown 1 
Violet of iron 1 


Warm shadow 


Brown 2 


I Finishing 1 
) Flux 1 


irown 1 




Brown 4-, 1 

Flux 1 

Raven black % 


Brown 1 


Brown 1 


\ Finishing 1 
\ Flux 1 


rown 3 




Brown 4, 3 

Flux 1 

Raven black % 


Brown 2 



Note— In flesh palette, the numbers refer to the proportionate parts. * means 
a little more and f a little less than one part. 

If you are using other makes of colors, refer to our color chart. 

Brushes. 

1 set (6) miniature quill brushes. 
1 set (6) slanting deerfoot stipplers in quill. 
Square shaders 2, 4, 6, 8. 

Take court plaster and bind the stipplers halfway over the hair, like a collar, 
to make them firm. 

Use for medium a mixture of Balsam of Copaiba (6 drops) and Oil of Cloves (1 
drop). "Use also Spirits of Turpentine in the brush in painting. Rub the colors 
down with medium ; this will keep them open and fresh for a long time, if you keep 
your palette covered. Use for a palette a (i by (> tile, divided, marked and fired as 
in the cut. Several of the mixtures look much alike before firing, and without file- 
names fired beneath, there would be great trouble in distinguishing between them. 













1-EESH1. | Kl.KSH,,. 


















COO.- SHADOwj'rENDEU SHAD. 


WARM SHAD. 









The subject, "Venus and Cupid," is peculiarly adapted 
to a loving cup, but the shape of the panel would fit well in 
the center of a tray, or would make an effective panel for 
framing. 

First make a careful tracing of the figures on gelatine 
tracing paper, making all lines dotted, marking on the dark 
side of edges. Fix this in position on your piece of China 
with two pieces of gummed paper at the top, so that the trac- 
ing can be lifted to see if it is correct. Take a piece of light 
brown wrapping paper about two inches square; rub a little 
of the medium well into it. Then take soft lead pencil and 
blacken it well. This can be used from time to time by rub- 
bing afresh with a very little medium on a rag. Slip this 
under the tracing, the blackened face to the China, and go 
over the tracing with a steel or ivory tracer, moving the 
leaded paper from place to place as you progress, looking 
beforehand to see if all the drawing in that section has been 
traced. When the outlines are transferred to the China in 
this way, take a fine liner and go over the drawing with India 
ink. Remember to make all lines clotted so that you can see 
if all color is well blended and no hard lines left at edges. 
Now wash off your china with spirits of turpentine, and you 
are ready to begin to paint. 

Now cover the background with a thin wash of medium, 
padding lightly with finger to make it even. Use spirits of 
turpentine in your brush with medium. Take your large 
square shader and brush tender shadow into the background 
all over. Into this, work canary yellow next the figure, then 
yellow brown, pompadour and blue green. Take your largest 
stippler and blend one color into another, working from the 
yellow into the blue. This will make a rather bright back- 
ground for the first fire which will be toned later. When this 
is sufficiently blended, wipe off the figure, drapery, birds, &c, 
so that they will be free from color, with the exception of a 
little left over the edges of the hair. If you are a beginner, 
it will be safer now to dry the china over an alcohol lamp or 
in the oven, to keep safe from dust or rubbing with the 
fingers. 

Now treat the figures with medium, as in the background, 
padding even with finger. Take your largest miniature brush 
and paint over the parts in light with local flesh No. i, over 
the parts in shadow with reflected light, and break in the 
half tones between light and shadow with tender shadow. 
Put Pompadour No. 2 in cheeks, ears, tip of nose, chin, finger 
tips and all rosy parts. Work rapidly and lightly and do not 
try to blend smooth. Put tender shadow on eyebrows and 
wherever the flesh and hair meet. Now take your fourth size 
stippler and go lightly over flesh until blended softly, stippling 
the clear flesh first, then the tender shadow, and last the 
reflected light. After this is pretty well blended, take a 
smaller stippler and model the form, taking out the high lights. 
If the color seems to blend off too freely, wait a little till it 
dries somewhat. The beginner can stop here with the flesh 
before firing, if she does not dare to work over the flesh. Of 
course the features will have to be worked up somewhat as 
described later. The more advanced can now take a No. I or 
No. 2 miniature brush and strengthen the shadows on the light 
side of face and figures with tender shadow, on the shadow 
side with cool shadow, a little more pompadour 2 in cheeks if 
necessary. Make the brush strokes follow the forms of the 
muscles. Stipple lightly immediately after laying in color to 
avoid hard lines. After the figure is modeled as well as pos- 
sible in this way, take finishing brown I and paint in eyebrows, 
eyelashes and eyes, stippling to avoid hard lines. Put a little 




ROSES— MARSHAL FRY. 

KERAMIC STUDIO PUB. CO. 



COPYRIGHT, 1899. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



17 




THE BOUTET DE MONVEL EXHIBITION 

NE of the most interesting exhibitions of 
the winter has been that of the work of 
Boutet de Monvel in water color and 
pen and ink. His charming illustrations 
and portraits of children have particularly 
appealed to the heart of the admiring public. His children 
are individuals, not children in general. It is interesting to 
note how the little faces in the portraits are worked up as 
finely as miniatures, while the rest of the figure, the dress and 
background, are painted in a fiat, broad and decorative style. 
To quote the artist's words in regard to the development of 
this stvle : "Gradually, through a process of elimination and 
selection, I came to put in only what was necessary to give 
character. I sought in every little figure, every group, the 
essence, and worked for that alone." You feel that a child, 
drawn by his pen, is not simply a typical child, but a real in- 
dividual child with a certain set of traits and feelings. He has 
taken the children right into his heart and knows them 
through and through. That he has a fine sense of humor and 
a delicate fancy is seen in his illustrations of French songs. 
The little dancing figures in "Trempe ton pain, Marie " (Dip 
your bread, Marie), are the jolliest little folk imaginable, and 
so finely decorative that they could be transplanted bodily 
and used in a hundred ways. That he is quite as equal to more 
serious work is seen in the illustrations to ''Jeanne d'Arc." To 
quote from Norman Hapgood, "The opening picture strikes a 



As Seen by a Simplicity, first, appropriate decoration, 

China Painter ^ rst anc ^ ^ as ^" These are two of the striking 
characteristics in the work of Boutet de 
Monvel. If the china decorator could truly appreciate and 
master these points, we would have works of art to exhibit 
which would force our reluctant public to give us the financial 
support which would enable us to do great things. The late 
exhibition of the work of Boutet de Monvel was a revelation 




fJST 



.ft 



Y 



m 






I 









ESS 



SSgj 



3 



«l I 



note, held throughout. Jeanne rides at the head of an army, 
her eyes fixed on a vision, a sword in her outstretched hand, 
behind her rush the living soldiers, with an onward motion 
that shows what it means to be a great draughtsman ; the 
very dead, fallen in battle, break from the ground to follow, 
their faces struggle up, their open mouths salute the Maid, 
they wave their swords, and although they cannot free their 
bodies, their spirits help her on to victory." Apart from the 
fine sentiment in the illustrations, the decorative motives used 
in the draperies are most interesting. The immense panel for 
the church in Domremy is full of beautiful designs and daring 
combinations of color. The subject is "Jeanne d'Arc Recog- 
nizes the King of France." The woman's figure with the 
quaint white head-dress is from this picture; also the man's 
figure which is that of the Dauphin. 



from a decorative standpoint. The large forms so simple, the 
decoration so carefully and lovingly elaborated. Everything 
in keeping, no anachronism, everything appropriate to time 
and place. Take, for instance, his drawings of children. The 
lines so few and simple, yet the character so strongly delin- 
eated. At first we wonder at the fine patterns and intricate 
plaids of the dresses, but the longer we study, the more we 
realize that the plaid itself is a necessary characteristic, while 
more folds in the dress or lines in the face would lose charac-' 
ter, instead of make it. 

Now to apply this to the decorating of china. Take a 




38 



KERAM1C STUDIO 



vase— the simpler the form, the stronger and more beautiful 

the effect. The decorative design can be as elaborate or 
simple as you choose, if only it 
decorates the vase appropriately. 
The decoration should always be 
subordinate to the vase, the two 
should be well considered in rela- 
tion to each other. The vase is 
not designed for the decoration, 
but the decoration for the vase. 
If you have a Greek form use 
Greek methods of expression in 
decoration ; if Japanese, Japanese 
methods. ( Notice that we say 
methods not motives.) 

As the little sprig patterns 
and elaborate plaids complete the 
child feeling in Boutet de Mon- 
vels drawings of children, so your 
Greek feeling in design will round 
out the character of your Greek 
vase and make a whole of it — a 
work of art. 

A third striking characteris- 
tic of Boutet de Monvel is the 
quaint and original combination 
of colors. His use of dull blues, 
greens, reds and purples, slate 
color, brown and buff, suggests 
new combinations for the decora- 
tor. The accompanying designs 
are from the dresses of the figures 
in the Jeanne d'Arc illustrations. 
The all-over patterns can be used 
for necks of vases, or made into 
border designs for cups, saucers, 
and plates. The decorative figure 
is fine for lustres with gold and 
jewelling. The children's figures 
are peculiarly adaptable to lustres 

or flat color with black outlines in decorating bread and milk 

sets, or children's china. 









KERAMIC STUDIO 



39 




No. I has a pale lavender stripe, the medallions in a 
darker shade, the design in white, and all outlined in dark 
dull purple. The plain stripe between has, in the original, a 
cream ground with a running "all-over" vine in pinkish lavender. 

No. 2 has the stripes in dull lavender, the fleur de lis 
ornament and the ornament below in a darker shade, the 
ground pale yellow brown, the six pointed ornament in a 
darker shade of brown, the edge being a still darker shade, 
the pineapple figure in center buff, and all outlined in black. 

No. 3. Ground, lavender ; stripe, darker shade of grey; 
ornament, yellow and black outlined in silver. 

No. 4. This design had a lavender stripe on either side. 
The flowers are painted alternately in two sets of colors on a 
pearl grey ground. First, flower dark orange and black, light 
orange leaves and stems ; second, flower light red and black, 
stems dark red ; all outlined in gold. 

The little figures, Nos. 5, 6, 7, 8, are best done in neutral 
tints and outlined in black. Use browns, greys, dull greens, 
reds and blues. 

No. 9. This mediaeval figure had a white lace head dress. 
The colors in dress are yellow, orange, pumpkin ; the light 
lines a greyish lavender; the design elaborately worked up 
with two shades of gold, silver and black; belt and collar of 
lavender. This is a good decorative figure for a vase. You 
can find a male figure to balance it in No. 10. 

No. 10. Dark blue gown, orange collar and facings to 
over-sleeves, vest and sleeves plum color, black cap with gold 
ornaments. 

Be sure and look up a mediaeval design to use in connec- 
tion with these figures, to make the whole decoration hang 
together. 



TREATMENT OF PERSIAN PLATE DESIGN 

THIS design must be carefully and accurately drawn before 
the paste or color is laid on. The work then will go 
very quickly. Outline the design in fine lines of raised paste, 
using an outline of raised dots about some of the figures, 
giving variety and elegance to the decoration. A very dark 
rich blue can be laid where the darkest parts of the design are. 
This blue resembles the deep tones of Cobalt underglaze, and 
is obtained by using Lacroix Dark Blue, a touch of Deep Blue 
Green and enough of Ruby Purple to make the mixture darker 
and richer. This blue will have to be put on in two washes, 
to obtain the desired effect. The circles representing jewels 
are in white enamel, and it would be better to surround each 
jewel (enamel) with a fine setting of raised dots, very small, 
and near together without touching. The enamel in the heart 
shape ornament should be Turquoise in color, obtained by 
using a mixture of Night green and Deep Blue Green (La- 
croix). Apple Green and Mixing Yellow make a fresh beauti- 
ful green, and this mixture may be used in parts of the design. 
Different combinations of color can be used, and the design be 
used in part, or as a whole. To obtain a rich oriental effect 
the spaces left white can be filled with gold, which will add 
great brilliancy to the effect of the plate-. The design may 
be filled with colored enamels, and it will also be useful for a 
white and gold decoration. 

SPECIFIC TREATMENT FOR ARBUTUS 

Mary Chase Perry 

LAY in the little flowers in masses, modeling the shadows 
with Moss Green, White Rose or Copenhagen. Make the 
little centres of Egg or Silver Yellow, with a touch of Yellow 
Ochre or Yellow Brown to give depth. For the pink petals, 
use Rose, letting it soften into the green. In the second firing 
some deeper accents may be added by a touch of Ruby. Paint 
the leaves with Moss and Brown Green, with Shading Green 
used sparingly. Carry out the treatment very simply, making 
as few touches with the point of the brush as possible. It is 
a temptation to work up finical details of small flowers, but 
by so doing, one loses both strength and delicacy. Work the 
background with tones of Russian Green, Yellow Brown and 
Copenhagen, varying the colors so as to keep the study in 
harmony. 

•f "f 

FOR BEGINNERS 

TINTING 

THERE are at first a few things in the decoration of China 
that may seem like drudgery to the beginners, but in a 
little while, after a slight acquaintance with the mediums, 
there will be the inevitable fascination and the constant desire 
to advance. Even with tinting alone one can make beautiful 
things, for instance, the small after dinner coffee cup in rich 
ruby, with only the gold handle and a gold band. 

To obtain a dark tint upon China, the better way is to 
dust the color on (please do not say "dry dusting"). First, 
with a flat tinting brush, go over the surface of the China with 
a thin coat of English grounding oil, pad it very carefully 
over and over again with silk dabber (a ball of cotton covered 
with old silk hankerchief) until the oil seems " tacky." Then 
after allowing the China to remain for ten minutes, shake the 
powder eclor over the oil, using a piece of cotton (or brush 
for that purpose) to smooth the color, always keeping plenty 



4 o 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



of it, between the cotton and the oil, otherwise the oil will 
become full of lint and your tinting ruined. After lightly 
dusting off the superfluous colors (the oil will absorb just so 
much) clean the edges and the design with a piece of dry cloth 
rolled into a point. The tint should look smooth and even, 
no little particles of color should remain prominently on top. 
It is most important to clean thoroughly the bottom of the 
china, as any little atom of color that adheres will fire in, or 
worse still, some of the particles may drop on something 
else in the kiln causing disastrous results. This may sound 
appalling to a beginner, but it is only a word of warning — 
above all things learn from the start to be neat with every 
stage of the work — then it will be second nature and many 
mishaps may be avoided. 

[To prevent confusion, another article will be given upon tinting, with the 
colors used wet] 

o o o 

RAISED PASTE 

There may be many formulas for raised paste, but my 
advice is, always choose the simplest method and work 
accordingly. 

Hancock's paste for raised gold is the standard. Buy it 
in powder form and learn to mix it yourself, without depend- 
ing upon that which is prepared ready for use. It is always 
better to be one's own chemist, and in this case, to be the 
thorough master of the material. There are many mediums 
which would make the paste work well, but it is so easy to 
overdo the matter, and then have disastrous effects in the 
firing — so follow the simplest method, and work as a profes- 
sional. Take as much powder as the end of large size palette 
knife will hold and place on a ground glass palette or slab; 
add to this enough Dresden thick oil to change the color of 
it, but not enough to make a paste of it. Add two or three 
drops of lavender oil, and after rubbing well, thin with turpen- 
tine and grind until the mixture is thick enough to make a 
line of it, without spreading. Use the rectified spirits of 
turpentine. If your paste crumbles you have not enough oil 
to hold it together. Add a very little more Dresden thick oil. 
If the paste spreads after applying to the china, or still looks 
" shiny " in half an hour's time, there is too much oil and more 
of the powder must be used. If after the paste has been 
applied to the china there should be a circle of moisture 
or turpentine about it, stop using it at once, and rub it 
thoroughly, adding a drop or two of lavender oil, which will 
hold the turpentine and oil together. Use the mixture soft 
enough so that it naturally flows from the brush in a smooth 
condition. There must be no sharp points or rough lines. 
After the firing it should feel perfectly even and smooth to the 
touch. The least elevation looks much higher after the gold 
is on than in the unfired state of the paste. Amateurs as a 
rule make the paste stand too high, which destroys the 
delicacy of line and requires twice as much gold to cover it. 

This same method for mixing holds good in modeling 
paste scrolls, figures or flowers. You must learn to make it 
stay just exactly as you place it. If these directions are 
carried out, you may fire your paste with perfect safety an 
hour after using. But if the paste has a gloss on it, I would 
wait until it looked perfectly dry and dull before putting into 
the kiln. 

Definitions of terms in Heraldry — for coats of arms and 
crests on china and glass: 
Gules — red. Azure — blue. Or — yellow. Vert— green. 

Sable — black. Purpure — purple. Argent — white. 



COLOR CHART 




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3 5 B a 



KERAMC STUDIO 



4i 




"ORIGIN OF THE MANUFACTURE OF PORCELAIN 
IN EUROPE" 

[From the introduction of the "Soft Porcelaine of Serves."] 

1 Edouard Gamier 

HINESE porcelain was imported by the Venetians 
from the commencement of the fourteenth 
century and excited general astonishment and 
admiration. Like everything else that came 
from the East, the land of marvels, it was for a 
long time supposed to possess magic virtues, and the substance 
of which it was composed was believed to be produced by 
means bordering on the supernatural. 

" Never has porcelaine " (Porcellana), writes Gui Panciroli, 
the celebrated Italian lawyer, " been seen before; it consists 
of a paste of plaster, eggs, and shells of marine locusts and of 
similar species, which, after being well mixed, is secretly 
hidden in the ground by the father of the family, who then 
acquaints his children with its hiding place. It remains for 
eighty years without seeing light of day, after which the heirs 
remove it, and, finding it in a fit state for manipulation, make 
of it those precious transparent vases so beautiful in form and 
color that architects can find no fault in them ; amongst their 
inestimable virtues is that of breaking should poison be put 
into them. He who buries the substance never removes it 
himself, but leaves it to his children, nephews and heirs, as a 
rich legacy from which they may derive much profit: it is far 
more precious than gold." 

To this widely spread belief in the marvelous, to absurd 
fables of this kind, accepted as truth even by men of highest 
learning, fables which were gravely repeated as late as the 
latter half of the seventeenth century, is probably due that 
lack of success which attended the attempts made at various 
times to manufacture porcelain of a similar nature in Europe. 
The fact that the porcelain of the East was composed of a 
natural product, a kind of white clay (of a peculiar kind, it is 
true, but one that might be found in other countries as well 
as China,) was so little realized that for a long time alchemists 
alone endeavored to discover the secret of its manufacture, 
and vied with one and another in attempts to produce a sub- 
stance similar to porcelain, in imitation of those vases de 
Siiiant which kings alone were able to possess. 

It was only towards the close of the seventeenth century, 
after considerable quantities of Chinese porcelain had been 
imported into Europe, first by the Portuguese, and then by 
the Dutch, that speculation on this subject began to follow a 
more logical, and consequently a truer course. 

Nevertheless, whilst credence was denied to the supernat 
ural properties of this porcelain, a strong belief survived in 
the existence of an earth of an extraordinary nature, which, 
according to scientists, was to be found exclusively in the 
extreme East. 

No manufacturerappears to have thought of searching for 
this earth, and even later, when, in 1709, accident led to the 
discovery of the first beds of kaolin, at Aue, by which Bottger 
was enabled to establish the first manufactory in Europe, in 
which true porcelain was made, this discovery was surrounded 
by a kind of mysterious legend which continued current for a 
long time afterwards. 

This circumstance is, however, hardly to be regretted, for 
it was to the belief so generally entertained that the manufac- 
ture of artificial porcelain, an entirely French invention, owed 
its origin. 

There are two kinds of porcelain : Kaolin, or Hard Por- 



celain, emanating originally from the East, the paste of 
which consists exclusively of Kaolin, a white clay found in 
its natural state in the ground, and which like all clays em- 
ployed in ceramics, is merely ground up, washed, etc. ; and 
Artificial Porcelain, known under the name of Soft Porcelain. 
Deeper research, greater labor, and more scientific knowledge 
were obviously required to discover this latter kind of porce- 
lain than to produce the hard porcelain composed of substances 
employed in the forms in which they occur in nature. It was 
in all probability to Louis Poterat, sieur de Saint-Etienne, a 
potter of Rouen, whose name, though generally so little 
known, deserves a prominent place in the annals of French 
manufacturers, that France owed the discovery of the composi- 
tion of that beautful porcelain which occupies the highest 
position in the history of European ceramics. 

This new porcelain in color of a soft, warm, milky white, 
very translucent, well executed, and carefully and tastefully 
decorated in a style essentially French, or ornamented with 
colored designs in imitation of old Chinese or Japanese ware, 
met with great success at a time when France was producing 
only faiences of a somewhat heavy type, and speedily became 
fashionable. Not for long did Saint Cloud monopolize the 
manufacture of this new ware ; either, as happened a few 
years later in the case of the Meissen (Dresden) porcelain, 
dishonest workmen communicated the secret of its composi- 
to a rival factory, or some clever ceramists sought and found 
in their turn that which others had discovered before them. 

The factory established under the management of Bottger 
found means with the Kaolin discovered in 1709 at Aue, to 
produce true porcelain which more nearly approached the 
Oriental ware than that manufactured in France. The factory 
established at Meissen, developed rapidly and the porcelain 
of Saxony (Dresden porcelain) soon became so fashionable in 
Europe that France, which up to that moment had occupied 
the first place in all industries relating to objects of virtu, 
was constrained to acknowledge the incontestable superiority 
of the Meissen ware. 

[Continued in our next number, when the interesting features and success 
of the Soft Porcelain of Sevres will be fully given.] 




Manufacture Roy ale de la P 



*• ** 




The Grueby pottery is made from designs by Mr. George 
Prentiss Kendrick, who has aimed to use the glazes and 
enamels discovered by Mr. Grueby on forms both useful and 
decorative. It has, in addition to full, rich glazes of great 
brilliancy, a dull or lustreless glaze, which is an enamel not 
produced by acid or sand blast, and which is unique to this 
ware ; old Korean pottery previously possessing it. Mr. 
Grueby has also succeeded in obtaining a remarkable crackle 
which is equal to that- of the best old Chinese and Japanese 
crackles. The glaze is strong and fine, and the crackle does 
not penetrate to the clay. The gamut of color is large ; the 
greens are especially soft and rich, while there are also golden 
yellow and russet. Both in conception and design in color, 
each piece of the Grueby ware is individual and of unusual 
merit, and deserves to take a prominent place among the best 
known wares. — Baltimore News, 



4 2 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



The 

Galleries 



VISITOR IN NEW YORK. 

Durand-Ruel has the "Ten Painters" exhibi- 
tion now on. There are only nine this year, but 
the exhibit was most individual and inspiring. 
Robert Reid had three fine decorative panels in the blues he 
so much affects. They are entitled "Azalea," "Carina" and 
" Fleur de Lis," and are studies of the same woman in dif- 
ferent surroundings and lights. As the names suggest, one 
had a back ground of Azaleas, one holds a scarlet Carina in 
her hand, and one crouches down over a bed of Fleur de Lis. 
The bluish purple tone runs throughout. Twachtman has 
some landscapes that bring out all the latent poetry in one's 
soul, the spring landscape and the "Brook" have a delightfully 
hazy and suggestive feeling. Benson's "Morning in the 
Wood" is a study of two children in the shifting rays of sun- 
light through the trees; the outdoor color is charmingly true 
to nature. Childe Hassam contributes "Morning Mist," a 
mysterious effect of nude figures in the mist by the water 
side. 

© © e 

The If you inquire you will be told that the Amer- 

•c ft-,- i can artists' exhibition is poor this year. You 

Exhibitions .... . , , * , , ., . . 

will be told the same about any large exhibition 

any year, but do not let it trouble you. If you look around 

you will find plenty to learn and to admire. You must expect 

that out of so many pictures, few will be for the generation 

to come. 

It is surprising how much of the best figure work is done 
by women. It is especially noticeable in this exhibition, 
Cecelia Beaux, Rosina Emmet Sherwood, Lydia Emmet, Mary 
MaeMonnies compare more than favorably with the men 
and there are many not exhibiting this year who rank with 
the best. 

Every one is asking "What do you think of Dagnan 
Bouveret's 'Disciples at Emmaus ' "; the artists for technical 
reasons, the public from religious sentiment as to the propriety 
of the artist introducing himself and family in the picture. 
The visitor not being capable of settling the disputes will 
keep out of trouble by not discussing them. Sargent and 
Whistler contribute to the exhibition, but the visitor will 
confine herself to the pictures which give suggestions to the 
Decorator. Albert Herter has a fine study of color by fire 
light and twilight. His " Eve of St. Agnes" is most remark, 
able for the fine color in the woman's red gown on which the 
firelight plays, and the stained glass window behind in 
rich blues and greens with daylight showing 
through and fire light reflected on it. The 
black leaded effect is fine from a decorative 
stand point. This effect would be fine in 
china decoration, especially with lustres. 

Charles C. Curran has a study of White 
Turkeys which are interesting from the treat- 
ment of white in the sunlight, yellowish green 
in the shadow and violet in the half tones. 
In the treatment of white in a subdued light 
usually the half tones are bluish, the broad 
shadows greenish and the deepest touches 
violet. 

There was also a panel picture of moon- 
light on white lilies and a lightly draped figure 
that suggests an interesting treatment for a 
vase. 



There were many most interesting miniatures, but those 
of Laura Hills of Boston, and Lucia Fairchild Fuller of New 
York were by far the best. 

Miss Hills uses this year a great deal of pink in back- 
grounds. It would be a doubtful experiment for the beginner 
as would also her bold use of opaque white. Two interesting 
ivou'es are called respectively "The Gold Fish" and "St. 
Elizabeth." 

" The Gold Fish" is a girl with long red hair and pink 
and yellow drapery blown by the wind against a wavy back- 
ground of dark green and blue. The whole movement suggests 
the motion of water. The red hair blends softly into the 
flesh. "St. Elizabeth" is a sweet girl's head with a gold leaf 
halo about it. It is mounted on a tall and slender old brass 
standard and suggests a picture in a clock. 

The two most interesting ivories of Miss Fuller are "The 
Girl with a Hand Glass." A girl in a Japanese morning gown 
with hand glass, against a flat background effect with Japanese 
panel on the wall, and the "Girl Drying Her Foot." This 
last is exquisite. The girl is nude, leaning on a dainty white 
chair with pink brocade stripes, and drying herself after her 
morning bath. The figure is well drawn, the flesh delicate, 
the color clear. Note that the pink satin was violet in shade, 
yellowish in high lights and pink only in half-tones. 

Why do our decorators use landscapes so little for dec- 
oration? Or why do they not paint them on panels for fram- 
ing. There is no reason why as good and artistic work could 
not be executed this way as in oils or watercolor. Has any 
subscriber anything to say on this subject? The Society of 
Landscape Painters has just had its spring exhibition. The 
work of twelve men, each telling his story of nature in his 
own way. Have you no story to tell? If you have you can 
tell it in a much more enduring way on porcelain. Paint on 
panels for framing. Study the varied phases of nature and 
tell some newly discovered truth in a new way. Two men 
especially of this society have a most interesting way of seeing 
nature, Charles H. Davis of Mystic, Connecticut; and George 
H. Bogert of New York city. 

Mr. Davis sees many sides to nature and paints his 
story in a telling way ; his atmospheric effects are wonderfully 
fine. His work to the visitor's mind was the best in the exhi- 
bition. Mr. Bogart had some stunning little things in black 
frames, one especially "Sunset, Paris Plage," the sun setting 
on the beach. By-the-bye, black frames are very effective for 
porcelain panels. 





«CBB» 



^ JULY:MDCCCXC1X 



Price 35c. Yearly Subscription $3.50 ([ 






C0NTRIBUT0R5 

MRS. ADELAIDE ALSOP-ROBINEAU 

MR. CHARLES VOLKMAR j» * * 

MISS MARY CHASE PERRY ji * * 

MRS. ANNA B. LEONARD * ^ * 

MRS. MARY ALLEY NEAL ^ ^ j* 

MR. A. G. MARSHALL * - * * jt 

MISS SARA B. VILAS j» * & # 

MR. F. B. AULICH ^ j» ^ ^ j» 

MRS. K. E. CHERRY j* ^ ^ ".* ^ 



ftJ 



"fl 2TOITKLY: 

THE: 



<S 





Copyrighted 1S99 by the Keramic Studio Publishing Co., Syracus. 



d New York 




:riBER: 



[ The entire contents of this Magazine are cohered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted %ithout special permission. ] 

CONTENTS FOR JULY, 1899 



Editorial Notes, 

Exhibition National League of Mineral Painters, 

Decoration for Plate, . 

Historic Ornament (Greek) 

Plate Border adapted from the Persian, 

Pansies and Treatment. 

League Notes, Club News, In the Studios, 

Visitor in Chicago, 

Cup and Saucer, 

Plate Design and Treatment, 

After Persian Motives, 

Keramic versus Ceramic, 

A Dandelion Study and Treatment, 

Chaplin Figure (Continued), 

Treatment for Chocolate Pot ( Supplement), 

Hints on Underglaze ( Continued from May Number ), 

Lamp with Glass Globe and Treatment, 

For Beginners, 

Delft Landscapes, 

Delft Landscape Decoration for Cup and Saucer, 

Answers to Correspondents, 

Supplement — Chocolate Pot, 





PAGE 


. 


43 


. 


4445 


K, E. Cherry f 


46 


(Adelaide Alsop-Robinea.it, 


47-49 


Sara B. Vilas, 


50 


K <B. Aulich, 


50-51 


. 


52-53 


. 


53 


(Anna B. Leonard, 


54 


<A. G. Marshall, 


54-55 


<A. G. Marshall, 


55 


Fitzgerald Ttsdall, 


56 


Mary Chase c Perry, 


56-57 


(Adelaide Alsop-Robineau, 


58 


(Anna B. Leonard, 


58 


Charles L. < Volkmar, 


59 


Mary Alley Neal, 


60-61 


. 


61-62 


Adelaide Alsop- c Rpbineau, 


62 


Adelaide Alsop- c Rpbineau, 


63 


, , 


64 



Anna B, Leonard, 



Vol. I, No. 3 



NEW YORK AND SYRACUSE 



July 1599 




HIS is the time of year that most keramic 
workers take their vacation — the time 
when pupils drop off, and studios have a 
more or less deserted appearance. To 
those who must make every minute 
count, it should be the time to study nature, the time to 
collect new ideas for the winter's work, the time to read and 
study the history of porcelain and pottery as well as design- 
ing. The KERAMIC STUDIO will give the names of helpful 
books to study, which will not only improve one's work, but 
make the old porcelains more enjoyable, inasmuch as they are 
symbolic; every ornament and figure meaning something. 
During the past few years we have had many valuable collec- 
tions brought to America, and to appreciate them requires 
study; not only the study of form and ornament, but the 
harmony and combination of color, and the glazes. All this 
knowledge can be stored for the winter's use, when it can be 
given to pupils, creating a love for keramics and the desire to 
possess further knowledge. It is impossible to be a success- 
ful keramist unless there is that love for every detail of the 
work, either in overglaze or underglaze. 

In visiting an old shop the other day, the representative 
of the KERAMIC Studio came across a few pieces of interest- 
ing pottery, made by an old Turk. The decorations were 
under the glaze, all Persian motives, covered with the most 
transparent glaze, which made the colors seem almost like the 
transparent enamels. The glaze, apparently, was thin, but it 
had the most lustrous appearance. One could see how the 
old man loved his work, and the infinite pains he had taken 
with every piece. His work will live. By studying these 
artistic things, which in themselves represent much thought 
and care, we will realize that to paint six plates during the 
morning is not conducive to the cultivation of the beautiful 

in keramic art. 

4, 

Among the leading scientific works on the nature of por- 
celain and its chemistry, are the "Traite des Arts Ceramiques" 
by M. A. Bronguiart, Paris, 1844; and "La Porcelaine" by M. 
Georges Vogt, Directeur de Sevres, a thoroughly technical 
work on both European and Chinese porcelain ; "History of 
Pottery and Porcelain in the 15th, 16th, 17th and 18th Cen- 
turies," by Joseph Marryat, London, 1868; The works of M. 
A. Jacquemart, Paris, 1862 and 1873. 
* 

The round medallions after Persian motives, by A. G. 
Marshall, shown on page 55, would make a striking decor- 
ation used as bosses around the top of a vase in underglaze, 
with a monochrome effect. It has also been suggested 
that they would make unique butter dishes in blue or green 
and white. 

We are pleased to hear from Miss Louisa M. Powe, 
teacher of art at Wells College, Aurora, N. Y., that she is to 
spend the summer in Europe visiting Art Galleries and study- 



ing. As she is interested in keramic art, we are hoping for 
some letters from her which will be of interest to our readers. 

4 

The many friends of Miss Bedell will be shocked to hear 
of her death. Being for a number of years with the Glennys 
of Buffalo, and for a year with the Fry Art Company of New 
York, her acquaintance with the decorators all over the 
country was extensive. Although not a practical decorator, 
her help and encouragement to all, made her known and loved 
throughout the country. It will indeed be hard to fill her 
place. 

Miss Jeanne M. Stewart, the artist who has designed our 
August supplement, will spend the rest of the summer in 
California, making designs of fruits and flowers, returning in 
October to her studio, 741 Marshall Field Building, Chicago. 
We hope to hear more from this energetic and talented young 
artist. 

4 

A design by Henrietta Barclay Wright of Chicago will 
be one of the features of our August number. 

An exhibition of the work of members of the New York 
Society of Keramic Art, destined for the Chicago exhibition 
of the National League of Mineral Painters was held in the 
Banquet Room of the Waldorf-Astoria, May 16th. Friends 
only were invited, but the rooms were well filled and all 
seemed pleased with the work shown. Mr. Volkmar had a 
fine exhibit of under-glaze ware. Some of the colors sug- 
gested the old Chinese work, and the modeled forms were 
simple and artistic. Mrs. Andreson had some interesting 
pieces in under-glaze decoration. Mrs. Priestman showed 
some fine specimens of lustre color work, the large spaces 
being unusually smooth and free from imperfections. Mr. 
Marshal Fry gave us a treat in the way of decoration by 
showing some pieces in browns that fairly rivalled the famous 
Rookwood pottery. The round vase, with pepper plant deco- 
ration, was an exceedingly satisfying harmony in yellows and 
browns. The vase with the Egyptian figure was a new de- 
parture and a good one — the figure decorated one side only, 
and the form and drapery conformed well to the shape of the 
vase. Some interesting pieces in blue and white were also 
shown. Miss Maude Mason had a small but choice exhibit, 
her vase in geraniums being especially fine. Miss Bessie 
Mason showed a number of pieces richly ornamented with 
enamels and gold in oriental designs — her scarlet enamel was 
especially good. Mrs. Mary Alley Neal, Miss Marquard and 
Miss Genevieve Leonard also were well represented. Mrs. 
Anna B. Leonard's exhibit was of conventional designs in 
table-ware in gold and enamels. Mrs. Adelaide Alsop-Rob- 
ineau's exhibit was of lustres. We were pleased to meet Miss 
Glass, of Chicago, who is president of the Chicago Club, and 
who expressed herself as much pleased with the New York 
Club's selection for the exhibition. 



44 



KERAMIC STUDIO 





HE recent exhibition at the Chicago Art 
Institute, of the National League of 
Mineral Painters, was by far the most 
interesting that the League has given. 
It was larger, for one reason, more clubs 
being represented, and there was a decided improvement and 
advancement in the work of all the clubs. Although much 
of the work was badly placed, and the white drapery in the 
cases marred the general appearance of the exhibition, still it 
was the most dignified exhibition the League has given. 

Each club had its own jury before the work was sent to 
Chicago, and there was another jury from the Art Institute to 
pass upon everything that was brought there. Criticisms were 
conscientiously given, and many pieces rejected— not one club 
escaped — so all the more reason have the members to con- 
gratulate themselves that the exhibition was so large and that 
a standard has been established. Most of the work rejected 
was figure painting. We are happy to state this, for it shows 
the folly of trying to do pretentious figure painting, without 
the necessary drilling and training in drawing. 

The exhibition was held in the Art Institute, with paint- 
ings of old masters upon the wall, as well as those from 
modern painters, who have spent years and years in the study 
and drawing of the human form. Is it not presumptuous for 
a student, who has had a dozen or two lessons, to bring work, 
mere copies at that, which is faulty in every respect, and ask 
for recognition in that same room ? This will teach a lesson 
that is well worth consideration before sending work to Paris. 
The jury then will draw the line a little closer, and nothing 
but the best and choicest will be selected. This is the greatest 
step towards advancement that the League has yet made. 

We would say also, that the extremely large pieces are 
most difficult to'handle, there being greater danger of break- 
ing. They do not seem to attract the eye any more than 
smaller pieces, and certainly the chance of sale is smaller. At 
this exhibition we have noticed that the smaller pieces seem 
to attract the most attention, and we wondered if it was be- 
cause the effect of the zvhole decoration could be seen better. 
The cases with the dark backgrounds showed the china to 
much better advantage. (These little hints are for the clubs 
contemplating exhibitions.) 

The work of the Chicago Club, with few exceptions, was 
inclined towards the influence of Mr. Aulich — some of it beau- 
tifully painted, and others falling short, of course. Mrs. 
Cross, the former president of the Club had a case filled with 
glass, decorated in different styles. Some of her color effects 
were particularly attractive, especially in the flight of birds. 



Her technique was extremely good in all her raised gold and 
enamel decorations. 

Mr. Aulich's painting and handling of grapes was remark- 
ably fine and his work was enhanced by superb firing (by Miss 
Hatch). Every one knows his roses — they could be recog- 
nized all about the room, or throughout the whole exhibition. 

Mrs. Crane handles flowers well. Her Narcissus vase was 
more like the Fry method, and was extremely well done and 
most beautifully fired. She was fortunate in selling this choice 
piece. The box with yellow pansies was good, the yellows 
being transparent and clean, but it was a great mistake to use 
white enamel on the vase with dandelions, as the decoration 
was soft, resembling underglaze — only these light spots were 
prominent. 

Miss Van Hise shows Mr. Aulich's training and is a most 
clever exponent of his method. 

Miss Phillips exhibited a charming teapot in Chinese de- 
sign, of green and pink enamel, and her cups and saucers were 
all extremely attractive both in design and technique. 

Mrs. Frazee exhibited a case full of interesting work, both 
in conventional design and figure work. Her two small figure 
vases — one in shades of green and the other in dull grey blues 
and violet were artistic, and closely resembled the work from 
the Doulton works. Her conventional work was particularly 
attractive, both in design and execution. The Arabian teapot 
was one of the best pieces in the room. It was an intricate 
mingling of blue, green, dark blue, and brown, the whole being 
restful and charming. 

Miss Topping, whose case was next, displayed only con- 
ventional decorations, and one could not but feel the fascina- 
tion of it, and the intense desire to possess these beautiful 
pieces. There was a delightful bit of color in a little red vase 
— just the scarlet tone, with a simple Chinese design in gold 
forming a band -just that one spot of vivid red looked well in 
the case of Oriental designs. Her rose jar, Chinese motif, was 
extremely well executed, as also was the chafing dish bowl, 
although much more simple in design. The rose jar in Persian 
motif was in soft greys, violet, blues and green. Her case con- 
tained only choice things showing study and perseverance, 
with results extremely satisfactory and quiet. 

Carolyn D. Tyler exhibited a case of interesting minia- 
tures on porcelain, and Miss Huerman's portrait of a lad with 
straw hat was remarkably well executed, and looks as if it 
must be a speaking likeness. 

Mrs. McCreery showed a variety of styles of decoration. 
A small incense burner in Oriental design was clever, but the 
decoration of the tall jar was not particularly well adapted to 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



4* 



the shape, besides a little confusion of motifs, but the Chinese 
bowl was very good indeed, and very well placed. 

Miss Anna Armstrong's work shows Mr. Fry's influence. 
Her pine cones were particularly well executed. Miss Arm- 
strong's water color studies for china at the Central Art Asso- 
ciation rooms were exceedingly clever and will be as useful to 
decorators as the Klein studies. 

Mrs. Clark's palm decoration was most effective and well 
executed. 

Mrs. Des Granges exhibited some charming little plates 
with miniature roses in a simple border. The simplicity was 
very attractive. 

Miss Iglehart shows versatility in her work. The Egyp- 
tian plate was well executed, and her etching on glass is very 
clever. She has developed a wonderful ruby red on her glass 
work, and the gold which she makes for her glass is very rich 
in color, and all her work is well fired. 

The exhibit from the New York Club has been partially 
described in another article. It showed more individuality 
than any other Club, the work of Mr. Fry, Miss Wright, Miss 
Mason, Mrs. Robineau and Mrs. Priestman all showing an 
individual style. 

Miss Wright's work, of which the New York Society is 
justly proud, was badly placed and not with the rest of the 
Club. While she, Mr. Fry and Miss Mason decorate upon the 
same lines, their work is entirely distinct and separate, show- 
ing the individual handling. 

Mr. Fry's work was afterwards placed in a case by itself 
and showed to much better advantage. It is a great mistake 
to exhibit the work of that style in the same case with con- 
ventional work, or the lustres. His pine cone decoration is 
wonderful. The harmony of the browns will always be a de- 
light to the possessor. 

Miss Mason's geranium vase was a gem and was much 
admired, as well as her sister's, Miss E. Mason's, little tea-set 
in blue, with the design in colored enamels. 

Mrs. Priestman is successful in lustres, and her work 
showed individuality, and was well fired. 

A pitcher by Mrs. Neal in lustre colors was generally 
liked. 

A little jar in bronze and green and white enamel by Miss 
Marquard was extremely attractive, both in design and execu- 
tion — very quiet in color and extremely restful to the eye. 

Miss Emilie Adams made a fine exhibit of figure paint- 
ing, all painted on tiles, framed and hung upon the walls. Her 
handling is admirable, and her flesh tones delightful. We 
mention specially the "Monk" after Griitzner, "Cupid" after 
Bouguereau, and the "Marguerite." 

Mrs. Andresen showed some underglaze work, which she 
fired in her overglaze kilns, and which caused much interest. 

Mrs. Frank Baiseley of Brooklyn had an interesting vase, 
jonquils, and Miss Montfort's plates in violets and white 
enamel were extremely dainty and showed her individuality 
in handling that especial flower. 

Mrs. Osgood, the President of the League, exhibited some 
green plates that were refreshing in color, the rims being a 
delicate fresh green, with a suggestive decorative effect run- 
ning inside, of delicate ferns. Her narcissus vase in silver 
mountings was very harmonious in color and was well painted 
and fired. 

Frank Muni displays unusual talent and technique in his 
enamel work. The belt buckle, carried out in the finest paste, 
gold and enamels, was one of the best things shown. 

Miss Ida M. Miller exhibited five steins with Indian heads 



for decoration. The background being dark, the whole effect 
was that of underglaze. The North American Indian seems 
very popular just now in the keramic world. The Rookwood 
Pottery is, perhaps, responsible for this style of decoration. 
{"Brush and Pencil" is publishing some fine Indian studies.) 

Mrs. M. Austin Smith exhibited a very handsome punch 
bowl, but the shade of pink inside was not in harmony with 
the exterior decoration, which was a continuous decoration of 
figures, with very dark background. The etched gold border 
inside was very good, if the decoration had only stopped there. 

Miss Mary Taylor's vase, with suggestion of a white pea- 
cock was clever, so also her vase with decorative figure. 

Miss Henrietta Barclay Wright shows some artistic pieces 
which we will describe from time to time, as she will be one 
of the contributors for the KERAMIC STUDIO. Her yellow 
wild roses are especially well handled, being so clear and trans- 
parent and yet blending so softly with the brown and yellow 
background. Her geraniums were glowing in color, and were 
extremely well painted. 

Mr. Volkmar's single color underglaze called forth immense 
admiration. His peachblow or pink is certainly remarkable, 
as well as the greys and greens. The New York Society is 
very proud of Mr. Volkmar. 

The Louisville Club exhibited a few choice pieces, some 
admirable work from Miss Alice Jones, steins from Mrs. Grant, 
with figure decorations. 

Mrs. Le Tourneux of the California Club exhibited a most 
charming bonbonniere in Persian motive, light blue, dark blue, 
white enamel and gold. 

Mrs. Culp handled double violets delightfully on a square 
tile, framed in olive wood. 

Mrs. Perley sent a large lamp of underglaze blue, with 
medallion in figures and a very elaborate all-over design in 
raised gold, very handsomely modeled. Mrs. Roberts' lustre 
kettle was good in color and well fired. 

The Denver Pottery Club exhibit was small but choice. 
Miss Failing's enamel work was good, and the little Colorado 
landscapes used in small medallions in her decorations were 
charmingly painted. Miss Parks' raised gold was well done, 
so also was that by Miss Parfet. Mrs. Hubbard's portraits of 
George and Martha Washington in monochrome were clever. 

The Detroit work showed, more or less, the influence of 
the two decorators, Mr. Bischoff and Mr. Leykauf. Very 
little, if any, conventional work was shown. Miss Berwick 
had some interesting copies of the Dresden, and made some 
sales of it. There is always something attractive about the 
Dresden. 

Miss Chandler had a large exhibit. Her thistles were 
well handled, so also the yellow roses. 

Mrs. Nasmyth's cup and saucer with violets, with gold 
background, was decorative and showed individuality. 

Mr. Bischoff's work delighted his many admirers. There 
was tremendous technique in his jonquils and the hyacinths. 
His backgrounds were generally dark, and the design more 
simple in effect than formerly. 

It would give us pleasure to mention each one, but in so 
large an exhibit that is impossible. 

Altogether, the whole exhibit of the League was interest- 
ing, and our criticism is only one point of view. Mrs. Osgood 
and Miss Perry will each give her point of view. The work- 
is undoubtedly gaining and improving. We must work yet 
harder for the Paris exhibition. Many of these things will 
surely be sent. " We feel eager to do something better," is 
the general expression. 



4 6 



KERAMC STUDIO 




DECORATION FOR PLATE-K. E. CHERRY 



CAREFULLY trace in the design with India ink, then dust 
the edge with Persian Green. With a little cotton on a 
brush handle wipe out the color where the roses and scrolls 
are to be modeled in for the second firing. Then fire. 

The paste and painted roses are done after the first firing 
of the plate. The roses are laid in with Pompadour, leaves 
of Moss Green, Brown Green and Shading Green, shadow 



leaves are washed in a moist back-ground. For the back- 
ground use Lemon Yellow, Blood Red, Violet No. 2 and 
Copenhagen Blue. In touching up the roses for the second 
firing (3d of the plate) use Rose ; strengthen the leaves, accent 
the stems with a touch of Blood Red. 

The jewels are made of enamel colored with Prussian 
Green and put on for the third firing. 



KERAMC STUDIO 



47 






3 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT— GREEK 

REEK art originally was a continuation of Egyptian tradition modified by 

Assyrian and Phoenician influences. The Greeks being an artistic and 

original people produced an ideal and individual style which has retained 

its superiority for pure beauty of line. 

Greek art has greater liberty and grace than the Egyptian, being unrestrained by 

religious laws, but for the same reason it is wanting in the charm of symbolism. It is 

cold— almost without soul, but the principles of decoration were thoroughly artistic and 

always kept within the bounds of good taste. 

The decorative feeling is always simple; ornament subordinate to figures decora- 
tively used. Everything clearly conventional when not purely ideal. The decorations 
are inspired by nature but free from servile imitation of details. 

The conventional rendering of plants and flower is rather far removed from the 
natural types, the honeysuckle ornament being the easiest to recognize. 

Symmetry and regularity are leading characteristics. The Greeks observed nature, 
did not copy, but worked on the same lines, i. e.: radiation from parent stem, propor- 
tionate distribution over areas, tangential curvature of lines. Each leaf was done with 
a single stroke. It shows a high state of art — that there should be so many artists 
with so unerring a touch. We can hardly copy with the same happy result, lacking the 
technical skill. 

M. Jacquemart says of their method of conventionalizing everything: " Even the 
white waves of the sea, so often frayed by the wind, seeming essentially variable and 
capricious, are brought under the yoke of ornamental regularity. They have trans 
formed them into elegant Vitruvian scrolls which the ancients had the sense to place 
always at the base of goblets, whilst among us, through ignorance of their signification, 
they are frequently placed where they are perfectly meaningless." 

The ornamental forms used are Cltaplets and Egg Mouldings (Nos. 2 and la), 

Ogees (No. 8). These are formed from the 
parts and leaves of water plants. The lower 
design, No. 8, is what is called frequently 
the " egg and dart " pattern. Trelliscd 
mouldings (No, 3), Wave lines (No. 4) which 
are used always at the base of decorations 
and represent the waves of the sea. Two 
of these designs have combined with the 
wave line the conventional honeysuckle orna- 
ment. Meanders or frets (No. 5). These 
are variations of the familiar Greek " square 
scroll." Cable mouldings (No. 6), Chan- 
nelliugs (No. 7), Palmettos (No. 10) formed 
from different plants, especially the Acan- 
thus leaf which decorates the Corinthian 
capital, and Bueraues (No. 1 band 9) which 
were originally suggested by the animal 
sacrifices, when the victims were wreathed 
and garlanded. 

Figures in Silhouette (Nos. 11). We 
have given also some pottery forms as 
suggestions to modelers. There were few 
colors — black, red, white, 'ochre — a few re- 
mains of decorations seem to indicate that gold had been used sparingly — brown 
and two shades of green and blue. 




lym'M'i^Mi&si^i 




48 



KERAMIC STUDIO 





KERAMIC STUDIO 



j9UAfmmk^m m 




Application to 
Modern 
Design 



Any of these little borders can be used 
just as they are, or working on the same lines 
use modern ornaments. To show what can 
be done in this way we have a plate, cup and 
saucer border made by a pupil, the first half 
of design using the actual Greek ornament, the second half, 
substituting a modern design on the same line. 
Any desired color scheme can be used for the 
modern application, but the purely Greek de- 
sign should be treated in Greek colors. 

We have also a vase decorated according 
to Greek methods, the ornaments being mod- 
ernized. We suggest the following as an 
effective treatment- for the vase design. 

Color Scheme: Blue, celedon or green, 
and gold. Figures painted in natural colors 
and outlined with fine black lines, use some 
ochre and brown in draperies where the gold 
background should show through, the string of 
pearls in white enamel, a touch of scarlet in 
diamond shape ornament and "tear drop" 
pendants, also in centre of ornament at the 
top of the vase. The scarf drapery in white 
outlined in gold. Handles, gold. A banding 
wheel would aid materially on all designs made 
in Greek methods as so many horizontal lines 
are used. 

We have been hoping that some of our 
readers would muster the courage to try some 
designing from the motifs in these articles, but 
as yet, except from pupils, none have been re- 
ceived. We look forward to the time when 
the editors and subscribers will work together 
like teacher and pupils and so bring out the 
best in both. 

GREEK PLATE AND CUP AND SAUCER 

Sara B. Vilas 
GREEK DESIGN. 

First section of border (egg and dart pattern): Dark part 
of design, Red; light part, Gold, outlined in Black. 

Second section: Ground, Cafe an lait; ox heads, flat 
Gold, outlined in Black; ribbons, Dull Blue, outlined in 
Black, medallions to match upper border ; garlands of fruit, 
Brown, outlined in Black. 

Third section: Dull Blue ground; chaplct in Gold, out- 
lined in Black. 

APPLICATION TO MODERN DESIGN. 

First section: Ground, Turquoise Green; jewels of white 
enamels, the darts White Flat and outlined in Gold. 

Second section: Ground, a delicate Cream Tint; ribbons 
in Turquoise Green; garlands modeled in paste or enamel, 
ornament of raised Gold with Turquoise jewel. 

Third section : Turquoise Green ground and White jewels. 




*° 



KERAMC STUDIO 




PLATE BORDER ADAPTED FROM THE PERSIAN-SARA B. VILAS 



TREATMENT FOR PLATE BORDER 

Sara />. Vilas 

No. I. Ground work, Gold. Center of medallions, Dull 
Red. Edges of medallions and lettering in centers. Deep 
Yellow. Ground of medallion borders, Green. The little 
flowers, Violet outlined in Gold. Edges of three cornered 
ornament, Orange. Ground work, Turquoise Blue. Flower, 
Violet outlined in Gold. Oval ornament, Deep Yellow. Square 
ornament, Pale Yellow — ground, Violet. The little dots all 
around design in Turquoise enamel. The design would be 
very effective outlined in Black on the Gold ground. 

No. II. Design in Orange, outlined in Black on a Tale 
Yellow ground. Centers of medallions alternately Green and 
Dull Blue with Gold letters outlined in Black. Borders of 
medallions between the edges of design Gold, etched to repre- 
sent rays coming from the center. Flowers, Violet outlined 
in Black. 

Ground of triangular, square and oval ornaments, Violet. 
Flower in Turquoise Blue with Gold outlines. Turquoise or 
White enamel dots around design. 

TREATMENT FOR PANSIES 

F. B. A u lid, 

FOR CHINA COLORS. 
HE accompanying design of Pansies on a fernery can be 



T 



used on a variety of shapes if not too large. 
They can be used on a rich back-ground of Yellow Green 
shaded into a Black Green in the depths. A soft mellow effect 
is obtained by painting the flowers into the moist back-ground 



and lifting out the high lights with a small pointed shader. 

Paint the Pansy on the upper left hand in a light Blue 
Violet, the upper petals darker and the ones on the right in a 
dark velvety Purple and the other in Yellow and Brown. 

The flowers being very effective in coloring use a dull 
Yellowish Green for the leaves. 

Care must be taken to force the design on the middle 
Pansy by finishing it more highly than the rest and have the 
high lights strongest. 

In the second fire use more softening colors and a 
Greenish Violet for the suggestion of ferns. 

In third fire strengthen all the colors which may have 
been destroyed by the firing and put in veins in the centers 
with a fine pointed brush. For this use the Brunswick Black. 

FOR WATER COLORS. 

In copying the design of Pansies in Water Colors leave 
out the shape of the Fernery and extend the back-ground 
over the whole sheet to be painted. 

Some Sap Green with Paynes Grey will make an excellent 
back-ground for the rich velvety Pansies. 

Moisten the paper first with a sponge before applying the 
back-ground and lay in the flowers at once, taking care to pre- 
serve the lights unless you wish to apply Chinese White for 
that purpose. 

Paint the Pansy to the left, a cream White or Yellow, the 
upper two petals a Bluish Violet, and use Burnt Carmine and 
Cobalt Blue for the Dark Pansies, on the right, a little Gam- 
boge in the centers and the veins in neutral tint. 

Lay in everything when moist if possible and put in the 
little finishings and accents when dry. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



V 






V 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




TEAGUE The seventh annual meeting of the Na- 

NOTES tiona ^ League of Mineral Painters was held 

May 24th, in Chicago, under the auspices of 

the Chicago Ceramic Association, at the rooms of the Central 

Art Association, in the F"ine Arts Building. 

Mrs. Worth Osgood, the President of the League, pre- 
sided. The Secretary called the roll of clubs, with the follow- 
ing responses : 

New York, represented by Madame Le Prince, Miss Hor- 
locker, Miss Adams and Mrs. Leonard. 

Chicago Ceramic Association, Mrs. Cross and Mrs. 
Bradwell. 

Mineral Art League of Boston, no delegate, but Madame 
Le Prince was appointed. 

Wisconsin Club, Mrs. Hughes. 

Brooklyn League of Mineral Painters, Miss Montfort and 
Mrs. Baisley. 

Detroit Keramic Club, Miss Perry. 

Jersey City, Madame Le Prince, proxy. 

Louisville Keramic Club, Mrs. Cassiday. 

Bridgeport Club, Miss Montfort, proxy. 

Columbus Club, Miss Montfort, proxy. 

Providence, Madame Le Prince, proxy. 

Denver Pottery Club, Mrs. Leonard appointed. 

California Keramic Club, Mrs. Leonard, proxy. 

The minutes of the last annual meeting were read and 
accepted. The report of Recording Secretary Miss Ida John- 
son was read by Mrs. Anna B. Leonard. Miss Johnson urges 
each club to do its part of the League's work for the coming 
year, to answer all communications promptly, and to co- 
operate with the Advisory Board or the President, so that the 
enormous business for the coming year may be carried on 
with greater speed and facility. Her report was listened to 
with interest and accepted. 

The Treasurer's (Mrs. Baisley's) report was read, em- 
bracing all the financial dealings of the year. The report 
comprised all details, and was comprehensive and instructive, 
and showed the League in fine financial condition. She sug- 
gested that each club send reports of its exhibition expenses, 
so that comparisons may be made, and that the results may 
benefit other clubs. It is very necessary, too, for clubs to keep 
the Treasurer posted regarding the correct addresses of its 
members. 

Report of Corresponding Secretary, Miss Leta Horlocker, 
was read and accepted. 

Nominations were then in order for the Advisory Board. 
The following members were elected: Miss Horlocker, Mrs. 
Priestman, Miss Montfort, Miss Fairbanks, Mrs. Doremus and 
Mrs. Leonard. Warm vote of thanks given to all the officers, 
for the past year's work. Communications from outside clubs 
were read, showing the League's aid and influence. 

Mrs. Frackelton of Milwaukee, being the representative 



of local Federation of Clubs, extended to the League an in- 
vitation to exhibit next year in Milwaukee, at the Biennial 
Federation of clubs. It was decided to leave the invitation 
for the Advisory Board to act upon. 

The Duquesne Club of Pittsburg, was nominated for 
membership by Mrs. Cross, vouched for by Madame Le Prince 
and Mrs. Osgood, and unanimously elected to membership. 

In view of the enormous correspondence necessary for the 
business of the Paris Exposition, it was moved and seconded 
that an Assistant Secretary should be appointed by the Pres- 
ident, to serve both the President and the Corresponding Sec- 
retary. Meeting adjourned. 

Keramic Congress, morning of May 25th. Address of 
welcome by Mrs. Cross, President of Chicago Ceramic Asso- 
ciation. Address of welcome by Mr. James Lane Allen, 
President of Central Association. Paper from Mrs. Wagner 
of Detroit, read by Miss Perry, on " Federation of Clubs." 
Paper by Mrs. Kingsley of Bridgeport, Conn., on " League 
Course of Study." 

Morning of May 26th. Mrs. Osgood presiding, meeting 
was called to order. Address was given by Mrs. T. Vernette 
Morse, editor of The Arts for America, the subject being, 
" Skeletons in the Professional China Closet." After she had 
finished this most interesting paper, a vote of thanks was ex- 
tended to her. Mr. Gates, the President of the American 
Terra Cotta and Ceramic Co., addressed the meeting, carrying 
his audience with enthusiasm. He showed some interesting 
specimens of terra cotta vases, with the effect of gold running 
through the glaze. Vote of thanks given to Mr. Gates for his 
interesting talk, and he was asked to continue. Vote of thanks 
was given to the Atlan Club of Chicago, for their hospitality in 
the artistic reception given to the League at the workshop of 
Mrs. Koehler and Miss Waite. 

Morning of Saturday, May 27th. The meeting called to 
order by Mrs. Osgood. A most interesting paper by Mr. 
Charles F. Binns was read, the subject being. "The Use of 
American Wares by American Ceramic Decorators." (The 
paper will be published in the August issue of the KERAMIC 
STUDIO.) Many were present to hear it and were disappointed 
in not meeting Mr. Binns personally, as he made many friends in 
Chicago during the World's Fair, and at that time represented 
the Royal Worcester manufactory of England. A vote of 
thanks was given to Mr. Binns, with regrets for his absence. 

Then the meeting was addressed by Mr. Cameron, with a 
view of taking the entire League exhibit out to Omaha, for 
the Greater America Exposition, which opens July 1st. A 
committee of delegates from New York, Chicago and Detroit 
was appointed, with Mrs. Cross as chairman, to attend to all 
business pertaining to the exposition. The committee was 
assured by Miss Butterfield that the exhibit will be made in 
the Fine Arts building of Omaha. A draft of letter proposed 
by Mr. Cameron, and submitted to committee. This was de- 
cided to be typewritten and sent to each individual member 
of the League to gain permission to send work to Omaha. 
(The responses June 3d showed that an exhibit would be sent 
from each club.) 

Saturday afternoon, May 27th. Lecture by Mr. Hasburg 
at the Art Institute illustrating the mixture and making of 
glass, grinding, mixing and firing of colors, in kilns specially 
prepared for the occasion. 

Morning of May 29th. Meeting called to order by Mrs. 
Osgood, extending hearty welcome to all strangers, saying the 
meeting was open to all. The League course of study was 
then taken under consideration, and plans discussed to make 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



V 



it more generally used, either in part or whole. Mrs. Hughes, 
for the Wisconsin Club, expressed pleasure and satisfaction 
regarding the course of study, saying it had been helpful to 
them all. Discussions regarding designs for a government 
table service (which is included in the next year's course of 
study) were then in order. Members are advised to communi- 
cate with Mrs. L. Vance Phillips (after September) for informa- 
tion upon this subject, Mrs. Phillips being Chairman of the 
Educational Committee. 

The business of Paris Exposition was taken up. Space 
was applied for a year ago, and Mr. Peck is in sympathy 
with us, everything is satisfactory and an official announce- 
ment will soon be made concerning arrangements, etc. Com- 
mittees on Transportation and Freight, one in the East and 
one in the West, will be made. 

Moved by Mrs. Cross, and seconded by Miss Horlocker, 
that the KERAMIC STUDIO be made the official organ for the 
League's business during the coming year for the Paris Expo- 
sition, unanimously carried. A proposition was made by Miss 
Iglehart and afterwards put in the form of a motion by Mrs. 
Cross, seconded by Mrs. Glass, and carried : 

That a paper should be drawn up, securing signatures of 
the teachers visiting the city as well as Chicago teachers, 
agreeing that lessons in keramic work be given by the term 
and to be paid for in advance, same as for music and other art 
studies, to insure better and more earnest work, as well as pro- 
tection to the teachers. 

[We would be glad to hear the result of this movement.— ED.] 
Miss Iglehart will meet the ladies for discussion upon this 
subject. The Keramic Congress then disbanded, all acknowl- 
edging the benefit of reunion and expressing pleasure over the 
progress of the work of the League. 

f^LUB The Chicago Ceramic Association enter- 

NFWS tamec ' most delightfully at luncheon on Wed- 
nesday, May 24th, the delegates and members 
of the National League of Mineral Painters, in their quarters 
at the Central Art Association rooms. 

JN THE Miss Leta Horlocker exhibited in New 

STUDTOS ^ 01 'k; a pitcher decorated in lustre colors, that 
was extremely attractive. The body of the 
pitcher was light green lustre, with darker green handle, base 
and spout. The decoration was pine cones, modeled in paste, 
covered with silver and green gold. The needles were of 
darker colors irridescent. It was an entirely new idea in that 
style of decoration, and was very charming without being con- 
spicuous, which is so often the case with lustre colors. 

Most of the Chicago teachers were occupied with classes 
in the mornings, but at all times visitors were welcomed. Miss 
Van Hise was preparing a large vase for the first fire, and her 
roses seemed clear and clean and well drawn. Miss Armstrong 
was busy painting a delightful bunch of asters, her inspiration 
being one of Mr. Fry's charming aster vases, which was before 
her. Miss Dibble was occupied with pupils, but took the time 
to show some of her conventional work, also her sketch book, 
which contained charming bits of designs, or combinations of 
color and tones. Miss Topping has the same studio, but was 
not in that day. Miss Clarke was not in, but Miss Bradley, 
was extremely hospitable. Miss Iglehart showed some fine 
water colors and conventional designs, and several pieces of 



her glass which she had just finished etching. Her glass firing 
is most successful. 

VISITORS The Exhibition and Keramic Congress 

T1ST THTrArn att racted a large number of visitors from 
different cities. From New York and Brook- 
lyn there were fifteen: Mrs. Worth Osgood, Madame Le 
Prince, Mrs. Baisley, Misses Horton, Mrs. Cogswell, ! Mrs. 
Fry, Mr. Marshall Fry, Miss Montfort, Miss Mason, Miss Hor- 
locker, Miss Adams, Mrs. L. Vance Phillips and Mrs. Anna B. 
Leonard. 

Western people are noted for their hospitality, but the 
Chicago Club certainly outshone any previous records, by 
their kindness and courtesy to all the visitors whether dele- 
gates or not. After the Congress in the morning there was 
always some entertainment for the afternoon, and all strangers 
will carry away the remembrance of a most charming as well 
as an instructive week, and there seems the most perfect har- 
mony and fellowship among all the members, whether from 
the east or west, north or south. 

From Louisville there were : Mrs. Morton Cassidy (the 
President of the Louisville Club), Mrs. Martin and Mrs. 
Jacqueman. From Indianapolis: Mrs. Wilcox, Mrs. Day, 
(President of the Indianapolis Club), and Mrs. Orendorf. 
From Milwaukee: Mrs. Hughes, Mrs. Frank, Mrs. Frackelton, 
Mrs. Max Hotellette and Mrs. Rintleman. From Detroit: 
Miss Mary Chase Perry and Miss Candler. From Pittsburg: 
Mrs. Chessman and Mrs. Brownlee, besides many others who 
did not register. 

The Chicago Ceramic Association has rooms with the 
Central Art Association in the Fine Arts building, and it was 
there the Congress was held, and it was the rendezvous of all 
the keramists during the week. The art stores, as well as 
Burley's and Fields', extended an invitation to visit them, 
which was accepted and enjoyed very much. There is' a fine 
supply of undecorated china at Burleys', and the most accom- 
dating clerks to show you everything. Their decorated china 
is most beautifully displayed, and the representative of the 
KERAMIC STUDIO was delighted with the variety of hand- 
somely decorated dinner plates. These are well worth study- 
ing. 

To understand another interesting side of the work in 
keramics, she visited the Chicago China Decorating Works, 
where nothing but the ordinary factory work is being done. 
Here were a hundred dozens of things decorated for hotels 
and railroads. Here it is that all the china for the Pullman 
dining cars is stamped. This is entirely a mechanical process, 
and many young girls are employed to carry on the work. 
First a metal plate is made, the letters are filled with the min- 
eral color (in powder) then a printing press takes the impres- 
sion on paper. This paper is placed on the mug, plate, or 
whatever form is used. The paper is taken off, leaving the 
letters stamped on the china. At the time the letters were in 
red, some of them were made black by rubbing a little black 
over the letters with the finger. Then they were fired. The 
kilns were of brick and very large, the men were just then 
stacking them. With the china then used (made in New Jer- 
sey) no stilts were used, one plate rested against another, this 
china having a hard glaze. The fuel used was coal. All this 
was interesting, and how lovely it would be if we could work 
a little faster by hand, yet how very uninteresting it would be 
to make o«r work entirely mechanical, like those poor girls, 



S4 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



who do nothing but paste letters on beer mugs, day in and 
day out. 

Thayer & Chandler have a stock of china, as well as their 
artist materials, some of the good things that we used to find 
at the Western Decorating Works. How all the strangers 
miss that place, and the kindly interest that Mr. Grunewald 
took in each one of us. No one seems to have taken his 
place here. 

Mr. Reeves has an interesting store, where he keeps artist 
materials and kindergarten supplies. There were some nice 
black frames there, very suitable for framing porcelain tiles. 
Fruit or monochrome decorations look well framed in black. 

Altogether there is much being done here in keramics, 
the teachers have attractive studios, and all seem busy. The 



Auditorium Tower or Marshall Field building -seems the fa- 
vorite location for the studios. But there are no studio 
apartments as in New York, where most of the artists have 
their studios and living rooms combined into a most attractive 
home and work shop. The majority of the New York artists 
adopt that plan, but I know of no other city that has the same 
studio life, which seems so fascinating to strangers. 

Mr. Aulich has his studio in his beautiful home, devoting 
the whole lower floor to his work. Living a distance from 
the business center does not seem to diminish the number of 
his pupils. His water color studies are equally as instructive 
and interesting as his work on china. Nearly all of the Chi- 
cago artists make their own water color studies, — one medium 
assists the other,— and it is better to make studies from nature 
in water colors first, then adapt them to china. 





TREATMENT OF CUP AND SAUCER 

Anna B. Leonard 

THE dark band at the top of the cup, and the band in the 
edge of the saucer can be painted in Turquoise Blue (a 
combination of Deep Blue Green and Night Green) and should 
have a gold finish on each side of the band — either in raised 
Gold beading or a flat Gold line. The handle can be either 
the Turquoise color, or Gold. In this same number a treat- 
ment of the miniature roses may be found. 

The circles of jewels are made of enamel dots (colored 
with the Turquoise tinting which is used in the bands) and 
should be inserted in a small setting of raised Gold dots, very 
neatly and carefully made. 

This is an after dinner coffee cup, and a different color 
may be used in the bands— Dark Green is very attractive, so 



also is the Rich Maroon, but be sure to choose a color that 
harmonizes with the roses, or else paint another little flower 
instead. Yellow bands, with yellow roses make an interest- 
ing decoration. In that case color the enamel Yellow (Silver 
Yellow) or use it plain White. 

TREATMENT OF PLATE DESIGN 

A, G. Marshall 

EDGE raised in paste to give a heavy rim effect. The upper 
shaded part of design in Violet, the lower shaded part 
in Pearl Grey. Light part of design in Canary or Jonquil 
Yellow. Outline the design in flat Gold. The scroll work in 
raised Gold, also settings for jewels, the latter to be turquoise, 
the largest ones about half the size of the drawing. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



« 




PLATE DESIGN— A. G. MARSHALL 





AFTER PERSIAN MOTIVES— A. G. MARSHALL 



^ 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




TREATMENT FOR DANDELION STUDY 

Mary Chase Perry 

HE design may be carried out with light 
coloring, keeping a delicate effect 
throughout, or with a deep-toned back- 
ground and rich glowing yellows in the 
flowers. The latter idea will be carried 
out in these suggestions, in which the handling of the back- 
ground plays as important a part as the painting of the flowers 
themselves. 

The dandelions and buds on the upper part of the vase are 
a pale golden yellow, while those below are deeper and more 
of an orange in tone. At the bottom they are dark and rich 
and half melted into the deep ground. Carrying out the same 
plan, the back-ground is light above, gradually shading into 
dark browns and greens. 

Paint the flowers broadly for the first firing, paying little 
attention to detail or the multitudinous petals. Make the 
shadow tones of White Rose or Brown Green, with Copenha- 
gen in the color parts. On the portions of the flowers in full 
light, use Egg and Albert Yellow, deepening with Yellow 
Ochre or Yellow Brown. The Greens are Yellow or Moss- 
greens, Brown and shading Green, for foundation colors, yet 
carry into them the colors of the flowers or back-ground where 
they would naturally reflect it. Paint the back-ground at the 
same time with the floral part, coloring the surface, rapidly 
and simply, having decided well in your mind as to the color 
values. At the top use Ivory Yellow, Yellow Brown, with a 
little Yellow Green. Lower down in the design use Sepia and 
Brown Green, and at the darkest part at the bottom, finishing 
Brown. Be sure to preserve all the little "clips" of light 
which give character to the various formations of the plant ; 
keep the silver whorls perfectly clear and soft without 
niggling. Do not be over-particular about making them 
spherical in form, as by so doing you will run the risk of giving 
them a texture of stone instead of soft down. 

When the first painting has become thoroughly dry and 
hard to the touch, deepen the back-ground tones by dusting 
on dry color. Use for the most part, the same color as the 
under-tint, except when it needs to be made warmer or cooler, 
when a little pompadour will bring about the former result, 
and Russian Green or Copenhagen the latter. Toward the 
base in particular, strengthen the colors greatly with Brown 
Green and finishing Brown, with a little Roman Purple near 
the stems. 

You will have to exercise your own taste in developing 
the color scheme, and many happy little effects, which one 
could not possibly fore-plan, will come up, which you will do 
well to take advantage of and preserve. 

If the dusting color goes into the leaves and edges of the 
design generally, it will be all the better for that, as it will 
help it to melt into the back-ground so that there will be no 
harsh edges. 

If you feel that the design has become too vague, by a 
crisp touch with a dry brush or one a trifle moistened in tur- 
pentine, the necessary accents will be suggested. 

Fire pretty hard for the first time, so that the paint will 
become thoroughly incorporated with the glaze — even at the 
sacrifice of much of your design. For the second painting 
deepen the tones which have been lost and glaze to bring the 
design into harmony. Two firings are usually sufficient when 
the colors are laid on according to the process described, but if 
a third, or even a fourth or fifth painting will enable you to 



add strength or bring up the general effect and glaze, do not 
hesitate to do so — being careful, however, to make each 
successive fire a little less strong than the one before, so as not 
to weaken the under painting. 

•f <$> 
"KERAMIC" VERSUS " CERAMIC n 

IT may be interesting to those who ask why we use the word 
Keramic instead of Ceramic, so we print a letter written 
some years ago, when the National League of Mineral Paint- 
ers published a little paper. This letter was written to the 
editor of that paper. 



New York, Nov. 9, 1896. 



THE COLLEGE OF THE | 
CITY OF NEW YORK. 

Dear Madam : 

Your letter of inquiry of the 6th inst., was duly received 
and I reply in haste, at my first opportunity. 

If the matter of writing and pronouncing the word you 
mention was to be determined by its Greek spelling and pro- 
nunciation the matter would be very simple. The original 
word is Greek and the stem is xspajxix, which in English 
would be pronounced Keramic. 

The word as we have it is considered an English word, 
and the English orthography and pronunciation has in the 
past, and to a great extent in the present, little respect for 
etymology, i. e., the derivation of a word. As the writing 
and pronunciation of English words is determined by good use, 
it will be useless for anyone to set up against that good use — 
even if really bad — as it occurs in dictionaries and the best 
writers. 

Good use in respect to this word in English seems to be 
undergoing a change. In Webster's old edition the word is 
given Ceramic (from seramic), and Keramic does not occur. 
In Webster's latest, Ceramic is given and with it the form 
Keramic. In the Century Dictionary both Ceramic (from 
seramic) and Keramic are given. In the Standard (latest) the 
word is given Ceramic (from seramic) and Keramic us a. variant. 
It will appear then that the English form Kcramic the same 
as the Greek is being established, while formerly only the form 
Ceramic was used. 

The use of Ceramic (from seramic) is, in my opinion, 
erroneous, and came about in the following way : The Latin C 
corresponds almost entirely to the Greek K, the Latin using 
C, an old form of Greek K, with the same sound as the letter 
K in Greek and English. All Greek and Latin works coming 
into English and beginning with C, had the sound of S given 
to C wherever C was followed by c, i or y, and the hard sound 
of K before a, and 11. Thus Cyrus was pronounced Syrus, 
Cato — Kato, etc., etc. In this way Ceramic was pronounced 
ceramique in French with the S sound. 

Now, since 1869, in this country, we have been trying in 
Latin and Greek to restore the original pronunciation, making 
C in all Latin and Greek words in English have the hard, or 
K sound, and when possible restoring the original K. 

This is really the best I can do in haste. 

Fitzgerald Tisdall. 

Heraldic colors on china: Gules — carnation ; Azure— deep 
blue-green; Or — canary, gold; Vert— emerald-stone green-. 
Sable — black; Purpure— purple 2; Argent — white, silver; 
Tenne— yellow red; Sanguine — blood red. 




CHOCOLATE POT—SMRS. cANNA <B. LEONARD 
KEPAMIC STUDIO PUBLISHING CO. 



SUPPLEMENT 
JULY 1899 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



57 




A DANDELION STUDY-MARY CHASE PERRY 



S8 



KERAM1C STUDIO 




CHAPLIN FIGURE -Continued 

SECOND AND THIRD FIRE. 

(Sec Tune number for first fire. I 

F your figure comes from the first fire as it should, 
the flesh tone delicate, the tender shadow rather 
blue, the reflected light warmer than the flesh and 
a little too bright, you are ready to proceed. 
Cover the figures with the medium as at first. If 
your flesh tone needs deepening, go over again with flesh I ; 
if your reflected light comes out too cool, brush reflected light 
over the shadow parts again. Warm up the cheeks, chin, tip 
of nose, ears and all rosy parts with pompadour II, put a little 
more reflected light between eyes and brows, then model all 
the shadows on the light side of faces and figures with tender 
shadow. On the shadow side model with cool shadow, put 
tender shadow again along the edge of the hair, unless that is 
already too blue. Now stipple, working from clear flesh to 
tender shadow, from tender shadow to reflected light as before. 
If you find the color blending off too much, wait until a little 
more tacky. When half stippled, that is when you have gone 
over the entire surface with the stippler but have not blended 
completely, strengthen the shadows, adding a little warm 
shadow to the deepest shadows on the Venus, pompadour II 
to the deepest shadows on the Cupid. Model as if painting 
for the final fire. Then stipple flesh till the texture is per- 
fectly velvety and shows no brush or stippling mark. 

Before working up the hair, the background should be 
laid in again. Cover as before with a thin coat of oil and 
work in tender shadow bringing it over the edges of hair. 
Model up the hair of Venus with finishing brown mixed with 
just a little warm shadow, and in the high lights use a little 
yellow brown, suggest the roses in the hair and touch the 
pearls with a few touches of turquoise blue, rose and yellow, 
to give a mellow shadow, leaving a high light on the same 
side of each, and having the shadows also correspond, remem- 
bering that the darkest shadow comes BETWEEN the high 
light and the edge, never ON the edge. When finishing the 
hair, blend the outer edges with a side stroke into the back- 
ground to avoid hard lines and give an atmospheric effect. 
Where the shadow side of the face meets the hair, work a 
little finishing brown II into shadows on face and across into 
hair, to bring them together into a vague shadow. 

On the Cupid's hair use canary yellow, if needed to 
strengthen the color in high light; shade with tender shadow 
unless already too greenish, then shade with yellow brown and 
a little finishing brown II. 

If you wish the drapery white, wash a little local flesh 
over the light part that goes over the flesh, reflected light on 
the shadow part and tender shadow in the half tones. Stipple, 
then lift out the high lights with cotton on a stick, strengthen 
the shadows with the mixture of apple green and carmine II 
(making a warm green), use light violet of gold in deepest 
shadows. If you wish the drapery yellow, use canary for 
local tone and light violet in shadows. For pink, use rose and 
a little apple green in shadows. For blue, use turquoise green 
and a lfttle yellow brozvn in shadows. Always use comple- 
mentary colors in shading. The three primary colors are red, 
blue, yellow. No color scheme is complete without all three 
in some combination. To find the complementary color to 
any one color, combine the other two. 



YELLOW — 
BLl'K — 



1 VE1.1.UW 
I K B 1 1 

I K E 1 1 

I VELLOW 



For the wings of the doves and Cupid, use the apple g 
and carmine mixture and a little finishing brozvn for strength- 
ening. Work up mirror and bow and arrow with cool shadow 
and finishing brown. 

The eyes can be worked up with finishing brozvn and 
warm shadow, using a touch of German black in pupils. Stip- 
ple the lashes and eye brows a little, so they will not be hard. 
The mouth will need a little more pompadour I. Stipple the 
edges, not forgetting that you need a little tender shadow 
where the red meets the flesh. A little more red in the nos- 
trils and ears. Do not forget that the palms of hands and 
finger tips should be rosy, and the bosoms as well, using tender 
shadow to break it into the flesh. 

The third fire is simply for strengthening the work already 
done. Put on the oil as before and work in just what is needed 
and no more, warming where too cool, cooling where too 
warm, deepening and strengthening shadows and color. Re- 
peated fires give softness. Four or five fires are not too 
many and you will always see something to improve. Be sure 
your first fire is a hard one. Your second can afford to be 
hard too, even if it fires out the painting somewhat. The rest 
of the fires need not be more than ordinary. 

A last word. — Keep colors soft in tone and AVOID HARD 
EDGES. 

*> •? 

TREATMENT FOR CHOCOLATE POT 

DRAW very carefully the design upon the chocolate pot in 
India ink, leaving the medallions white, tint with a 
Turquoise Blue the upper band, and the alternate spaces 
between the dotted lines. To obtain a beautiful Turquoise 
B'ue use a mixture of one-third Deep Blue Green and two- 
thirds Night Green (Lacroix), then add to the mixture one- 
fourth flux. This tint is applied to the china, and padded 
until the color is perfectly even and smooth, then the alternate 
spaces and medallions are thoroughly cleaned. The top is 
tinted a solid blue, so also a band just below the gold edge. 

After putting a thin wash of gold on the handle, spout 
base and top, fire hard, to obtain a perfect glaze on the blue. 
Then draw the design for all the paste work, then paint in the 
medallions. 

Little roses, or any small pink flower will be correct for 
the small medallions, and the figures should be daintily 
painted, making pink the most prominent spot of color. In 
this instance the woman's gown is pink and the man's coat is 
ruby (not strongly.) The foliage and accessories are deli- 
cately handled, to be in keeping with this French style of 
decoration. 

The small baskets, torches, horns of plenty, wreaths, bov 
knots and scrolls are modeled delicately in raised paste. 

The small flowers in the baskets are entirely in colored 
enamels. The ribbon which runs through the spaces is in 
pink, and holds the design together. 

The enamel dots are all turquoise blue, a paler shade than 
the body of the chocolate pot. 

Great care must be shown in the drawing, the lines of 
paste dots with the row of enamel dots between must be 
straight, and the dots of even size. It is better not to attempt 
this style at all, than to work carelessly. Be very particular 
in the use of gold — use only the best and see that there are 
no ragged lines around the paste. Put another coat of gold 
on the handle, spout, base and top, for the second firing. 
Any number of fires will not hurt the blue, and it is better to 
use three fires for this piece rather than try to finish in two. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



$9 




HINTS ON UNDER-GLAZE. 

[Sec May Number.] 

Chas. L. 1 'oik mar. 

'AINTING. — Under-glaze colors assume their 
proper tone only after glazing, but as the 
respective values of some colors remain 
nearly the same, and can be classified, the 
painting is not as difficult as it may appear at the first 
moment. 

It is important therefore to observe certain rules in choice 
of colors, for the respective plans of the decoration ; for in- 
stance, before commencing, one should decide on a scheme of 
treatment, and not deviate from this arrangement. In other 
words, classify those colors which will gain but slightly in in- 
tensity, and those which will grow dark, and some which will 
become very intense. The colors changing the least are 
Yellow, Matt Blue and Red T. 

In the second class we will place Dark Brown, Light 
Brown, Warm Green and Dark Blue or King's Blue and 
Maroon. 

Those colors which become very intense, and consequently 
difficult to control in their dry state are French Green, Black 
and Dark Blue or Mazarine Blue and Orange Strong. 

To illustrate the above, I will commence with a landscape 
treatment. 

For the sky and distance, use Matt Blue, Red T. and 
Yellow. These colors will not lose their respective values, or 
in other words, one will not gain more than the other in the 
glazing process, consequently produce no discordant notes 
in the distance and at the same time retain their air qualities. 
The only one of these colors that will change is Red T. which 
loses in intensity. 

To obtain a sunset effect, the red must be painted 
stronger, allowing forJts partial disappearance. Greys should 
be made of Matt Blue and Red T. adding a little white. For 
the 'middle ground use the same colors with the addition of 
Dark Brown, King's Blue and perhaps Maroon. Do not ex- 
pect to get a grey with thin Black, it will fire green. For the 
foreground, the Warm Green, Black, Claret Brown and Orange 
are the most suitable. As the French Green will gain a great 
deal in intensity after glazing, it must be used with a great 
deal of discretion. 

French Green becomes very intense when used heavy, 
whereas when used in a thin wash, that is reduced with gum 
Tragacanth, it becomes a very useful color. Be very careful 
not to use any French Green in the middle ground until the 
decoration is nearly finished, that is until you have done all 
possible with a green composed of Yellow and Matt or King's 
Blue. 

It is only by following these rules that a complete under- 
glaze landscape .with aerial quality can be produced. 

In marines the same rules must be observed. Never use 
pure greens in painting water, but compose your water tones 
with yellow and blue, adding a little black. If it is possible 
to introduce a pure note of green on a boat, figure or 
similar object with French Green, it will enhance the 
grey qualities of the water and so help the decorative color 
scheme. 

Flower decoration should also be painted very simply, 
although less precaution is necessary than with the previous 
two mentioned. 

I have named already the flowers most suitable for under- 
glaze. The best result is obtained in treating the background 



generally deep in tone. Leaves should be painted first with 
the composed green I have given in painting marines, and 
only retouched with thin pure green. Pure green can be used 
in the background at once, mingled with Claret Brown, Orange 
and Black. 

Do not paint shadows of flowers too strong, but always 
try to treat flowers as a light mass against a dark ground, and 
you will be certain to obtain a good result. Remember that 
you are making a decoration before everything else, and do 
not calculate to produce much detail. If you desire flowers 
with detail paint them in the over-glaze process. 

Figure decoration is the most difficult of all the branches 
in this style, as it requires the most interpretation. It is 
onl}' in the most simple treatments that success can be 
expected. 

In under-glaze painting the handling of the colors should 
be firm, not thin and not heavier than to give a clear tone of 
color. A strong outline treatment in finishing will help to 
give character. 

Keep separate water for colors and washing brushes. 
Water used for thinning colors should always be clean. 

When colors work dry or sandy more Gum Tragacanth is 
required. A little Gum Arabic helps to bind the colors, but 
the Tragacanth serves as a vehicle, that is, facilitates the 
handling or carrying the color from the brush to the clay 
surface. 



A glaze for under-glaze process can be bought fluxed for 
different degrees of heat. It may be on the lead basis, a 
borax glaze, or of an alkaline nature. Each glaze will produce 
a different result in intensity of color. 

The glaze may be laid on with a brush, mixing it with 
Gum Tragacanth water; it also can be applied with an atom- 
izer. Dipping a painted piece is very uncertain. If the 
painted surface is flat a fine sieve is very useful, but this re- 
quires more experience. For glazing with a brush, the follow- 
ing hints may be useful. Take about a tablespoon ful of glaze 
and grind on a clean slab to the consistency of cream and put 
in a saucer. When decoration is perfectly dry, take a broad 
camel's hair brush (about one inch) and lay on an even coat- 
ing of glaze with a light touch. Be careful not to disturb the 
painting. Commence on one end of the piece and work over 
towards the other, covering every part as you proceed. A 
surface less absorbent will require a thicker mixture than a 
more absorbent one. 

It is only by experience that you can perfect yourself in 
laying on the glaze. 

Should there be dead spots after firing, the piece can be 
reglazed and refired ; in this case, however, mix the glaze with 
water only. 

FIRING. 

The decoration is now ready for the firing, which is a very 
important part of the process. Some kilns are more suitable 
than others. It is important, however, to use one in which 
the least iron is exposed. The degree of heat in the kiln 
necessary for the firing depends on the amount of flux in the 
glaze. 

The regular English or French under-glaze colors in the 
market should be fired to at least deep orange red. A pure 
orange red or about 2,ooo° Fahrenheit produces the best re- 
sults, but I do not know of any of the portable kilns that 
would stand this heat. 



6o 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




LAMP WITH GLASS GLOBE-MARY ALLEY NEAL 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



61 




LAMP WITH GLASS GLOBE 

Mary Alley Ncal 

HE lamp here shown is of china, the globe 
of opal glass, both decorated with yellow 
chrysanthemums, painted from nature, di- 
rectly on the lamp. The chrysanthemums 
being a hardy flower, one can readily do this, as the flowers if 
well cared for, can be kept fresh for two or three weeks, en- 
abling the decorator to use the same flowers for the successive 
paintings. The painting for the glass globe differs a little 
from the painting of the vase, which forms the body of the 
lamp, as one must remember that it is transparent, and is 
generally seen with a brilliant light behind it, and every brush 
mark shows. Draw carefully your design, with lithographic 
crayon. The colors used are especially ground and fluxed for 
glass, but, even then, as the opal glass is a very soft body and 
takes a very light fire, to insure a high glaze you must add 
extra flux with the colors, and for this use a special soft flux. 
Grind the colors separately with a glass muller on a piece of 
ground glass, adding one-eighth flux, use fat oil only for mix- 
ing, being careful not to use too much, as the colors blister 
easily. Now paint your flowers, using the paint thin and as 
even as possible, using the brush as the petals grow, and model 
as you paint. For the lightest flowers use Light Yellow, and 
a few touches of Yellow Brown in centres, shading with a 
mixture of Dark Yellow and Brown Green ; for deeper flowers 
use Yellow Brown and Soft Red Brown, leaving plenty of 
light. On the shadow side is a deep red flower with yellow 
touches, using Silver Yellow, Soft Red Brown and Ruby; for 
the shadow ones use Yellow Brown, the mixture of Yellow 
and Brown Green and touches of pure Brown Green. For the 
leaves and stems use Yellow Green, Grass Green, Brown 
Green and Dark Green. The globe is now ready for the first 
fire, which is a light heat, as it is much softer than the crystal 
glass, and if too much heat is used it will lose its shape. Use 
only turpentine in painting, as there will be enough oil used 
in mixing the colors. 

SECOND FIRE— Put the background on first, put a smooth 
even coat of English Grounding Oil on the globe, leaving out 
the flowers as much as possible. Then pad with a soft pad of 
china silk until tacky, dust on the top Light Yellow, into Dark 
Yellow, into Yellow Brown, into Grass Green, into Soft Red 
Brown, into Dark Brown, which will give a rich shading from 
light yellov to rich dark red brown. Clean off flowers, stems 
and leaves, and accent them, using same colors as first paint- 
ing, except on flowers where Yellow Brown and Soft Red Brown 
were used. This time paint only with Dark Yellow. Be 
careful that you clean all particles of paint from the inside of 
the globe, and fire the second time. 

Third Fire— This painting is best done on a lighted 
lamp, as you can tell then how it will look when lighted. 
Without the light the background may be rich and dark, but 
with it, it may be too pale. If so, dust your background as 
before, blending the colors one into the other, then strengthen 
the flowers where needed, putting stronger touches on the 
stems and leaves, washing over some of the flowers with either 
Yellow Brown or Brown Green, to put them into the back- 
ground and give perspective. 

For the body of the lamp paint the flowers and leaves 
first. For these use Lemon and Albert Yellow, Yellow Brown, 
Yellow Red, mixture of Brown Green and Albert Yellow. For 
the deep red ones, use Blood Red and Ruby. For leaves, use 
Yellow Green, Brown Green, Shading and Royal Greens. 



While the flowers are still wet, paint in your background, 
beginning at the top with Albert Yellow, into Yellow Brown, 
into Royal Green, into Blood Red, into Finishing Brown, using 
Copaiba as a medium, and pad if it does not blend enough; 
when almost dry, take the same colors and dust on with a 
piece of cotton. It is now ready to be fired. 

SECOND FlRE — Strengthen the flowers where necessary 
and paint the same colors over background, blending with a 
pad and fire. 

TllIRD Fire — Put stronger accents on flowers, leaves and 
stems, and if the background needs bringing together, do so, 
and wash over some of the flowers with background colors to 
give perspective. When fired, you will have lamp and globe 
in the same coloring and harmony. 

FOR BEGINNERS. 

TINTING. 

[eoittilYUed iVom June NinulKi. | 

IN the June number wc gave instructions fur tinting with the 
color in powder form, to be dusted on. 

We will now show how the tint may be applied in a wet 
form, or where oil is mixed with the color before it is used for 
tinting. 

In the first place see that the china is absolutely free from 
dust. By going over it with the hand all particles of dust or 
lint will be removed, for, even when the surface of the china 
is wiped with a cloth, there will be lint remaining, and you 
will wonder "where all the dust comes from." 

Have a silk pad, or dabber ready before the work is 
begun. This is simply a wad of cotton covered with a piece of 
an old silk handkerchief. Use the ordinary cotton wadding, 
not the absorbent cotton, as that takes out all the oil before 
the color has a chance to blend. (Mr. Fry recommends sur- 
geons wool.) A fine Japanese silk handkerchief is always good 
because the silk is pure and finely woven, and does not leave 
the impression of the threads. Such a handkerchief or piece of 
silk can be used again and again, as it can be washed 
with strong soap after it has been soaked in turpentine. 
(When one has a lot of old silk pieces about the studio the 
color can be taken out by boiling in soda.) When clean and 
dry, iron out the wrinkles or creases or they will leave an im- 
pression upon the tint. It is better to double the silk over 
cotton. 

All these instructions may seem trivial, but if you start 
out with your materials and tools in proper condition, no end 
of trouble will be saved. 

If you are using tube colors, take out a sufficient amount 
upon a palette that is absolutely free from dust, add enough 
balsam copaiba to make the color drip from the knife, then 
add a drop or two of clove oil (more if the surface to be cov- 
ered is large), and thin with turpentine. 

Use oil of lavender instead of turpentine if the color has 
to be held open longer. Mix well and see that the color is 
perfectly free from any lumps. Apply with a large square 
tinting brush, and then pad the color evenly with the silk 
dabber previously made. 

Try the tint before putting it all on. If it dries in spots 
and will not blend, add more balsam copaiba and clove oil. 
If it seems very tacky, and sticks to the dabber in little spots 
and will not blend, there is probably too much balsam copaiba, 
so add another drop of clove oil and a little turpentine to 
make it flow over the china better. 

Too much clove oil will keep the color open too long, 



62 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



and it will become dusty before it dries; only a little clove 
oil is necessary, usually one-fourth of the quantity of balsam 
copaiba. 

Of course when the surface is larger, the color must neces- 
sarily contain more oil, or it will dry before you can blend it 
properly. 

The same rule holds good for the pozvder colors, when you 
wish to tint in this way, naturally they will require more oil 
and more grinding. They must never look " grainy," but 
must be as smooth as the tube colors. 

o o o 

LUSTRES. 

Lustres are liquid colors made on the same basis as liquid 
bright gold. They all look much like the latter before firing, 
being, with the exception of orange and brown, of a light 
golden brown color. They can be used just as they come in 
the bottles, unless they have thickened up, when it is neces- 
sary to thin them with essence which comes for that purpose. 
Lavender oil can also be used, putting it into the bottle with 
the lustre. Be careful not to use too much as it will make 
your color very delicate. 

For brushes you will need the largest size square shaders, 
and a few small square shaders for small spaces. If possible 
keep a separate brush for every color, marking the handle 
with the name. If you must use the same brush for two 
lustres, clean carefully in turpentine first, then in alcohol, and 
dry thoroughly before changing. Yellozv and rose must have 
a brush to themselves, as they are the most sensitive of all 
lustres. 

Put on your lustres just before firing. If this is not 
possible, dry immediately in the oven ; be careful not to dry 
too hard, as it will injure the lustre, causing it to flake off in 
places. Put on the lustre with a broad quick stroke and avoid 
going over it as much as possible, it will smooth itself some- 
what. When you want a delicate smooth tint, use a soft silk 
or chamois pad until tacky. It is well to warm the china a 
little before putting on the lustre, as that prevents somewhat 
the dampness, which often causes little white spots. Slight 
warming also makes the lustres blend better. 

As a rule a smooth tint in lustre is not particularly 
desirable, as the changing hues are produced by varying depth 
of color. Lustres are best used in strictly conventional work, 
as the colors are not reliable enough for naturalistic painting, 
though sure to make a beautiful effect in conventional decora- 
tion, whether it comes out as you expect or not. Gold is very 
effective with lustres, as are also black outlines. When the 
lustre is thoroughly dry, flat gold or raised paste can be put 
on it before firing, but it is always best, when convenient, to 
fire the lustre first. In the succeeding articles we will treat 
each color separately, telling something of practical use to the 
decorator. 

Lustre is most effective used sparingly on table ware. 
Use in borders only, as it wears the same as gold, not being 
absorbed into the glaze, as colors are. Do not use Belleek, if 
you want brilliant strong colors. Almost any color is liable to 
turn a dull lavender on it, with the exception of the shell-like 
table ware, and this is liable to come out without any glaze at 
all. Occasionally lustres on Belleek come out beautifully, but 
you are surer of your effect on white china. If you are not 
anxious for a high lustre, or if you do not mind a matt finish, 
you can take your chances with Belleek, not otherwise. 

If you begin to work in lustre, you must learn to "possess 
your soul in patience," for even after you think you have 



learned all there is known on the subject, you are liable to 
meet with constant surprises. However there is a way to 
remedy every mistake, and when you are at a loss what to do 
write to us and we will tell you in the Magazine. Sometimes 
the lustres are a pleasant disappointment, for the colors are 
seldom ugly, even when not what you expected, and some- 
times they are more beautiful than you imagined they would 
be. Let your motto be "Patience." 

DELFT LANDSCAPES 

HERE are some little landscapes to be painted in blue and 
white, underglaze or overglaze. But we want to suggest 
another treatment, and that is to paint them in lustres out- 
lined in black. You cannot imagine how charming an effect 
can be gotten in this way. 






In the cup and saucer design, for instance. Paint the 
body with Dark or Light Green, Pearl Grey, or Steel Blue 
used thin. When dry paint the scrolls in the same color 
darker. Use for skys Blue Grey thin, leaving white streaks 
for sky and also leaving the moon white. Use Dark or Light 
Green fur grass and trees, Blue Grey on sails uf boats, Brown 
for boats, Brown, Orange and Yellow for houses, wind-mills 
and cows. Outline all in Black paint. After using one color 
wait till dry, and clean off with knife where it runs over Un- 
drawing, before putting on the color next to it. The birds 
should be in black paint. These can be done in one fire. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



63 







JjUjltuJU, <M**r{L - $Sh~X~*-, 




DELFT LANDSCAPE DECORATION FOR CUP AND SAUCER 



6 4 



KERAMC STUDIO 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS 

ROSE STUDY IN PEN AND INK. This is in many ways an improve- 
ment on the first drawing sent. It is stronger and simpler. Study the indi- 
vidual character of leaves more: they have serrate or saw tooth edges and 
should he drawn in broken lines. Your shadow lines in background should 
be made up of short broken lines rather than long, continuous ones. Be sure 
and have your stems come from some possible place. If you have a bunch of 
roses, the stems must necessarily come together, and even if not shown in the 
drawing should be indicated by the direction of the stems seen. Do not let 
the shadow run around a flower in a margin. It gives the effect of the flower 
being held close to something to throw so strong and marked a line, and the 
drawing of the flower itself shows that this is not the case. 

STUDY OF LEMONS IN WATER COLOR. When yellow lemons are 
wrapped in tissue paper, the paper is yellowish where it touches the lemon. 
White in high light, violet in half tones, and deep shadows are sometimes 
violet and sometimes greenish. Study your object closer, and avoid hard 
edges, let the outline be lost and found If you observe carefully you will find 
this is the case with your original lemon study. Try to keep your color clear 
and not let it get muddy. Paint what you see, not what you think. If you 
use wet paper as recommended by Mrs. Nicholls in the May number, you will 
find it easier to avoid hardness. The shadow of the lemons on the wall could 
not have been brown. They must have been greenish or violet. 

MRS. CHARLES A. The cause of your paste for raised gold turning 
greenish is the steel palette knife. An old steel knife which has been used 
for colors or gold is liable to discolor the paste; usually, however, it will fire 
yellow again. If you use a horn palette knife you will not have this trouble. 
The No. O Petite makes a nice size. Be sure and select a limber one. The 
stiff ones are more liable to break or split. 

MRS. THOMAS S. We will have plate and cup and saucer designs in 
every number, and hope you will find as many suggestions as you need before 
September. We do not like vellum for tableware as it is apt to hold the 
grease or food stains. Tableware should have a glaze especially for the center 
of plates. We should advise using Ivory Yellow if you wish a cream tint 
then you can use your old ivory effect in the border if you desire. However, 
unless your friend would be disappointed, we would advise white centers, 
using some of the color schemes suggested with our border designs. It is 
considered more an fait now to have tableware with white centers and the 
same design and color for the dozen pieces. It would hardly be worth while 
for you to rent designs as the magazine will have as great a variety as you 
need. One of the oriental borders in gold, color or enamel would make a rich 
and effective design for your wedding gift. 

MRS. R. J. R. We will be pleased to criticize your ivory miniatures for 
you at any time and answer any questions in regard to the manipulation of 
the ivory, colors, etc. There will be no charge beyond the expressage. Our 
publisher played a practical joke on the editors in saying to enclose a stamped 
envelope for immediate reply. We can only promise to answer through the 
magazine, for we are very busy and in answering this way we can help many 
besides the one who asks for information. When sending the ivories, ask 
about the points which you find difficult to understand and we will give you 
an article on ivory miniature in the next number of the magazine if sent in 
time. Any question to be answered in the next number must reach us before 
the fifth of the month, i. c\, to have a question answered in the August num- 
ber it must be received before the fifth of July. 

MRS. J. C. V. We hope your club will join the National League and 
try its course of study. In the June number we mentioned two publications 
of Keramic interest by Miss Kingsley and Mr. Barber and sent you the address 
of Mrs. Wait. Write to " Brentano's," Union Square, N. Y., for a list of pub- 
lications on china and pottery. As we hear of any new works on the subject, 
we will let you know through the magazine. We wish your club all success. 

MRS. ARTHUR E. G. Beside the specific treatment of the tankard de- 
sign in the first two numbers, you will find articles on lustre work in every 
number which will acquaint you thoroughly with the manipulation of the 
color. 

MISS H. E. B. STUDY OF NARCISSUS IN PEN AND INK. Unless 
conventionalized, flowers should be drawn and used as decoration in the order 
of their growth. The Narcissus is a flower, one of the chief characteristics of 
which is its stiffness. Thus, the tulip, the jonquil and other flowers of the 
same manner of growth, look much better if the character is kept and if used 
on a vase or pitcher should be drawn as if growing stiffly up from the base- 
In drawing with pen and ink, block in the forms squarely as much as possible. 
A curve indicated by several straight lines has much more character than a 
continuous curved line. Do not cross-patch your drawings. Make your shad- 
ing lines follow the curves of your flower, or if making a mass of shadow draw 
all lines in the same direction, and have all shadow lines drawn at the same 
angle, not one part slanting to right, another to left, some up and down and 
some horizontal. Draw things as you see them, not as you know them to be- 



Get the masses of light and shade and general effect first, the details after- 
ward. Do not see loo much detail, put in only necessary detail. A bunch of 
Narcissus looks better held straight up, than it would bent sidewise. A few 
strong shading lines are better than many fine ones. Draw rather hea\ il\ 
and firmly for reproduction. Be careful that your stems come from some 
specific flowers and do not look as if tacked on anywhere. Do not draw any- 
thing not conventional out of your head, but have the natural object before yoil 
so you can refer to it and see that you are right. Get every flower, leaf and 
stem in its exact relation to every other leaf, flower and stem in the bunch. 
You seem to have a natural talent, but you need good instruction and we will 
be glad to do what we can for you. Your drawing is not weak but could be 
stronger. 

SCROLLS. The chief fault with amateur scroll work- is the broken bacii 
effect of the curves. A scroll to be agreeable to look at, should have no jerks 
in it, should flow evenly, should not branch off at the wrong spot. One curve 
should start from another at a tangent. If you are using a scroll border with 
flowers do not let the scrolls wander aimlessly down into the painting. Let 
the flowers come from under the border. Flowers and scrolls should not be 
combined in painting unless the flowers are conventionally used. 

MRS. M. C. A. The lustres you see advertised in our magazine are the 
best. They come in liquid form in vials of different sizes according to the 
amount desired. They are used directly from the bottle and seldom require 
thinning. When they do lavender is preferable to essence as the latter some- 
times makes the lustre "creep." You will find an article on their application 
in the current number. Paste and enamel can be used upon lustre when dry 
before firing, but it is preferable to fire first. The same is true in regard to 
gold. They require the regular china color firing and can stand a hard fire. 

ABOUT GLASS. The safest glass for the amateur to decorate is the 
Bohemian glass. The Baccarat glass is also fairly safe. The glass needs a 
very careful light firing, hardly more than a rosy glow in the kiln. It would 
be best to experiment first with some broken pieces to find the desired de- 
gree of heat. Gold fluxed for china can be used, on paste for glass but a 
special glass gold must be used directly on the glass. Hancock's paste for 
china can be used for glass but you need special glass enamels and colors. 
There are no houses which carry a regular line of glass for decoration, but if 
you desire we will select pieces for you, if you specify what you wish, and 
send to you on receipt of price. The different colors need so little variation 
in firing that it is hardly necessary to go into that. If you can fire a piece of 
glass so that any color glazes without melting the glass you are safe to try 
the other colors at the same degree of heat. 

In regard to the tinting. If you put it on and blend before putting on 
your paste you should have no brush marks showing. If you are using deep 
color, paint it on thinly and with a little oil then rub in some of the powder 
color with a bit of cotton, then clean edges for the paste. 

MRS. C. L. M. In regard to paste clippings after firing. It is caused by 
the paste getting fat. Sometimes toward the last of the paste mixed it begins 
to get heavy and fat. This is liable to chip after firing especially if it does 
not dry quickly and without a shiny look. If you are putting paste and 
enamel over dusted color, it is best to clean out where the design is to go after 
firing. Most colors will make the paste roll up. 

Hard Enamel— aufseitzweis, will stand any number of fires. The soft 
enamels are safest applied for the last tire, though it is generally safe to risk 
two fires. Both enamel and paste can be built up after firing il it is necessary, 
but it is best to do this before firing after the modeling is dry. If you wish to 
make squares or diamond shaped ornaments or any other form, lay it in as 
smoothly and as high as it will go, then when thoroughly dry go over the 
enamel a second time. If it comes out of the tire uneven, you can till in the 
enamel and fire again. 

You wiil find fat oil and lavender better to use for both enamel and paste, 
than fat oil and turpentine, if you wish to do much modeling. The Frv's 
medium for color makes a good medium for enamels used flat. Use less fat 
oh when it is old and thick. The effect of over-firing most colors is a lading 
out in depth. Your dusted tint will be smoother if the oil is dabbed first 
before letting it stand ten minutes, then dusting in the color. 




AUGUST : MDCCCXC1X Price 35c. Yearly Subscription $3.50 (f 



C0NTRIBUT0R5 

MR. CHARLES F. BINNS j* j» * 

MRS. A. A. FRAZEE j* j» .* j» 

MISS LETA HORLOCKER j* j» .* 

MRS. ANNA B. LEONARD > > .* 

PROF. FRANCOIS MAENE j* .* ^ 

MISS M. HELEN E. MONTFORT j» 

MRS. WORTH OSGOOD ji ^ ^ 

MISS MARY CHASE PERRY ^ j* 
MRS. ADELAIDE ALSOP-ROBINEAU 

MISS JEANNE M. STEWART ^ * 






MISS HENRIETTA BARCLAY WRIGHT 



I MGHTELY: 

THE: 





Copyrighted 1899 by the Kerainic Studio Publishing Co., Syracuse and New York. 




[ The attire contents of this Magazine are cohered by the general copyright, and the articles must not he reprinted Without special permission. ] 

CONTENTS FOR AUGUST, 1899 



Editorial Notes, 

Club News — In the Studios — League Notes, 

St. Mary The Virgin, by Ittenbach (Treatment), 

Study of Single Yellow Roses, 

Historic Or namant, " Chinese/' 

Glass Decoration (Illustration, " Hock Glass/') 

Pyrus Japonica, 

Origin of the Manufacture of Porcelain in Europe, (Cont'd), 

The Atlan Club of Chicago (Illustrated), 

Treatment of Stein (Supplement), 

Tobacco Jar and Treatment, 

Cup and Saucer, 

Plate Design, 

St. Mary The Virgin, by Ittenbach, 

The Use of American Wares by American Ceramic 

Decorators, 
Treatment for Dogwood Pitcher (Illustrated), 
Plate Design — Dogwood, 

Notes on the Recent Exhibition of Mineral League, 
Phases of the Seventh Comparative Exhibition, 
Perryisms, 
For Beginners, 
Treatment Plate Design, 
Treatment Single Yellow Roses, 
Answers to Correspondents, 





PAGE 


♦ 


65 


. 


66 


. 


66 


Henrietta Barclay Wright, 


67 


(Adelaide cdlsop- c Rpbineau, 


68-71 


(Adelaide c/llsop Ifabineau, 


12 


Leta Hortocker, 


73 




74 


■ 


75-76 


Jeanne M. Stewart, 


76 


Anna B. Leonard, 


77 


Anna B. Leonard, 


78 


cMrs. A, A. Frazee, 


79 


'Prof, Francois Maene, 


80 


Charles F. Binns, 


81-82 


M. Helen E. Montfort, 


82 


M. Helen E. Montfort, . 


83 


Mary Chase 'Perry, 


84 


cMrs. Worth Osgood, 


84 


. 


85 


. 


85 


Mrs. A. A. Frazee, 


86 


Henrietta Barclay Wright, 


86 


♦ 


86 



Vol. I, No. 4 



NEW YORK AND SYRACUSE 



August 1899 




f 



N preparing for your fall exhibition work, devote 
your energy to what may be the chef-d-ceuvre of 
your collection. That is, have at least one piece 
that gives a new idea, either in a color scheme or 
in design. After that is out of the way, no doubt 
other inspirations will quickly follow. A lot of 
little pin trays or button boxes do not as a rule 
give tone to an art exhibit, but may be profitable 
in a studio sale. 

4° 

Another book that we recommend for sum- 
sicMlL. mer study is " The Basis of Design," by Walter 
Crane. Although not a study of porcelain, the principles of 
design are so clearly and interestingly given, that one is per- 
fectly charmed with it from beginning to end, and finds every- 
thing instructive, and applicable to keramics. The book is 
formed from a series of lectures the author addressed to the 
students of the Manchester School of Art, during his tenure 
of directorship of design at that institution. He says: "My 
main object, however, has been to trace the vital veins and 
nerves of relationship in the arts of design, which, like the sap 
from the central stem, springing from connected and collective 
roots, out of a common ground, sustain and unite in one or- 
ganic whole, the living tree. In an age when, owing to the 
action of certain economic causes — the chiefest being com- 
mercial competition — the tendency is to specialize each branch 
of design, which thus becomes isolated from the rest, I feel it 
is most important to keep in mind the real fundamental con- 
nection and essential unity of art ; and though we may, as stu- 
dents and artists, in practice be intent upon gathering the 
fruit from the particular branch we desire to make our own, 
we should never be insensible to its relation to other branches, 
its dependence upon the main stem and the source of its life 
at the root. Otherwise we are, I think, in danger of becoming 
mechanics in our work, or too narrowly technical, while, as a 
collective result of such narrowness of view, the art of the 
age, to which individual contributes, shows a want of both 
imaginative harmony and technical relation with itself, when 
unity of effect and purpose is particularly essential, as in the 
design and decoration of both public and private buildings, 
not to speak of the larger significance of art as the most per- 
manent record of the life and ideals of a people." 

There has been much discussion of late, in regard to the 
proper application of historic ornament to modern design. 
The columns of the Keramic Studio are open to all who are 
interested in the subject, whether they agree with us or not. 
The editor who has charge of this department has her own 
ideas on the subject, but she does not claim to be infallible. 
Her own designs frequently appear faulty to her, but they are 
at least a step toward the goal. For instance: The tea caddy 
design, suggested by Chinese ornament. The all over design 
of bats should have been modernized to harmonize with the 
top. Her theory on the subject will be found in the article 
on Chinese ornament. We invite criticism from all who differ 



in theory, as the discussion can not fail to be of mutual bene- 
fit to editors and readers. 

The order of Historic Design, according to Owen Jones, 
is as follows. Those marked with an asterisk we shall omit 
for the present. 

Egyptian Etruscan* Turkish* Hindoo Mem/etal 

Assyrian Roman* Moresque* Chinese Renaissance 

Greek Byzantine* Persian Japanese Elizabethan 

Pompeian* Arabian Indo-Persian Celtic Italian 

Modern 

The Chinese art being contemporary and not evolved 
from Greek art, we will treat of it in this number; giving the 
simpler designs, the more intricate will be given in the next 
number. After the Chinese, we will return to the Arabian. 

The writer of the articles on Historic Ornament, wishes 
to give due credit to the authors from whose works she re- 
ceives great assistance — Racinet, and Owen Jones. The stu- 
dent would do well to examine these works on ornament at 
the public libraries, the color plates are especially magnificent 
and instructive. 

We are in receipt of an interesting letter from Miss M. 
Louise McLaughlin, in which she tells something of her new 
ware, and expresses regret that she could not exhibit with the 
League in Chicago. She writes; " I hoped to be able to send 
some pieces to your Exhibition and have waited until the last 
moment to tell you that it has not been possible for me to be 
represented there. I had arranged to have an exhibit of my 
new ware for the Spring Exhibition at our Art Museum. 
That opened May 20th. I was able to make an exhibit of 
twenty pieces but that is about all I had on hand. This work 
has proved so fascinating that I have found myself quite ab- 
sorbed by it. I have now about passed the experimental 
stage, but there are many delightful uncertainties in a high 
temperature kiln, and some that are not so delightful. One 
does not quite know what surprises are in store tor one, and 
the moment of opening the seggars is always an exciting one. 
I fear I shall have to put off making an exhibit in New York 
until autumn, unless I should remove my exhibit from the 
Museum. I want to compliment you on the very fine appear- 
ance of your new paper, as well as the interesting contents. I 
should be glad to avail myself of your invitation to write 
something for it. * * * I have now accomplished the 
task I set myself, — making a body and fitting a glaze to it 
which would answer my purpose, but as this is a very large 
subject, there are yet some details which I have not worked 
out, and there are effects and causes which I expect to un- 
derstand later on. Meanwhile let me congratulate you on the 
KERAMIC STUDIO and wish you all success. Yours very sin- 
cerely, M. Louise McLaughlin." We publish portions of 
Miss McLaughlin's letter that our subscribers may enjoy the 
anticipation of hearing more about the new ware from the 
hands and brain of this indefatigable worker, the pioneer, one 
may say, of keramics in America. We wish her the success 
that she deserves, and we will hail with delight her exhibit 
when it reaches New York. 



66 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



f^LUB The Indianapolis Club at its last monthly 

1VJ -p W . < , meeting decided to send an application for 
membership to the National League of Min- 
eral Painters. 

The "New York Society of Keramic Arts" held its usual 
monthly meeting at the Waldorf-Astoria, and adjourned until 
the second Monday of September, when preparation for the 
annual fall exhibition will immediately begin. 

The Jersey City Club sent out cards for a lecture given 
by Mrs. Wait. As a lover and collector of rare old china, 
Mrs. Wait is well known, and never fails to hold her audience 
spell-bound, as she relates her visits to American and foreign 
potteries, and her success in " picking up " interesting opin- 
ions of historic china of this country. All the progressive 
clubs now seem to be embracing every opportunity for 
enlightenment and study of keramic arts. 

The annual meeting of the Bridgeport League of Kera- 
mic Art, was held Monday afternoon at the home of Mrs. 
Wm. R. Hopson on Washington avenue. After the usual 
order of business, Mrs. Carrie Doremus, our delegate to the 
State Federation of Woman's clubs, held in Norwalk, gave a 
very interesting report of the meeting. Mrs. Frank Kinsley, 
president of the club, read a very able paper full of interest, 
prepared by her for the Chicago congress, on the advantage 
of the Federation and the club as an educator. Another 
pleasing feature of the meeting was the report given by Miss 
M. Helen E. Montfort of New York, the club delegate to the 
National League of Mineral Painters held in Chicago, May 15. 
The following officers were then elected : President, Mrs. 
Frank Kinsley; first vice-president, Mrs. N. E. Cornwall; 
second vice-president, Mrs. Wm. R. Hopson; third vice-presi- 
dent, Mrs. J. R. Torrey ; recording secretary, Mrs. H. B. Miles; 
corresponding secretary, Mrs. Orville Rector; treasurer, Mrs. 
P. L. Holzer; librarian, Miss Esther Smith. An original 
poem, Art's Strong Bond, was read by the author, Mrs. Wm. 
R. Hopson. Refreshments were served the members and all 
well pleased as the club had had a very prosperous year. 

The Brooklyn Society held its last meeting of the season 
at the residence of Miss T. A. Johnson. After the business 
of the day, a well arranged calender was given to each mem- 
ber and friends, indicating the ensuing year's work for the 
club. As the course of study and program for each month is 
carefully planned, the members can arrange their studies 
according, through the summer months, in anticipation of the 

winters work. 

j? # 

TN THE Mr. George Leykauf of Detroit, was in 

_, m the city quite recently, and made the round 

of the studios. His old pupils and friends 
were delighted to see him, and are interested in his plans 
for his new work. Mr. Leykauf does not expect to do much 
teaching for the next six months, but will devote his time to 
his own work, having a number of orders for fish and game 
sets. He has original plans for them, and we hope to have 
some reproductions for the KERAMIC STUDIO. 

Miss Jeanne Stewart, whose designs will appear in the 
KERAMIC STUDIO from time to time, has just finished a most 
successful class in Buffalo. Her stud}' of currants, which forms 
the supplement to this number of the magazine, we consider 
very artistic, and it will be helpful in the studios. She is now 
in California, studying fruits and flowers, returning on Oct. 1st 
to her studio, 741 Marshall Field building, Chicago. Until 
then, all letters addressed 1249 Main street, Quincy, 111., will 
be forwarded to her. 



Mrs. Alsop-Robineau will be in Syracuse, N. Y., during 
the months of August and September, and will have pupils at 
108 S. Lowell avenue. 

Miss Henrietta Barclay Wright has been teaching at 
Omaha during Jul)/. For August she will take a short rest 
preparatory to taking up a class in Montana during Septem- 
ber. She contributes a study of yellow roses to this number. 

TEAGUE At a meeting of the Advisory Board Mr. 

.j^j^y-p, Frank E. Burley was made an honorary mem- 
ber. The members of the board consider that 
Mr. Burley is furthering the influence of keramic art, by his 
great interest in the League and old keramists, by his kindness 
and courtesy to all who visit his place of business. He is enti- 
tled to the membership for the educational display of his 
choice wares, in having the porcelain and pottery classified 
and so marked, and for the privileges he extends to those 
who are studying the art, in allowing them to examine at 
leisure his choice collection, and aiding them in every possible 
way. 

Mrs. M. S. Wagner of Detroit has been offered the chair- 
manship of the League Exhibition in Paris next year, and 
we hope to hear of her acceptance. Mis. Wagner will be in 
Paris during the winter, and will be able to assist the League 
in many ways. Besides her talent and ability Mrs. Wagner 
has that personal charm that never fails winning her life long 
friends. The League may well be proud to have such a 
woman represent its interests abroad. 
J. J. 
ST. MARY THE VIRGIN, BY ITTENBACH. 

THIS is a beautifully decorative head and can be treated in 
several ways. We would suggest, however, that it would 
look best painted on a panel and framed, or used as part of a 
decorative design for some religious purpose, such as an altar 
piece. 

An effective decorative treatment, would be to make the 
background of gold and use enamels and gold in the drapery. 
In this case the head would look best delicately outlined in 
red brown or black where it meets the gold. The flesh treat, 
ment is the same as that given for the figures by Chaplin in 
the June number. To make the gold background, first draw 
carefully the lines separating the lighter figure from the darker 
background, thus defining the larger forms of the design. 
Mix paste for raised gold rather thin and lay an even coat over 
the lightest part of design, and the halo about the head. You 
will need lavander in your paste to make it go on smoothly 
for such large spaces. When dry in appearance take a steel 
point and draw upon the paste the balance of the design, 
using a blunter point for the round indentations in edge of 
halo. Be sure and bring out the words clearly, "Sancta Ma- 
ria Virgo," — or you can simply draw the design in black or 
red brown on a gold ground or use two contrasting colors of 
gold. Paint the pearls first, also the rubies, emeralds or ame. 
thyst as you please, then touch with a little white soft enamel, 
on the pearls, pink on high lights of rubies, apple green on 
high lights of emeralds. 

The gown can be either yellow with sleeve linings and 
head band of violet, or the colors reversed, in which case the 
yellow should be shaded with violet for the first fire and a 
little yellow brown used afterward. Another good combina- 
tion would be a pale sage green with a dull pink made of deep 
red brown. The subject should be treated delicately to retain 
the spirituelle feeling. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



67 



9> 




8 

E2 

! 



5 



5 






68 



KERAMIC STUDIO 






HISTORIC ORNAMENT 
CHINESE 



HINESE art is fixed and unprogressive : the principles it has evolved 
are for all times. The different authorities are most diverse in 
their opinions, so the only thing left for us to do is to study 
their designs and judge for ourselves. We cannot fail to derive 
advantage from the study at any rate. It is a conventional art in 
every respect. The Chinese seem never to have received any- 
thing from other people. They have lived an isolated life for 
centuries and their art is as isolated and strange as themselves. They have 
created within themselves a style apart, except for certain geometric forms 
common to all races. The Chinese art, like the people, is of the highest 
antiquity. They, at a very remote period, evolved a school of art of a very 
important kind. In general principles it so nearly resembles the art of the 
Mohammedan races that it is presumed by one author of authority, that it was 
derived from them, but considering all the characteristics of the Chinese and 
their racial prejudices, it is much safer to assert that the art of other oriental 
nations was strongly influenced by the Chinese. Certain it is, that with the 
exception of a grotesqueness, which is essentially Chinese, it would not be diffi- 
cult to take almost any purely conventional Chinese ornament and by simply 
varying color and correcting drawing, convert it into an Indian or Persian or 
other oriental design. 

The Chinese have no architectural art, that is, no form that suggests 
ideality, nobility, grandeur ; hence, their extreme fancifulness of ornament. As 
M. de Chavannes says, "This people seems bound to occupy itself exclusively 
with details." Variety with the Chinese is the first element of beauty, every- 
thing is sacrificed to that idea. They have a horror of angles, which are seldom 
seen except in their peculiar fret work which is singularly like the Greek. They 
torture their imagination to disguise these angles, they give free play to a dis- 
ordered imagination, always endeavoring, like their own jugglers, to conceal the 
real idea, by a pretense of a totally different one. This is best illustrated in 
their furniture, where the final destination of an article is disguised almost 
beyond recognition. The Chinese are close observers of nature and faithful in 
expression of her principles, though the mode of expression is characteristically 
grotesque. They show fidelity in copying forms, but lack the taste to idealize. 
They pay not the slightest attention to the laws of perspective or shadow. It is 
not, however, because they do not understand them, but because their theories 
are totally against natural representation. They are lacking in true art, yet 
their ornament is treated with so much imagination, their coloring is so rich, 
they show such varied and charming use of it, that their productions in decora- 
tions are marvels of harmony and effect— in many respects superior to all other 
nations. In conception of pure form they are behind even barbarous people, 
though they possess it in a minor degree as shown by their vases which are 
remarkable for beauty of outline, but are often spoiled by grotesque ornaments 
built up on the surface, not growing naturally out of it nor having any connec- 
tion with the decoration. However, they have taught us to understand one 
thing — "The beauty in ugliness." 

Their most successful efforts are those where geometric figures form the 
basis of the design. Even then they show an imperfect idea of the distribution 
of spaces, but instinct of color balances form. With all Orientals they possess 
this happy instinct of balancing and harmonizing color. There is nothing crude 
or harsh in any combination, the eye is perfectly satisfied with the balance and 
arrangement of color and form, though there is an absence of the purity of 
drawing of other orientals, of the Greek, the Arab, the Moor, and even the 
Mohammedan races of the present day. 

The Chinese are pre-eminently colorists, they are able to balance, with equal 
success, the fullest tones and the most delicate shades, they are successful not. 
only with the primary colors but equally with the secondaries and tertiaries. 




Ife^lfefel 




I 



1 

Co 

3 ?^ 






3 § 



Ci hi 
S3 



P 





KERAMIC STUDIO 



69 



Their chief colors for masses are pale blue, pink and green; 
for small spaces dark blue, pink, green, purple, yellow, white 
and black. Triangular symmetrical arrangement is the 
ground principle of their designs, especially in "all-over" 
patterns. All Orientals seem to have the same principle, but 
the Chinese peculiarity is the relatively large size of the prin- 
cipal ornament which marks the triangulation. It is from the 
observance of this principle that we find such a strong resem- 
blance between all art of Asiatic origin, Persian, Turkish, 
Moorish, Arabian, Russian, Chinese and Japanese, though the 
latter are freer and more individual. The Chinese have no 




flowing conventional ornament. Its place is supplied by 
natural flowers interwoven with lineal ornament. In floral 
patterns they always observe the laws of radiation and tan- 
gential curvature. They have reached the extreme limit of 
conventional representation. They make an ornament out of 
every thing — cloud, wave, shell, rock and flower, rain and 
thunderbolt, animals, birds, scrolls, crystals, writing, — but their 
defect is also their beaut}-. 

It is a singular circumstance that this art, so capricious in 




Chinese 
Motifs. 



conception, is in execution characterized by such immutability 
of proceeding, and faithfulness of transmission, that hundreds 
of years pass before the slightest modification can be per- 
ceived. Their laws of conventionalization are rigid but un- 
limited. Where the representation is conventional the color is 
conventional also, and the ornamentalist remains master of his 
palette. Severity of design is thus relieved by liberty in 
chromatics. This road, always open to creative originality, 
was never abandoned by the Orientals, and in following it they 
acquired unequalled excellence. 

[To be continued.] 

Designs I to 1 1 inclusive are outlined in gold. 
1. Pale blue ground below, dark blue 
ground above. Ornament, yellow brown with 
pale green outer edge. Red ornaments on dark 
blue ground, dark blue ornaments on pale blue ground. Black- 
in rest of design, with a touch of white in the oval spot. 

2. Upper band, yellow ground, pale blue figure, with 
black inside lines. Lower band, pale blue ground, with black- 
stripes, having on either side red, dark blue and yellow stripes. 

3. Pale blue fret on dark blue ground. Inside of fret 
brown, shading into grey. Touches of red in centers of orna- 
ment. 

4. Plain ground, pale blue. Figure dark blue on green 
ground. Inside edge red. 

5. Pale blue ground. Upper scroll pale brown, lower 
dark blue, red touches in center. Three oblong ornaments 
deep yellow, flower red. 

6. Pale blue ground, green scrolls, pink shaded flowers 
with green centers. 

7. Pale blue ground. Dark blue zigzag. Triangular 
ornaments alternately light red and green with black centers 
and yellow scrolls on the green, yellow centers and black 
scrolls on the red. 

8. Red ornament on dark blue ground. 

9. Black ground. Triangular figure yellow, other figure 
green. 

10. Plain ground, pale blue. Ground of figure dark blue. 
Lines in deep yellow, ends of scrolls red. Side ornaments 
green. Diamond topped ornament white, shading into green. 
Green centers to other ornaments, which are white. 

11. Pale blue ground. Shaded green vine, stems being 
pale green, leaves and scrolls darker. Brown bats shaded from 
yellow brown to red brown. Yellow ends to scrolls. Yellow 
and red flowers with white tips. 




70 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



12. Pale blue edge, gold ground. Roses pink, leaves 
green, small scrolls lighter green, chrysanthemums yellow. 
Outlines black. 

13. Dark olive green ground. Gold border and outlines. 
Large flower of ornament red, small flower pale brown. Scrolls 
green, ending in pale blue. Overlapping circles red, dark blue, 
red, light blue, bands holding scrolls dark blue, leaves at base, 
pale blue. Medallion pale brown, green center with dark blue 
scallop. 

14. Pale blue ground. White figure with white scrolls, 
edged with dark blue and orange. Leaves green, touches of 
red in centers of ornaments and edges of flowers. Gold out- 
lines. 

15. Represents the waves of the sea with sea weed and 
the eyes of fishes peering through. The figure above, a con- 
ventionalized dragon, the emblem of protective power, hover- 
ing over the sea. The subject is hardly adaptable to modern 
design. 

16. Shows the typical Chinese dragon, from an embroid- 
ered imperial robe. The dragon is blue on a gold ground, the 
flowers and leaves in natural colors. The dragon is the im- 
perial emblem. 



Application to 
Modern 
Design 



PLATE BORDER — This is a simple adapta- 
tion of No. 12, and thoroughly Chinese. Use 
the colors as given in the original border or 
change the combination to suit yourself. It 



would look well in lustres with gold outlines. 




Tea Caddy. — In the September number we will give a 
modernized version of the bat "all-over" pattern on the body 
of the caddy. As the top ornament is a modern design, the 
body of the piece should correspond. The straight lines on 
the top ornament were not intended to imitate a lyre, they 
were put in simply to give a different tone. This design can 
be treated in the colors given with the original designs Nos, 
5 and I 1, the diaper pattern on the rim being Dark Blue on a 
Pale Blue ground with Gold outlines; or, ground of "all-over" 
pattern Light Bronze Green, ground of border Dark Bronze 
Green, diaper in Gold on Light Bronze Green with Turquoise 
enamel in three pointed figure. Designs worked out in 
enamels, the original colors, outlined in gold. For the top of 
tea caddy, the outside ground is Dark Bronze Green, next 
ground space Light Bronze Green, ground of center figure 
Gold. Light Bronze Green can be made from Dark Bronze 
Green 10 by the addition of y\ to }{, Gold. 

INCENSE BURNER.— This design is made especially to 
show how one style of decoration can be evolved out of an- 
other. To start with, we have design No. 13, a diaper pattern, 
and a medallion suggested by the familiar scroll found in Nos. 
1,2, 10 and 14. Modernizing No. 13, we make both sides of 
scroll alike. We wish to treat the forms with jewels, so the 
circular ornaments are changed to adapt themselves to that 
treatment. We wish to make a jeweled border to contrast 
with plain ground of scroll, so we take a diaper pattern, the 
familiar "rice pattern," but we do not find that it quite adapts 
itself to the desired treatment, so on 
the same dividing lines we try sev- 
eral variations until we strike one 
that suits us. The one in the upper 
left hand corner is the one upon 
which we decide. The band design 
appearing too tame, we introduce 
the medallions above and below the 
bars dividing the decorative band. 
Then we make the design on the 
top to correspond, using a differ- 
ent diaper for contrast. Now treat 
this all as a jewel pattern and 
you will find you have a new, an 
entirely modern design, and if you 
think it out you will find your de- 
sign transformed from Chinese to 
Russian, simply by a change in treat- 
ment of the same motifs. And, 
really, the Russian work has many 
Chinese characteristics, and you can 
trace the influence as well as racial 
characteristics from the Chinese 
through the Tartars, the Cossacks to 
the Russians. We suggest as a 
treatment the following: Ground of 
scroll Bronze Green, design in Gold 
with colored enamel jeweling. Use 
Scarlet, Turquoise, Dark Blue, Green 
and White. Bands above and below- 
Gold, with a Black diaper and col- 
ored enamel dots, Red Bronze inside 
medallions, ornaments Gold and 
enamel, top of rim of Gold, medal- 
lions with enamels on Bronze Green, 
or all Gold, if preferred. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



7i 







72 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




GLASS DECORATIONS 

O decorate glass for table ware one needs in the 
first place, Bohemian or Baccarat glass, the 
first mentioned being safest for the amateur to 
fire. For raised gold used Hancock's paste 
for china. The ordinary fluxed gold for china 
will do for the paste work but a specially fluxed 
gold is prepared for flat use. The enamels also are specially 
prepared for glass. The jewels are of Bohemian glass and 
average ten cents a dozen, round or cut. The enamels also 
are very inexpensive, usually about fifteen cents per vial- 
When it is desired to stain the glass, specially prepared colors 
are required, some being inexpensive, and some, like the ruby 
stain, cannot be bought in small quantities unless procured 
through some decorator who uses it. The brushes and oils 
used for china decorations can be used for glass work. 

To prepare paste for raised gold, you will use a small 
piece of ground glass, a horn palette knife, fat oil of Turpen- 
tine, oil of lavender, Hancock's paste. Mix powder with 
just enough fat oil to hold it together without looking oily, 
breathe on it three or four times, then rub in with palette 
knife— repeat this three or four times. Do not think this is 
" hocus pocus," it is a most essential part of the process, as 
the warm breath cuts the oil and helps keep the mixture open. 
Now put in enough oil of lavender to make about the consis- 
tency of mustard, and breathe on it again several times, mixing 
between, until the paste "stays put," without being too stiff 
to work. If it gets too stiff, it needs a little more lavender, if 
too oily, it needs more paste. Mixed this way on a clear cool 
day the paste will stay in working condition without further 
manipulation about three hours or until used up. If you have 
trouble with your paste for china, try this method of mixing. 
There is nothing to compare with it, if you wish to do much 
modeling. 

After the paste design is finished, put a dot of the paste 
on center of circle of dots for jewels, then place the jewel on 
it and press down to glass. This will raise a little rim around 
it which will hold it firm. The jewel being of the same con- 
sistency as the glass upon which it is placed, there will be not 
the slightest difficulty in firing as the jewel and glass fuse at 
the same degree of heat. If you wish to stain your glass as 
in the illustration, this must be done before the paste is 
put on. 

Directions for Hock Glass Decoration. Draw a circle on 
paper, divide into 12, marking the lines right across the circle. 
Place the glass on this circle, being sure that it stands on the 
center — mark the divisions in India ink on the edge and rim 
of glass, being careful that the marks on rims are directly 
above those on base. Put a white piece of cloth inside of 
glass and draw design in India ink on one section then trace it 
off on a zvhite piece of paper, cutting it the size and shape of 
one section, place this against the window and trace the design 
on the other side also, thus you have the design in reverse, 
now wet your tracing with water and stick it inside of your 
glass, fitting it to the first section, trace on the glass in India 
ink. In this way the entire design is put on, wetting the 
paper when it drys and continually reversing as you finish a 
section. 

Now cover the spaces to be stained ruby, with English 
Grounding oil and pad till even and tacky, then dust on the 
ruby powder. Clean out the design for paste and dry in oven. 
Then put on paste and jewels as directed. If you wish to 
make the setting, as in the illustration, the little claws are 



built up on to the jewel after it is fixed and the paste dry. In 
putting the claws on, take a dot of paste on the end of your 
brush, touch it to the ring of paste and part way up the side 
of jewel, then draw away the brush with a side movement 
which brings the paste out in a point giving the effect of a 
real jewel setting. Fire— then gild and refire. For table 
ware a simpler design is in better taste. This glass was an 
exhibition piece and took 60 hours to execute. 




HOCK GLASS— ADELAIDE ALSOP-ROBINEAU. 
I Photo, by Scherer.) 

"A Guide to the Wild Flowers," published by Frederick 
A. Stokes Co., 5 and 7 East Sixteenth Street, New York, con- 
tains 64 beautiful full-page colored plates, 100 black and white- 
plates, and descriptions of over 500 plants. The illustrations 
are by Mrs. Rowan, who refused $75,000 from the German 
government for her collection of botanical studies. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



73 



TREATMENT OF PYRUS JAPONICA 

THE half-tone is a reproduction of a water color sketch by 
Miss Leta Horlocker and shows to admirable advantage 
the growth of stem, blossom and bud. 

This is one of the things that should be used on something 
tall, when the stems should come up from the base. The lines 
just as they are from nature are exceedingly decorative, and 
by changing the direction only slightly, one has all that is 
necessary for a vase decorated on Japanese lines. See how 
that lower branch joins the stem, and again notice the massing 
of the blossoms and the outgrowth of the buds. Then the 
termination of that tender upper branch, which can be ex- 





Leta Horlocker 



tended or adapted to the shape of the vase, but keep in mind 
that there are no curves, the stems growing in stiff straight 
lines, which does not mean that your design must be stiff and 
awkward, (nothing in nature is awkward), but that you must 
not lose the character of the plant growth, if you are to dec- 
orate in a naturalistic style. 

These blossoms are a delicate pink, for which use Carmine 
No. 3, and for the deeper tones use Carmine No. 3 and Ruby 
Purple, half and half, with stronger touches of Ruby in heavy 
shadows. Be very careful to use thin washes of the Carmine 
in the first fire or it may turn "blueish" when fired again. 

The stems are very dark brown and the leaves a dark- 
green. Do not make the stems too dark and cold, or they 
will be the most prominent spot of color in the design. Use 
a little Deep Red Brown or Violet of Iron occasionally to give 



a warm tone and to give better values. The leaves may be 
painted with Moss Green and a little Brown Green for the 
first fire and afterwards strengthened with Brown Green and 
Deep Red Brown. Much depends upon the background. If 
it is to be dark, a touch of Ruby Purple here and there in 
leaves and stems will make it hold together better. 

A pale warm grey background would be charming for 
these pink blossoms, and would be in keeping with the Japan- 
ese treatment. This design can also be modeled in white 
enamel — blossoms, buds, stems and leaves, then fired and 
colored afterwards, or it would be good, all in white enamel, 
say on a pink or yellow background. It would also be effective 
modeled in raised gold, on a bronze or black background, with 
the blossoms and buds in green gold. This is a helpful study 
and will be most useful in class work. 



74 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




"ORIGIN OF THE MANUFACTURE OF PORCELAIN 
IN EUROPE." 

[CONTINUED FROM THE JUNE NUMBER,] 

HIS position of relative inferiority was the 
subject of much solicitude at the court of 
Louis XV, and it became evident that a 
serious effort must be made to remedy it 
as soon as possible. 
Consequently, when towards the year 1740, the two broth- 
ers Dubois, coming from the Chantilly factory, offered to be- 
tray to Orry de Fulvy, brother of the Comptroller General of 
Finance, the secret of the manufacture of porcelain, they found 
him quite disposed to lend a favourable ear to their overtures, 
probably owing to his conviction that he could obtain from 
Louis XV every encouragement and all the privileges required 
to start the factory he wished to establish, and which was des- 
tined to liberate France from the tribute which that country 
was at the time paying to Germany. 

These brothers Dubois had at first been employed in the 
manufactory of Saint Cloud, and subsequently in that of 
Chantilly, from which they were discharged for misconduct. 
Men's minds were, however, at that time so engrossed in the 
manufacture of porcelain, and the delicate and elegant ware 
imported into France from Saxony was so much sought after 
and enjoyed such popularity, that the proposal of the broth- 
ers was accepted with alacrity, and no inquiry was made as to 
their antecedents. 

Orry was, by his brother's support, enabled to place at 
the disposal of his coadjutors the long unused riding school of 
the Chateau of Vincennes. Unfortunately for their noble 
patron, the brothers Dubois were obliged to leave Vincennes 
after four years of fruitless attempts, and blind costly experi- 
ments, the failure of which was due to their ignorance and in- 
capacity, as well as to their misconduct, and on which they 
squandered not only the money placed at their disposal by 
Orry de Fulvy, but also a sum of 10,000 livres granted by the 
king in aid of the new undertaking. 

The enterprise was consequently on the eve of complete 
abandonment, when a man of the name of Gravant, an honest, 
intelligent and faithful workman, who had been employed by 
the brothers Dubois, and had attentively watched their exper- 
iments, suggested to M. de Fulvy that they two should con- 
tinue the attempt, at all events for a time. Gravant soon 
amply justified the confidence placed in him, and from the 
year 1745, was able to produce specimens of porcelain ware of 
sufficient merit to assure the fortune of the establishment. 

It was then Orry de Fulvy established a company of 
which nearly all the members had an interest in the formes. 
The new undertaking, with its exceptional privileges, possessed 
every element of success, but its first efforts were made under 
great difficulties, and King Louis XV had many a time to 
come to its assistance with considerable sums of money. 

Its chief aim was to compete with the German porcelain ■ 
consequently without servilely copying the forms of the Meis- 
sen models, it imitated the raised ornamentation, which it ex- 
ecuted, however, with more discriminating taste, and with 
more delicate decorative feeling. Like the Meissen works, it 
produced charming little vases decorated with floral orna. 
ments, modeled and colored an naturcl, which from the first 
met with great success and led to the manufacture of the 
floral decorations in relief, for the ornamentation of brackets, 
chandeliers, by which the manufactory first won its reputation. 



During the first few years, however, the sales were very 
small, and German porcelain, which sold at a lower price, con- 
tinued to be imported into France in large quantities; in this 
respect the new undertaking fulfilled neither the expectations 
of its founders nor the hopes entertained in high places. From 
a financial point of view it was a disaster, and it became evi- 
dent that a new departure must be made, and that success 
could only be achieved by some great effort. 

By the advice of J. B. de Machault, Count d' Arnouville, 
who had succeeded Philibert Orry as Comptroller General of 
Finance, and of Madame de Pompadour, to whose enlightened 
intelligence both the arts and industries in France owed such 
efficient protection, Louis XV extended his patronage to the 
manufactory, renewed for another twenty years the original 
privileges, and again advanced it considerable sums of money. 
The learned Hellot, Director of the Academic des Sciences, 
was entrusted with the superintendence of all that related to 
the manufacture of porcelain, the paste, colors, and firing; 
Dupleiss, the Court Jeweler, a skilful and facile artist, was 
commissioned to design the forms, and to give his whole care 
to the perfect execution of the objects, the painting and gild- 
ing of which were placed under the supervision of Mathieu, a 
fairly skillful painter in enamel, who was soon superseded by 
Bachelier, a man of originality, taste and arts, and to whom 
both Vincennes and Sevres owed the most perfect specimens 
that ever left their kilns. 

The King was induced by the progress which the manu- 
factory had, since its establishment, made in every branch of 
its business, to take a share of one third, and to openly declare 
himself its patron; he also authorized it to assume the name 
of "Manufacture Royale de la Porcelains de France," and in fu- 
ture to mark with the royal cipher all porcelain it produced. 
(The mark was given in the June number. — Ed.) 

The extensive development of the manufactory, soon ne- 
cessitated larger premises than those available at Vincennes, 
and the choice fell upon Sevres. The old manufactory was 
speedily forgotten, and soon no other but that of Sevres was 
recognized, but the fact remains that it was Vincennes that 
from 1748 to 1756 produced those fine specimens of soft por- 
celain {pate tendre) which established throughout Europe the 
fame of the Porcelainc de France. 
j» J- 
LUSTRES. 

LIGHT GREEN. 

Light Green is one of the most satisfactory colors to use. 
It seldom spots and makes many fine combinations. Used 
thin it makes a celadon tint, used thicker or in two coats it 
makes a beautiful yellowish green, and with repeated coats it 
has spots almost like apple green with pearl effects. You can 
get beautiful shaded effects by blending one coat over another 
(always firing between) and painted on, it makes a fine mala- 
chite effect. Some beautiful combinations are as follows — 
always understanding that when one color is used over an- 
other the first coat has always been fired: Light Green over 
steel, over ruby, over rose, silver, copper, purple, violet, irri- 
descent rose, chatoyant. The most effective of these combi- 
nations are over ruby, rose and violet. 
DARK GREEN. 

Dark Green can be used in every combination which is 
made with light green. It is quite as effective but is a bluer 
green, consequently all combinations will be bluer. A partic- 
ularly fine combination is dark green over purple. Both of 
these greens are fine for decorative flower and landscape work. 
They also give a rich effect washed over burnished gold. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



7^ 



THE ATLAN CLUB OF CHICAGO. 

zones in this article .-ire used by courtesy of "Brush and Pencil.") 

IE Atlan Club of Chicago entertained the 
members of the League at a reception in the 
studio and workshop of Mrs. Koehler and 
Miss Wait. This was a most artistic enter- 
tainment and the visitors thoroughly en- 
joyed the work of the club, the artistic 
rooms as well as meeting Mrs. Koehler and Miss Wait. 

Mrs. Koehler is the most thorough exponent of conven- 
tional work that the representative of the KERAMIC STUDIO 
has met. She has had the experience of a thorough art train. 
ing and has made decoration of porcelain a particular study. 





A. A. Frazee 



Mrs. A. A. Frazee 




Mwrfr V 

BE*?' 1 Vv ■ 










^J 


BO? TlJW 


m< 





Lillie E. Cole 



ace P. Peck. 



pottery, brass and carved work. Some of the bits about the 
rooms had been shown in the "Arts and Crafts" exhibition. 

The Atlan Club is small as regards members, but it is 
strong in its serious work. The wonderful handling of enam- 
els so like the old Chinese, was particularly attractive and in- 
teresting. The intricate drawing of designs adapted from the 
Persian, Indian and Arabic were very cleverly done, the results 
being always charming and most restful. Miss Peck, Miss 
Cole, Miss Topping and Miss Dibble show a most delightful 
individuality in their designs and it was the greatest pleasure 
to linger over them. It is the work that will last for ages 



With a technique that is marvelous and an unerring taste, one 
stands before her work in wonder and admiration. Although 
she exhibited only two or three pieces, it was through her 
pupils that one realized the influence she is making upon ker- 
amic decoration. 

We were shown the work room, and here we first saw the 
interesting sketch books of the members, and the decorations 
in different stages of completion, the many color schemes, and 
the adaptation of the design to the shapes to be decorated. 
In the larger room there was an artistic arrangement of old 




Mrs. M. McCree 



Helen M. Topping 



without wearying one. Mrs. Zeublin exhibited beside her 
other work, a vase in a warm grey, there was a branch of fleur- 
de-lis coming up from the base, just in that easy growth that 
the plant has. It was simple, genuine, and upon Japanese 
lines, and was altogether charming. All the members are doing 
conscientious work and they are to be congratulated for their 
serious study and effort. Besides her work upon porcelain, 
Mrs. Koehler exhibited some silver and copper belt buckles 
with translucent enamels— most wonderful in execution and 
design. We hope to have Mrs. Koehler in New York during 
the autumn, when she will also find enthusiastic pupils, who 
will eagerly follow her to the fine libraries and the Metropol- 
itan museum for study and research. 



76 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



The accompanying illustrations give only a suggestion of 
the work of the Atlan Club, as it requires the harmony of 
color to bring out the real beauty of the designs, but we hope 
our subscribers will give them careful attention, as we shall 
have contributions from the Atlan members, with comprehen- 




. F. M. Steki.e 



sive treatments, which will prove an interesting study to those 
who arc also following our historic ornament articles, and their 
application to modern design. 

The members of the Club say, that in taking up this line 
of work, they had to lay aside their old ideas of decoration, 




E. L. Humphrey Mks. F. m. Sessions. 

and at first work in the dark, but as study and research threw 
more and more light upon this subject, they now feel that 
they have the true principles of decorative art to build upon, 
and it is most delightful to see their enthusiasm and ambition. 

New Book on Porcelain. — Chinese Porcelain is the 
name of an elaborately prepared book, the work of \Y. G. Gul- 
land, the English authority, imported and for sale by Chas. 
Scribner's Sons. The book is magnificently printed, contains 
485 illustrations,, and is a most exhaustive treatment of the 
subject. It takes up every period of Chinese work and thor- 
oughly covers the question of marks, glazes, characteristics 
and values; it is printed upon book paper and the illustrations 
are superb. — China, Glass and Pottery Review, 



TREATMENT FOR STEIN IN CURRANTS 

Jeanne M. Stewart 

AFTER sketching design and tracing lightly in India ink, lay 
in the background with flat grounding brush, shading 
from Ivory Green to Yellow Green, and shading Green and 
Black Green in darkest tones on base of stein, leaving strong 
dashes of Ivory in sharp lights. 

Carefully wipe out the prominent berries and leaves, and 
the lights of those in. shadow, while the background is still 
wet that they may be softly blended and merely suggested. 

Lay in currants in Lemon Yellow and Yellow Red in light 
tones; Pompadour Red and perhaps a little Ruby Puiple (if 
more of a ruby red is desired) in dark; wiping out high lights 
with fine pointed shader while color is still open and touching 
Chestnut Brown on blossom end. 

Lay leaves in simply in Yellow Green, Blue Green, Olive 
Green, shading Green and Brown Green, omitting detail. 

Add Yellow Brown, Pompadour and Chestnut Brown in 
most prominent leaf which is seared and worm eaten. 

Use Ivory Yellow, Yellow Green, Chestnut Brown and 
Pompadour in stems. 

Suggest cool shadow leaves in Yellow Green and Gray 
for flowers; warm ones in Pompadour and Gray for flowers; 
shadow berries in a light tone of Pompadour. These ma)- not 
be put in until the second fire. 

In the second painting strengthen dark tones in back- 
ground, prominent leaves and berries and bring out detail 
with same colors as in first fire. 

Sometimes a third fire is necessary to give sufficient 
depth of color and softness of outlines. 

IN WATER COLORS. 

After sketching the design lightly in hard lead pencil 
paint in prominent currants with Gamboge in lights, Vermil- 
lion and Crimson Lake in half tones deepened with Carmine 
and a little Black in shadows. 

In leaves paint darkest tones first— being careful to use 
colors dark enough in first wash as much of the clearness is 
lost with repeated washings of color— with Sap Green and 
burnt Sienna in Warm Greens and Sap Green and Indigo in 
cold. 

With clean wet brush blend edges of shadows, which will 
give a soft light tone for lights. If a darker shade is desired, 
use a thin wash of Sap Green. 

The seared brown leaves are accented with touches of 
Yellow Ochre, burnt Sienna and Payne's Grey. Paint the 
prominent stems quite dark with burnt Sienna and Payne's 
Grey. 

In light leaves, Cobalt may be added to Sap Green in 
medium tones and Sap Green alone used in shadows. 

Paint shadow leaves in Payne's Grey and Hooker's Green 
or Crimson Lake. Shadow berries in light wash of Crimson 
Lake. Background may tone from Gamboge to Sap Green 
and Indigo. Aim for clear color and crispness, leaving white 
paper for high lights, or touching them in with Chinese White 
when colors are dry. 

■P •? 

Owen Jones says that the study of Historic Ornament is 
a valuable and instructive aid in building up what we all seek, 
the progressive development of the forms of the past, founded 
on the eternal principle which all good forms of art display. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



77 




TREATMENT BRONZE TOBACCO JAR 



DRAW the bands and then the flowers in India ink; fill the 
entire background with Bronze, evenly painted on, (use 
Bronze 21 and the same quantity of Gold), leaving only the 
top, bands, and design of flowers and leaves white. 

Shade the flowers slightly with Brown Green and Moss 
Green V, the centers Yellow, and the stem and leaves rather 
Pale Green. There is not much shading, as the design is 
treated more in flat washes and outlined in gold (flat) which 
gives it a more conventional character. 

The bands are edged with small paste dots (beading) the 
blossoms in the band are modeled in raised paste, so also the 
blossoms in the cover. Then the band and blossoms and lid 
are covered with gold. The wavy lines on top of the jar are 
gold. This design may also be carried out in color. A dark 



brown background may be used, very appropriately. (We 
have been requested by Sartorius & Co. to test their Evans 
brown, as they claim it to be unusually fine, so also their soft 
flux.) Do not use matt colors for backgrounds, unless it be 
in small surfaces or bands. It is the wrong idea to make 
china resemble a piece of cloth. 

Since writing the above, we have found in the woods, 
near Long Island Sound, a fungus growth called "Indian 
Pipe." it being the exact shape of a pipe with curved stem, 
It is perfectly white with touches of dark green or brown 
around the scales which are on the stem. This could be ar- 
ranged charmingly in a conventional design for a tobacco jar. 
but we will have to give it later. 



7 8 



KERAMIC STUDIO 





TREATMENT IN LUSTRE COLORS— CUP AND SAUCER 

DRAW the blossoms and stems in India ink delicately, and After using the two colors again, the same as before, cover 

then model them in raised paste. The darker part of the paste and paint in the wavy gold lines. The gold will fire 

the cup and saucer paint with the lustre color, Irridescent all right over the un fired lustre colors. Then line the cup 

Rose, and the lower or lighter part with Light Green, and with a wash of Yellow lustre. This finishes for the second or 

after washing a thin coat of gold on handle and rims, fire in last fire which should be sufficiently strong to develop the 

the middle of the kiln. gold. 



KERAM1C STUDIO 



79 




PLATE DESIGN 



For Treatment see page 86 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



ST. MARY THE VIRGIN -BY ITTENBACH. 



For Treatment see page < 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



THE USE OF AMERICAN WARES BY AMERICAN 
CERAMIC DECORATORS. 



I Address to the Natii 




al League of Mineral Painters.) 

By Charles F. Biuus 



HATEVER may be the skill of the ceramic 
artist involving complete control of ma- 
terial in the way of color and gold and 
implying a knowledge of drawing more or 
less perfect, the question of what porce- 
lain or pottery to employ cannot be a matter of indifference. 
In fact it may be said that the higher the skill the more im- 
portant this question becomes, for though a beginner may use 
almost any class of ware and gain experience in the using, 
when a certain facility is reached and good work is being pro- 
duced the quality of the decorated surface becomes of the 
highest moment. 

Good work demands good ware, and as it is, without 
question, the desire of all those present to produce good work, 
it is only fair that they should be enabled to procure pieces 
upon which their painting will not seem disgraced. 

It is a truism that "the best is none too good," but there 
is often a difference of opinion as to 'what constitutes "the 
best." Some like to use French porcelain and some prefer 
Belleek, but neither of these as at present constituted can be 
considered absolutely satisfactory. The former has a very 
hard glaze and it is not easy to make the colors unite well 
with this. In the latter the glaze is too soft and some colors 
are absorbed and almost destroyed. 

We like to be patriotic, especially since our brilliant and 
victorious war, but some persons evidently think that too high 
a price may be paid for patriotism. We would be glad to use 
American wares provided we are not asked to sacrifice too 
much. Not having any mandate on behalf of patriotism I 
wish to examine critically into the respective merits of im- 
ported and domestic wares, and having done so, to point out 
what improvement may be effected in the latter. Of course, 
none of us have any desire to improve the former. 

Large quantities of French porcelain are sold in this 
country in the white state for the use of decorators, and there 
must be a considerable demand for this ware or it would not 
be found in such abundance. Some of the porcelain is of high 
quality, technically, but there are certain objections to its use. 
The shapes are for the most part French in style, and as such 
demand a French treatment in the decoration. No style is so 
uncompromising as the French, and we do not want our deco- 
rations to look as though they had come across the Atlantic. 
I am aware that to some persons the highest praise that can 
be given to certain art objects is that they are " imported," in 
fact one would sometimes think that this is the only induce- 
ment that a salesman need offer. But I hope and believe that 
this notion is passing away. Here is one matter upon which 
patriotism may have full sway, and nothing will stimulate the 
art manufacture of this country more than for the women of 
America to demand home goods in preference to foreign. 
This is by way of a parenthesis. It is most desirable that 
American artists should cultivate a style of their own. In 
architecture this has to some extent been accomplished, but, 
so far as I am able to judge, it is not the case in any allied art. 

French porcelain, is from the nature of its manufacture, 
invested with an extremely hard glaze, and even in France the 
overglaze work is not, for this reason, entirely successful. The 
consequence of this hard and unyielding surface is that. the 
colors refuse to unite with the glaze at the heat of a decorat- 



ing kiln, and they present, even when hard fired, a dull and 
unpleasing quality. Decorators are therefore tempted to re- 
sort to flux, and various troubles arise therefrom. It is not 
practicable to use various fluxes, and even if it were, few dec- 
orators possess sufficient knowledge to employ them. Every 
color needs a special flux, for what would damage one tint 
will develop another. Flux causes the colors to peel off from 
the glaze and frequently give rise to a scummy and irridescent 
surface. My advice would be shun flux as you would a 
plague, and endeavor to reach your goal by other means. 

At the same time it would be foolish to deny that there 
arc certain advantages in the use of French porcelain. The 
pure white surface, the regularity and uniformity of the glaze. 
These are important points for we know exactly what we are 
doing even though it may not be the very best. 

With regard to Belleek ware, so called, (we must try to 
find a new name, for American Belleek is an absurdity), it has 
likewise its advantages and the reverse. To many the soft 
creamy tone is preferable to a cold white. The ware has a 
pearly translucence and is eminently suitable for dainty treat- 
ment. The shapes available are in great variety and suitable 
for every style of decoration, and in addition to this the ware 
is made in this country. Let it not be imagined, however, 
that I regard Belleek as perfection. It is capable of improve- 
ment and it will be improved. First there is the defective 
glaze. A glaze may be very beautiful to the eye and touch, 
as this is, but-as you are well aware, it is detrimental to some 
of the more delicate tints of color and to gold. In this con- 
nection I am glad to be able to announce that these difficul- 
ties have been overcome. The Ceramic Art Company of 
Trenton are producing a new glaze which exhibits all the 
qualities of a perfect porcelain glaze, such as are found, for 
example on the best English china, gold stands well upon 
it and Will burnish even when well fired. Rose color is pure 
and transparent, and in fact all the colors gain considerably 
in value. At the same time there is none of the harsh 
quality apparent on French porcelain, the colors are perfectly 
united with the glaze and no flux is necessary. It appears to 
me that with the preparation of this glaze almost every disad- 
vantage arising from the use of Belleek is overcome. The 
Ceramic Art Company have had the problem before them for 
some time not only with reference to your work, but for the 
sake of their own decorators also, for the same problems which 
beset you were felt at the manufactory. Now we. for I regard 
myself as identified with this company, feel that we can solve 
many of the problems which at one time beset us. 

In the matter of a fine Belleek body the Ceramic Art 
Company are progressing. Not satisfied to stand still, even 
with the beautiful ware we have we are always trying for 
something better, but it is premature to speak- of things which 
are yet in the laboratory. When we have better goods we will 
tell you and in the meanwhile we have already the best in the 
country. Do not think that I am saying these things for the 
purpose of booming the Ceramic Art Company. I would not 
for any consideration recommend that which I did not believe 
to be good, and, having your interests in mind, I put forward 
that which will, in my belief, give you the best results. 

Presuming your technical troubles to be mitigated by the 
advances of which I have spoken, what of the artistic merit of 
native productions? Unquestionably the home production 
offers the greatest variety in shapes and styles. French por- 
celain has never been remarkable for a great diversity of form. 
In fact the conditions under which French wares are manu- 
factured entirely forbid some shapes which are most favored 



82 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



by Americans. In Belleek ware, or as I would prefer to call 
it American soft porcelain, any and every shape of vase that 
is ceramically possible can be produced and you will find that 
when you are prepared to use this ware in preference to 
French, the home manufacturers will on their part be ready 
with all the shapes you need. 

I do not advise you to attempt at present, the designing 
of special forms. Speaking generally, forms designed outside 
of a manufactory arc useless. The amateur designer rarely 
understands the requirements of the potter, and the result is 
that a large amount of unnecessary work is involved. Ask for 
the class of work you want by all means, and the manufac- 
turer will give you their best. 

There is one point upon which the makers of soft porce- 
lain cannot help you much, and that is in the matter of ser- 



vices. The soft body is not adaptable to the manufacture of 
plates except such as can be made upon fancy lines, shell 
plates and. the like, but I hope the day is not far distant when 
you will have provided for you a really good service plate 
upon English lines. There is no reason why the bulk of the 
porcelain services now imported should not be made here and 
I confidently anticipate the time when this will be so. 

In conclusion I would ask for a morsel of consideration 
for the potters of whom you are buying your wares. They 
have many difficulties and disappointments. Kilns are as 
capricious as women, and you know well what that means. 
Promises faithfully made in the expectation of a good burn 
are often broken when the oven is opened and we have to 
bear the blame. Be patient with us and we on our side will 
provide you with our best. 




TREATMENT FOR DOGWOOD PITCHER-M. HELEN E MONTFORT 



FIRST PAINTING— After carefully drawing in design, wash 
over base of petals with Mixing Yellow very thin, over 
centre Apple Green and Mixing Yellow. Use for shadows on 
white flowers, Albert Yellow, Black and Deep Blue Green. 
This combination will give you any desired shade of grey, and 
fires nicely. The little ring or cut in end of petal lay in with 
Violet of Iron and Blood Red. Pick up centre with touches 
of Brown Green. Red on back and turnover parts of flowers 
is Violet of Iron and Blood Red, used very thin. Stems are 
Yellow Red and Brown Green. Tint from bottom up, using 
scale of greens from Moss Green to Dark Green, keeping dark- 
est tints under main bunch of flowers. Keep under side of 



handle very light, using a little Mixing Yellow with Moss 
Green, while upper side is very dark and Violet of Iron is used 
toward bottom. Leaves wash in with Apple and Moss Green. 

SECOND PAINTING— Retouch the flowers with same colors 
used at first. In retouching background tints, be careful to 
save edges of flowers by clean even touches. Be careful not 
to do much work on the white flower, and make all touches 
crisp. Leaves retouch with Olive and Brown Green. 

Sometimes a third firing is necessary. In that case de- 
vote your work to thin washes only, and a point or touch 
here and there. Second and third firings should be light, 
while the first needs to be hard. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



83 




PLATE DESIGN— DOGWOOD 



8 4 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




NOTES ON THE RECENT EXHIBITION OF MINERAL 
LEAGUE 

Mary Chase Perry 
OW that a little time has elapsed since the exhi- 
bition of the National League, one can view it 
as a whole more easily than when all the 
details of the various exhibits were fresh in 
the mind. Taken altogether, it is a good 
thing to look back upon. The general influences both of the 
exhibition and the meetings connected with it, can scarcely 
help being a stimulus and guide in focusing one's plans and 
ideas for his work during the coming year. The immense 
quantity of work submitted proved the wide-spread interest 
taken by the members of the League in making the display a 
success. It also gave the final jury a most excellent opportun- 
ity to pass judgment upon it, and they weeded it out most 
generously. But such a hearty response — and even then, not 
all of the clubs contributed — proclaims that there are those 
who desire a chance to tell their own stories. At least there 
were a gratifying number who had stories of their own to tell. 
Perhaps some of those who thought they were doing so did 
not know differently until they came to the exhibition. It 
may be that this was the reason why some of them failed to 
find the pieces which they had sent. Of course, beside excel- 
lence of execution, the "weeders" had to have other standards 
in order to reduce the amount sent, so that it could be well 
placed in the space allotted — which was not a small one. At 
all events, nothing could have had a more salutary effect upon 
the general appearance of the display, as there were few pieces 
left which could not bear inspection. Even if there was a 
little heart-burning at first, it will point out the way and make 
each earnest worker try to "find himself." 

Aside from personal individuality, there was a certain club 
individuality, which was good to see, although it was a little 
difficult to classify, as the club exhibits were not all arranged 
together. Yet each collection showed its own characteristics, 
pleasantly. This could be accented even more if each organ- 
ization would seek out its special strength and foster it, so 
that it could have a pride of its own. 

One of the strongest features noted, was the growing love 
for detail. There have never been as many small pieces shown 
before with so much fine and painstaking execution. It 
bodes well, too, as it shows a greater understanding of the 
requirements of good china decoration and is proof of a 
constant and untiring application to its demands.- The 
technicalities of paste and enamels were never handled with 
greater perfection nor displayed with better taste. 

Another thing that is an index of the best kind of 
growth was the entire absence of mercenary spirit. The 
exhibition was not intended as an opportunity to promote 
sales, unless they should come up incidentally as they did in 
some cases, and so the commercial atmosphere was mercifully 
lacking. This is surely cause for praise. It shows that there 
is some chance even for the decorator, who has too often 
counted the cost before expending his best energies, like the 
small boy who was found with his hand fast in an expensive 
vase. In some way he had gotten it through the narrow neck- 
but he was unable to withdraw it. The whole family were 
greatly concerned and tried in vain to extricate the imprisoned 
hand. At last when they had tried every conceivable means 
the father said, "Now, Tommy, we will have to break the 
vase, unless your hand comes out, so you just let all your 
fingers go and allow them to be perfectly limp and straight." 



Tommy immediately replied with despair in his financial soul, 
"But I don't want to let go of the cent." So perhaps this 
little parable may have a lesson if there are any who still care 
more for the cent than the vase. 

The comments generally, were of a pleasing nature. To 
be sure there were some startling things shown and these were 
eyed askance at first and elicited remarks which were cheer- 
ful—or otherwise. But after a time, even before the close of 
the exhibition, they were receiving serious consideration. 
Next time they will be looked for. It is all an accretion of 
time and shows a new growth. Because everybody likes 
everything is no sign of a good showing; on the contrary it is 
perfectly paralyzing to further incentive. But it speaks well 
for the strength of the League and argues a stronger future 
for it, that there are those who have the moral courage to 
take the first step alone. This is the only way to find oneself, 
and in so doing, there is no going backward. As a whole, the 
exhibition was extremely satisfying and there has never been 
one where there was so much finish shown — and "finish" of 
the right kind— there was much more of a professional air 
about it. So perhaps after all a vote of thanks ought to be 
given to the "weeders." 

•P f 

PHASES OF THE SEVENTH COMPARATIVE ANNUAL 

EXHIBITION 

Mrs. Worth Qsgovd 

THE difficulties of installing a collective exhibition of deco- 
rated china coming from widely separated sections of 
the United States, can only be appreciated by those who 
have experienced the various phases of receiving, placing and 
caring for these fragile objects. 

A firm which confines itself to a display of its own wares, 
can by the aid of diagrams, map out its entire exhibit in 
advance, so that when the date of installation arrives, the 
parts are easily and regularly adjusted. 

Should not our League too be able to make definite 
application for amount of space, case requirements and all 
exhibition accessories? 

This accomplished, we should then come at once to the 
artistic treatment of the display. To arrange objects totally 
different in shape, coloring and order of decoration, so as to 
present a harmonious whole, requires all the time allowed for 
the installation of an exhibition. 

Complete descriptive lists, sent some weeks in advance, 
would determine these preliminaries. We know well the dif- 
ficulties in the way of complying with this requirement, and 
that the fire stands between the dates of application and 
exhibition; yet as our aim is to help, not hinder every League 
enterprise,- let us take this matter into serious consideration 
and begin at once a systematic, intelligent preparation for the 
next demand for descriptive lists. 

From at least one person's point of view, the advantages 
of cases over display tables cannot be too strongly emphasized. 
Besides imparting to the porcelains a value and dignity not 
attainable upon tables, the boundary lines of the case so 
confine and individualize the work, as to enable one to com- 
pare quickly the standard of one club with that of another. 
A simple placard bearing the name of exhibiting club might 
add to the interest of each case. 

Both interesting and instructive are the lessons learned 
from comparative study of these examples of decorated china. 

As we lovingly and carefully note the variations of taste. 



KERAMC STUDIO 



8* 



and the absence of influences which of late made popular many 
forms of decoration, and which unquestionably had no vitality 
or intention, other than a mere imitation of a type which the 
public declared fashionable, we become impressed with the 
thought that we are in the middle of a transition period which 
will eventually lead us to a higher and better order of things 
artistic. 

There are in our ranks many earnest students who are 
striving for a standard of sound art in decoration, and it is 
from the results of their efforts that we gather our strongest 
evidence of progress. 

These annual exhibitions have proved most helpful in 
the formation of a sound taste League of Mineral Painters, 
and in the formation of intelligent public opinion. 

Each succeeding exhibition draws to itself additional 
public interest and our faith in the foundation principles of 
the League grows stronger. Realizing all this shall we not 
guard well its fair name and endeavor to express in our work 
the beauty and nobility which America's public demands 
of us. 

J> J. 

PERRYISMS 

WE give a few extracts from a personal letter of Mary 
Chase Perry of Detroit, written after the National 
League exhibition. We think they will prove interesting 
reading. 

"About the exhibition: As a whole, it was decidedly the 
best showing we have yet had, and the most even, in that th e 
two of three best known workers did not carry off the palm as 
sweepingly as usual, there was so much nearly approaching 
their work both in conception and execution. * * "* It is 
an extremely good thing to say of any one's work, that it is 
characteristic and different, in this day when people are so 
wary about showing themselves and gloss over what might be 
a natural expression by veneering it so as to fall in with the 
popular or accepted theory. If every one who pretends to 
show something for himself would shut himself up and work 
out of his own think-tank for awhile, there might be some in- 
teresting results, and there might be nightmare afterward too. 
But the sense of the exhibit as a whole gave a feeling that 
, many of the workers had been squinting out of one eye all the 
time they were working for the exhibition, to find out how it 
was going to "take," and varying it accordingly, yet the ex- 
hibition was good and a great improvement. The meetings 
were of interest in that they pulled people together whether 
they wanted to be pulled or not, and some of the things on the 
program were worth hearing, that is, the simple things, the 
more ambitious promises which looked so well on the printed 
program failed to materialize. * * * I have been much 
interested in the work of the Atlan Club, they show much 
real strength and much of the right kind of advancement. 
Mrs Koehler, their leader and teacher is a charming woman, 
and deserves much credit for what she has pulled out of her 
research and the way she has applied it. I believe every dec- 
orator should have just the "course of sprouts" she advocates 
from an educational standpoint. The danger is that the short 
sighted may mistake the study for the end itself instead of the 
means to a more desirable end. An expression from within 
one's self, from within one's own brain, to me that is the only 
desirable ultimate. For example take Chinese ornament. I 
contend that until your design loses its Chinese individuality, 
it does not become a part of you, unless you want to be a 



Chinaman. But all the study and understanding should lead 
up to something, to the time when the student can be free to 
show himself. The different arts and crafts societies are 
" keeping their trolleys" better than most keramic decorators. 
Any number of the Inter national Studio will show that. But 
there are the Rookwood, the Copenhagen and some other re" 
cent pieces which appeal to this uncivilized barbarian. * * 
I had a stunning Samovar given to me the other day and it is 
delighting my heart, just fine in outline and workmanship. 
Have also added to my candlesticks, and have one of those 
jolly little old Dutch bowls with the little uncompromising 
figure and straight up shrubs in the center, one of the genuine 
old rooster plates too. Wish you could see my little ranch." 

FOR BEGINNERS. 

FIRST of all choose a piece of china for its simplicity of line 
and its texture. Avoid as much as possible the embossed 
surfaces, which make one more or less a slave to the raised de- 
sign given, when otherwise one is at liberty to decorate as one 
sees fit. Fortunately all the potteries are sending out more 
artistic shapes, with less ornamentation than formerly. Try 
to select a perfect piece, which will prevent the necessity of 
returning it to the store, with perhaps some unpleasant re- 
marks. 

Then plan an appropriate design, which, of course must 
conform to the shape. Do not try to use a plant foim or 
growth, that requires heighth to give character, to a low 
squatty jar. Above all things do not overcrowd the design, 
keep the lines simple, but make them characteristic as well as 
decorative, as applied to that special piece of china. The 
Rookwood pottery is a fine illustration of this principle, and 
it would be well to study it and get the correct impression. 

It is better to draw the design first, or to indicate the 
strongest points of decoration, — this will preserve a better 
balancing of color and space, for if one paints a flower directly, 
one's brush is apt to run away and the design becomes more 
suitable for a picture than for a decoration. There is a vast 
difference between pictorial art and decorative art. 

If you are painting a dozen plates, or a dozen anything, 
finish them all together. Do all the tinting, then all the paste 
work, and finally the gilding and enameling, treating the en- 
tire dozen as one piece. This plan of work saves time and is 
not irksome, as finishing one plate entirely, before commencing 
another. 

Use always rectified spirits of turpentine for pastes and 
enamels, which can be procured at the art stores or at the 
apothecaries. Oily turpentine is often very troublesome with 
paste, although quite satisfactory with the colors. 

Practice the brush strokes, and try to use as few as possi- 
ble in making the petals of a flower. The hawthorn blossom 
is simple and good for this practice, and when these broad 
quick strokes are made, which form the petals and shade them 
at the same time, there will be in your work a transparency 
and crispness, which can never be obtained by working the 
color in little useless strokes, — which gives the appearance 
of wool. 

Beware of the wolf with a worthless check who offers the 
same in payment of a " wedding present for his sister," ex- 
pects, and sometimes gets, the change. A swindler has been 
the rounds of the studios! He cares not for decorated china ; 
articles of virtu are unappreciated by him. He yearns only 
for the change from his check. Don't give it to him ! 



86 



KERAMC STUDIO 



TREATMENT OF PLATE DESIGN 

A. A. Frazec 

GREAT care should be taken in beginning a conventional 
design. Divide the plate into sections, halves, quar- 
ters, eighths, sixteenths and even smaller, if your design 
requires it. Take one of the smaller sections, and adapt your 
design by free hand drawing, to a size suitable in proportion 
to your plate. The color of this design is Persian in feeling. 
Outer band numbering : i. On tracing — Gold. 2. Dark Blue 
Enamel (dark Blue, toned with deep Purple and a little Bruns- 
wick Black, Yy Aufsetzweis). 3. Dead Leaf Brown (Yellow 
Ocher. Silver Yellow toned with Brown 4 and a little Bruns- 
wick Black). 4. Green Enamel, flat, for scrolls (Apple 
Green, Silver Yellow, Choom Green, 3 b, Brown Green '< 
Aufsetzweis, Dresden). 5. Turquoise Blue Enamel (deep Blue 
Green, Apple Green 2/ Aufsetzweis, ^ hard White Enamel). 
6. Light Grey Brown (Silver Yellow, little Yellow Ochre, little 
Black to tone). 7. Dark Blue, flat Enamel (dark Blue, deep 
Purple, little Black to tone, }A, Aufsetzweis). 8. Turquoise 
Blue Enamel, flat (colors above). 9. Dark Blue Enamel (colors 
above). 10. Turquoise Blue tint (deep Blue Green, Apple 
Green, little Black to tone.) 

Outline all design in outlining Black, except outline to 9 
and 10, which should be outlined in gold, also fine tracing 
finishing inside of plate. The dark Blue flat Enamel should 
be floated on, with a vibrating tone, so that it docs not give a 
heavy appearance to the center disk. All colors are La Croix 
except Brunswick Black and Aufsetzweis, which should be 
Dresden. 

jft .* 

TREATMENT OF SINGLE YELLOW ROSES 

Henrietta Barclay Wright 

FIRST fire. Model the flowers with White Rose, shading 
the centers with Yellow Brown. Use Yellow Brown also 
for modeling the darkest flowers. Model leaves with Brown 
Green and Dark Greem, the light ones with Copenhagen. 
Work out into the background with Brown Green, White 
Rose and Yellow Brown. Mix a little Yellow into the White 
Rose for background — near the upper and lighter part of 
flowers. Blend all together. 

Second fire. Glaze the lighter flowers with Dresden 
Albert Yellow, the darker ones with Lacroix Orange Yellow. 
Model again with White Rose, using Yellow Brown and 
Orange in the centers. Glaze foliage with Rose Green J, and 
model again, filling in more leaves and suggestive foliage in 
the background. Blend the same background colors over 
again, bring all together in a harmonizing whole. Paint the 
stems with Yellow Brown, Dark Brown and Deep Red Brown. 

*• •? 

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS 

C. E. S.-We are glad that the supplement with the Chocolate pot 
design pleases you. Write to our advertisers for catalogues for undecorated 
china. It is marked " A. C. Limoges, France," and is we believe called the 
" Bird Chocolate Pot." Do not buy the one with the large bird on the lop, 
as it is most awkward, but insist upon the smaller bird and handle. This 
china fires with a fine glaze. Color the blue enamel to suit your taste, 
remembering that the color will fire darker — it should resemble the color of 
turquoise. The purchasing agents, who advertise with us, will always be 
delighted to look up china for you, if you cannot find it nearer home. Use 
the German enamel, Aufsetzweis, with one-fourth best English enamel. 

M. N. C. — If your enamel chips off after firing add to it about one-eighth 
flux. Mix your powder with just enough fat oil of turpentine to make a stiff 
paste, thin with lavander and breaih on it siightly to make it stay in place 
without flatting out, fire at quite a good heat and we do not think you will 



have any further trouble with chipping. Be sure that your enamel dries dull 
before firing, if shiny it will surely chip. If you still have trouble write exact 
detail of how you mix, apply and fire your enamel and we can then tell better 
what the trouble is. 

H. E. B.— In some respect the drawing of the cherries is an improvement 
on your other work. It is stronger. There is one great fault, and that is 
that your light seems to come from several directions. Make up your mind 
from which direction the light comes and stick to it. We judge the light is 
intended to come from the front, but where is the shadow that the berries 
would naturally show? They might not be near enough to the background 
to show a distinct shadow, but they would throw a vague one. If laid on a 
plate as these are supposed to be, they would show a distinct shadow both of 
fruit and stem. Try the experiment of laying your fruit or flowers on a plate 
when you want to adapt them to a plate decoration. The cherry which has 
the modeling in broken straight lines following the curve of the cherry, is 
best, it indicates the form better than lines that go across. The broken lines 
in this case might be slightly curved. Do not be too finniky. Such light 
shadows as would be found on the surface of a leaf in full light need but the 
vein line to indicate the form. Simplify your light and shade and leave out 
all but half-tones, thus making the contrast of light and shade stronger, 
little modelings belittle your subject. 

Mrs. H. E. — Wethank you for your kind appreciation of our effort to help 
the keramic workers and hope you will continue to find the KERAMIC STUDIO 
a necessary adjunct to your study table. For the inside of your punch bowl 
we would suggest a conventional border with the grape introduced in a con- 
ventional manner. Of course if you have used Rococo with your grapes you 
must use it in you conventional border. The plates by Miss Mason in the 
May and August numbers would give a foundation to work upon for a bor- 
der, putting small grapes in the place of the flowers in the design. 

Mrs. M. E. B. H. — We regret that your letter was misplaced and only 
found in time for the August number. However, apart of your questions was 
answered as we have given the china colors for Heraldry already- The 
monogram or crest has the best effect on the rim of a plate. You would 
hardly care to see your family coat of arms " in the soup," literally speaking. 
If you wish a monogram made you can obtain it from either of the editors, 
the price would be anywhere from seventy-five cents to a dollar and a half, 
according to the difficulty in combination or the amount of elaboration. We 
will try and have some combinations put in the magazine soon, and if you 
are in no hurry you can send the initials and the monogram will appear prob- 
ably in September or October, without charge. 

E. O— Your note also was overlooked by mistake. But as we published 
in June a figure piece with cupid and treatment in china colors, you will 
doubtless forgive us. We will soon publish another cupid design. In this 
number we publish a head of Saint Mary the Virgin by Ittenbach, that we 
consider very fine from a decorative standpoint. It is intended to be painted 
on a panel and framed. 

R. A. E.— If you hive difficulty in tinting by the directions already 
given, here is another method which you may find will work more easily. If 
you use tube colors, follow these directions exactly, if powder color, mix first, 
with medium, quite stiff before following directions : Use a ground glass 
palette, a horn palette knife if you are using a gold color such as carmine 
rose or ruby, several pads such as described before, if you are tinting a flat sur- 
face. For cups or vases with handles or inside of any article, the camels 
hair dusters 4, 8 and 12, are be?>t though rather expensive, the three coming 
to a little over two dollars. Now take out on your palette what you consider 
a sufficient amount of color, mix with it one-third of flux, except with Apple 
Green, Pearl Grey and Mixing Yellow which are already sufficiently fluxed, 
then take as much fat oil of turpentine as there is color and flux combined, 
thin with oil of lavender until thin enough to flow from the brush without 
feeling sticky. If you wish the color still more delicate use a little more oil 
and lavender. If the color looks grainy it needs more oil. Pad till you can 
see no mark of brush or pad. If you are using the dusters, do not be fright- 
ened at the hairs coming out, and do not try to remove them at once, go on 
blending the tint with the top of the duster not stopping to finish any one 
place but going round and round until all the surface is evenly tinted, moving 
the hairs slightly with top of duster every time you come back to them, so 
that they will not dry in any place with a line of paini gathered under them. 
When the tinting is about finished you will find that you can brush off the 
hairs with a sidewise movement of the duster, and your tinting will be beau- 
tifully smooth and free from dust. 




CHRYSANTHEMUM NUMBER 




msom 

:MDCCCXCIX Price 35c. Yearly Subscription $3. 



f 



CONTRIBUTORS 

MR. F. B. AULICH * * j* * j* > 

MISS MABEL C. DIBBLE > * j* * 

MRS. ANNA B. LEONARD j* ^ j» j» 

MR. A. G. MARSHALL** > j* j* * 

MISS ELIZABETH MASON j* .** .* 

MRS. WORTH OSGOOD * j* j* j> 

MISS EMILY PEACOCK ,* ^ > .* 

MISS MARY CHASE PERRY j» > > 

MRS. ADELAIDE ALSOP-ROBINEAU > 

MISS ANN SHAW j* ^ .» ^ > .* 



THE: 





(S 




Copyrighted 18»» by th« K.ramlc St.dl. Publi.bing Co., Syrac.s* ,,d N.w York. Entered at the Post Office at Syrae.se, N. Y., as Second Class Matter, Aug 2 l" 9. 



=PIEEE: 



[ The entire contents of this Magazine are cohered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted Without special permission. ] 

CONTENTS FOR SEPTEMBER, 1899 







PAGE 


Editorial Notes, 


t # 


87 


A Visitor Among the Shinnecock Hills, 


c/lnna. "B. Leonard, 


88 


Treatment of Chrysanthemums, 


F. <B. Mich, 


89 


Historic Ornament, " Chinese," — Cont'd, 


cAdelaide <Alsop- c Rpbineau, 


90-93 


Figure Decorations for Children's Dishes, 


c/ldelaide Alsop-^hineau, 


94 


Medallion Plate Treatment, 


Anna B. Leonard, 


95 


League Notes — In the Studios, 


• ♦ ♦ 


96 


In the Shops, 


. 


97 


A Letter from Paris, 


Ann Shaw, 


97 


Lustre Vase Design, 


Adelaide Alsop-^bineau, 


98-99 


Plate Design, 


Emily Peacock, 


99 


Suggestions for Cup and Saucer: Chrysanthemums, 


Anna <B. Leonard, 


100 


Plate Design, 


Elizabeth cMason, 


101 


Some Chinese Conventionalizations, 


A, G. Marshall, 


102 


National League of Mineral Painters, 


Mrs, Worth Osgood, 


103 


Treatment of Corn-Flowers, 


Mary Chase Terry, 


104-105 


Indo-Persian Design, 


Mabel C "Dibble, 


106 


Cup and Saucer, 


Adelaide Alsop-Robineau, 


107 


Enamel, 


. 


108 


Answers to Correspondents, 


. 


108 


Color Supplement, " Chrysanthemums," 


K B, Aulich, 






SYRACUSE, N. Y. 



Vol. I, No. 5 



NEW YORK AND SYRACUSE 



September 1899 




HAT the study of keramics is fast becoming 
essential in our art schools, there can be no 
question, and it shows an increasing' demand 
for technical knowledge of this branch of 
art. Who is it that says "China painting is 
a fad that is passing"? It was never so 
popular in this country as it is to-day, but not popular in the 
sense that it was a few years ago, when every one dabbled into 
it, with no training and obtaining unsatisfactory results,— and 
then tired of it. Tod-ay there are thousands of earnest, serious 
students, who are striving for better results and a higher stand- 
ard. What was tolerated ten years ago, would not be accepted 
now. There are hundreds of men and women in this country, 
who are not only supporting themselves and families by teach- 
ing this beautiful art, but earning a living by filling orders, by 
firing and by designing. The love of keramics grows upon 
one with study, and even if one never pursues it with the idea 
of making it a profession, it so helps one to appreciate the 
beauty and value of rare porcelains, in private collections and 
museums, as well as in ordinary use, that great interest is shown 
now, when only a dumb ignorance was formerly manifested 
upon all occasions of exhibitions. Even the shopkeepers tell 
us that the people are better educated in keramics, that the 
finer wares are better appreciated, and that there is more of a 
demand for that which shows artistic merit. If cheaper wares 
are preferred, there is more of a demand for the simple, unob- 
trusive designs, rather than that which is gaudily decoiated 
with cheap gold and stamped flowers. All this shows improve- 
ment in the taste of the people, which has been brought about 
by study and by frequent exhibitions and a gradual demand 
for better things. Even the cheapest factory work shows an 
improvement in design and taste. All this proves what the 
demand has been, and now is. 

Bearing directly upon this subject, we would like to quote 
a few paragraphs from a letter written to us: 

"As I know how anxious you are for items of interest for 
the KERAMIC STUDIO, I send you one that perhaps you 
would like : 

Miss Etta O. Jones, who for a number of years has been 
one of the most successful teachers in St. Louis, has recently 
been appointed teacher of mineral painting in the St. Louis 
School of Fine Arts. This is of especial interest to all 
workers, in that it shows the steady growth of the art, when 
in a school of the character of this one, it has become nec- 
essary to establish a department for instruction in this branch 
of art, from the sheer force of the demand made for it. The 
Cincinnati School of Art was, I believe, the first one to have 
a department of this nature, and there are no art schools in 
the country that have a better standing than these two. 
Miss Jones has studied with artists of New York at various 
times, so that I feel especially qualified to speak of her 
ability, which so well fits her for this position. Aside from 
being a most enthusiastic and progressive worker, she has a 



thorough technical knowledge of all branches of the work, 
and her pieces always show artistic excellence. Prof. Loes, 
the President of the School, is a man well known as a 
stickler for legitimate art, and it is of importance that he so 
favors the opening of this department in the School and is 
making a great effort to have it complete in every way. 

It is not so much as a personal item that I am sending 
this, but as I said before, to show the progress of keramics in 
our art schools, besides the recognition of keramic artists, 
which is a point dear to all of us, I fancy." 
4= 

We are delighted to receive letters like these that show 
progress in the study of this art. It encourages others to 
work seriously and thoroughly, and the KERAMIC STUDIO 
congratulates the St. Louis Art School for introducing this 
department, and also extends its best wishes to Miss Jones in 
entering upon her new duties and responsibilities. 
4° 

The colored study of chrysanthemums by Mr. F. B. 
Aulich, in this number, will be particularly helpful in classes. 
Chrysanthemums are the most decorative of flowers, the stems 
being long and adaptable, the outgrowth of leaves being grace- 
ful and irregular, and the flowers themselves being full of 
beautiful curves. The flower lends itself to any shape of 
china for decoration, and it can be easily conventionalized. 
This present study may be adapted to a low vase where the 
flowers are to be massed, as the stems are not visible. If the 
flower is to be used in a natural growth, select something tall 
and let the stems come up from the bottom and slightly 
twine about the vase (or whatever is used). The Japanese 
understand thoroughly the handling of this flower for decora- 
tive purposes, and adapt it most admirably. Mr. Aulich's 
placque decorated in chrysanthemums, which he exhibited in 
New York, will always be remembered as one of the most 
artistic things we have seen. He understands the flowers 
well, and knows the advantage of all its exquisite curves as 
well as its varied and marvelous colors. We advise our sub- 
scribers to study the flower well, when it appears this autumn, 
and to make sketches and studies of it in all its graceful posi. 
tions and vagaries. 

Edwin Atlee Barber, A. M., Ph. D., has written a book on 
"Anglo-American Pottery," which is of more than usual inter- 
est for several reasons. The book contains nearly a hundred 
fine half-tone reproductions of old plates and pitchers bearing 
American designs, produced by English potters during the 
early part of the century. There are sketches, also, of the 
leading English potters, and altogether the volume is a rare 
collection of information on a very interesting subject. Con- 
siderable light is thrown upon some matters that have hereto- 
fore remained in dispute, and facts connected with the earlier 
production of specially designed pottery are revealed with 
clearness and accuracy. — China, Glass and Pottery Review* 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



A VISITOR AMONG THE SHINNECOCK HILLS 

TUDENTS and lovers of art are familiar with 
the little art village at Shinnecock, situated 
between the great dunes and Southampton, 
on Long Island. If not familiar with the 
place itself, pictures of it have made it well 
known as the summer school of art, under the inspiring 
direction of Mr. Chase. 

The representative of the KERAMIC STUDIO spent a few 
days visiting there, and can readily understand the fascination 
of those great sand hills, and the long stretches of country, 
the magnificent cloud effects, as well as the ever chan 




some of his sketches which were then on the wall. One was 
a field of poppies. How proud we are of him, and how it 
should encourage all keramists to learn to draw and color 
from nature. 

Another day a visit was made to Mr. Chase's studio, situ- 
ated a mile or two from the school, on the hills. The drive 
there was charming, the approach to his house and the house 
itself being extremely artistic. Here Mr. Chase receives vis- 
itors once a week, and the people on the hills and from South- 
ampton drive there to meet this artist in his own home. His 
pictures and sketches are there, and it is a great advantage as 
well as privilege for his pupils to be able to see them. All 
about the house and studio are interesting things picked up 



atmospheric effects upon those waves of hills. At first, after ln hlS travels - Tt must be a S reat relief to this indefatigable 
leaving the train, one feels a sense of disappointment. There ^l t0 retH ' e t0 ^ ^^ ^ restfulness of his own studio " 

is not a tree in sight, and although the hills are green there is T r he VieW from hls windows is indescribable, this great stretch 

an idea of barrenness and bleakness. But by the time one has ° f cou ^Y seems so ru gS ed and wild ' but the fascination 

grows, the longer one stays. 



Pottery schools are now established in several towns in 
Bohemia. The chief of these is situated at Teplitz, where 
students have instruction, and the necessary machines pro- 
vided for constructing, decorating, and glazing pieces of ware. 



: by 
reached one's destination the scene has shifted a number of 
times, cottages appear and disappear, glimpses of the water 
astonish us ; then, in another turn, all that has disappeared 
and we see a picturesque windmill. Finally one is perfectly 
fascinated with the hills, the bracing air, and the marvelous 
effects of sky, water and land. 

After enjoying this ever changing spectacle, our repre- There is also a Iarge chemicaI laboratory for testing and com- 
sentative wondered what could be found that would be of pound j ng m i xtU res of pottery earth and pigments. The Gov- 
service to our decorators, and it was even more of a delight to e rnment of the country, although not actually establishing 
study the plant growth under foot as one walked over the such schools, assists them with funds and provides regulations, 
hills that had looked so barren the day before. ^ There were laying down the co „ditions under which assistance is given. 

masses of very low growth of huckleberries, which showed a China Glass and Pottery Review 

wondrous harmony of color, the riper ones being a rich, dark- 
blue or purple, and the tender little ones showing a charming 
harmony of pinks and lavenders. This might be borne in 
mind by keramists, as the tendency is to paint berries too 
dark and hard, resembling bullets in monotony of size and 
color. Then there were dainty grasses and vines running 
along close to the ground. There were masses of a small star- 
like flower with five sharp little white petals, which we will 
have to give some time in a design. Nearer the village there 
were great fields of flame colored wild flowers, adding 
tremendous brilliancy to the landscape. Then there were 
masses of daisies, which even if they have been painted 
nearly to death, are still delightfully effective, if painted 
with a certain crispness and swing that only a sure touch can 
give. Every week or two there can be found a different wild 
flower, which again changes the color of the hills, where it 
grows in masses, and the cottagers are to be envied in having 
this constantly changing supply of flowers for their house 
decorations all during the season. 

A fair was going on, across from the art 
village, the proceeds to be devoted to a little 
colony there of Indians. Mr. Chase gener- 
ously offered to paint a picture for the benefit 
of this cause. Our representative was invited 
to visit his school, and had the honor of seeing 
him make a charming portrait of a girl in Jap- 
anese costume. His students sat breathless, 
watching him, their faces full of interest and 
intensity. After he had finished, they ap- 
plauded and crowded about the canvas, and 
he, in his ever inspiring way, answered their 
questions about this and that. After an in- 
quiry about his pupil, Marshal Fry, Mr. 
Chase spoke highly of him, and showed 




KERAMIC STUDIO 



89 



TREATMENT OF CHRYSANTHEMUMS 

F. B. A illicit. 

CHINA COLORS 

AINTING a plate in chrysanthemums, I 
would advise the advanced pupil to lay 
in the background, first using Turquoise 
Green and Black Green for the darker 
parts. Then paint the pink flowers 
with New Rose, the yellow with Lemon 
Yellow, and deeper with Albert Yel- 
low and Yellow Brown. For the white chrysanthemum in 
the centre use a Grey mixed with Blue, Rose, and Yellow 
Green. For the dark purple one on the right hand side use 
New Pompadour and Finishing Brown. For the leaves, Blue 







Green, light shaded with a mixture 
of Yellow Green and Yellow Brown, 
and follow this up with Shading Green 
for the deeper effects. 

For the second fire, put Ruby 
Purple over the dark chrysanthemum 
and renew the colors destroyed by the 
fire, and put in the grey shades in the 
yellow and pink ones. Use a No. 5 
pointed shader for putting in the fin- 
ishing touches. 

WATER COLORS 

Wash in the background with 
Prussian Blue and Payne's Grey, and 
some Gamboge on the right side. Rose 
Madder and Cobalt Blue for the more 
distant pink flower, and Rose Madder 
and a little Vermillion for the prom- 
inent ones. Gamboge and Indian Yel- 
low for the yellow, shading them with 
Paynes Grey. For the dark chrysan- 
themum use Carmine and Burnt Car- 
mine, and neutral tint for deepening. 

■P # 

Anything is perfectly beautiful 
when it produces a sentiment of repose 
and satisfaction, resulting from balance 
and harmony. 

There can be no rigid laws of de- 
sign, since most of them would have 
unavoidable exceptions, due to the 
originating faculty in the artistic mind. 
But there are general rules which it is 
safest to follow until we receive an in- 
spiration. 



go 



KERAMIC STUDIO 





THE FONG HOANG 

HISTORIC ORNAMENT— CHINESE 

(Continued from August, number.) 

HERE are five traditional colors: red, 
blue, yellow, black and white, which 
are often used symbolically, for 
though wanting in ideality, the high- 
est form of art, the Chinese are yet 
not without symbolism. Blue repre- 
sents the east, red the south, white 
the west and black the" north. The 
sky is represented by blackish blue, 
the earth by yellow. Certain forms 
are also symbolical, the circle repre- 
senting fire, the dragon water, the square the earth, deer the 
mountains. The dragon has another symbolic meaning. It 
is used everywhere to represent the protective power, hence 
it is the emblem of imperial rank. The dragon also represents 
the Father in the Chinese Trinity. The Fong Hoang (the 
Phoenix), a peculiar bird sometimes represented with the tail 
of a peacock, is emblematic of the continued rehabilitation of 
power, thus it indicates the rank of magistrates who dispense 
the law of the protective (or imperial) power from age to age. 
The Phoenix, according to tradition, rises from its own ashes 
every hundred years, thus it is symbolic of the resurrection 
(the Son in the Chinese Trinity). The other symbolic or 
sacred animals are the Dog of Fo, and the sacred horse. 
Other animals are represented in Chinese art and have their 
own interpretation. Of course, in adapting Chinese forms to 
modern decoration we have no right 'to use their symbolism 
unless it agrees with our own, for unless we are Chinese our- 
selves there can be no real inwardness of meaning and we 
want no sham in art. 

The Deluge is frequently represented in Chinese art. No. 
15 of the August number is a good representation, as well as 
the picture of the sacred horse in this number. In embroid- 
eries the deluge is delineated around the circular edge of a 
skirt, thus representing the circular horizon. The waves are 
full of queer objects and especially of the eyes of fishes, 
which reminds the writer of one of her earliest recurring 
nightmares arising from seeing this very style of design, when 
she imagined the floor, the water, and the walls, full of eyes. 
It may be, in a way, the childish Oriental way of expressing 
the " all-seeing eye," as you will find it represented in number- 
less conventional designs. 

Porcelain is claimed by the Chinese to have been invented 
in the year 2,600 B. C. by Hoangi, who was made a God 
for this benefaction to the human race. As the first por- 
celain was made for the imperial family, it was distin- 
guished by the color distinctive of that dynasty, and as 
different colors were used in different dynasties to distinguish 



degrees of rank, one can learn by the color of a piece of old 
Chinese porcelain, its approximate age,>t least, in what dynas- 
ty it was made, and of what rank its original possessor. The 
imperial color has been blue, white, green and is now yellow, 
the color of the Tai Tsing dynasty now reigning. 

Modern Chinese consider the ancient pieces of pottery 
and porcelain of the greatest value artistically. The highest 
point in art was reached between 1465 and 1487. The decay 
is attributed to the distribution of labor, one workman paint- 
ing skies another mountains, another birds, etc., so no piece 
is entirely conceived and executed by the same artist — natur- 
ally it loses artistic value. 




THE DRAG! >N 



Application to 
Modern 



Design 



The borders 1 to 5 inclusive are very effec- 
tive on punch bowls or chop dishes or any 
piece of pottery where band decorations are 
desired. Where it is wished to use a narrower 
border with them, No. 2 in August will go very well with No. 
i in September, No. 14 in August with No. 3 in September, 
Nos. 7 and 8 in August with No. 4 in September, Nos. 3 to 
9 inclusive in August with No. 5 in September. The upper 
part of No. 2 makes a good narrow de- 
sign to go with the entire border. The 
border and center of No. 6 can be used 
without the balance of the design, which 
is very intricate but beautiful. No 7 
makes a good chop dish border. No 8 
repeated makes an 8-inch plate border. 

Tea Caddy. — We reproduce the 
design which was printed in the August 
number in order to emphasize the mean- 
ing of the study of Historic Ornament. 
Instead of the all-over Chinese design in the body of the caddy 
we introduce a modern design evolved from that design. A 
repetition of the design will complete the band around the 
tea caddy. 




THE DOG OF FO 




THE SACRED HORSE 



Owen Jones says that "the study of Historic Ornament 
is for the progressive development of the forms of the past." 
We study the art of different nations and different ages that 
we may gather, like the bee, the pollen from every flower and 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



9i 




BORDER FOR CHOP DISH 




Coue/i o^y tea. ca.3^. 



92 



KERAM1C STUDIO 




S 

<^ 

w 

on 

w 

g 

u 

o 

o 

00 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



93 






make it over into the honey of this day and people. We must 
not get the erroneous idea that the knowledge of ancient 
forms, used in the ancient way, is the end of our study. It is 
like the practicing of scales, only in 
order that we may acquire the techni- 
cal skill to evolve harmonies of our 
own. For example: we study Chinese 
decorative art until we understand 
thoroughly their wonderful combina- 
tion and balance of color ; we study 
the forms so that we can learn from no. s. 

them the fascination of conventional representation and can 
recognize the underlying principles of decoration as they use 
it, which are also found in the arts of other nations under 
different aspects. We gather from them all the suggestions 
we can, then when we are thoroughly imbued with their dec- 
orative feeling, we can take any decorative motif and evolve 
from it a design entirely our own and entirely modern, be- 
cause whatever knowledge we acquire must be tinctured with 
the modern feeling unless we are ourselves antediluvian and 
unprogressive. We repeat with Owen Jones : "The study of 
Historic Ornament is for the progressive development of 
the forms of the past." 






1<p%$&& 




<*m 


^Sv( 


X 


^1^ 





LUSTRES 

PEARL GREV 
Pearl grey lustre is chiefly useful where a neutral tint is 
desirable in decorative work. Usually two or three coats im- 
proves the color. 

COVERING 
Covering for gold gives a. beautiful irridescence used over 
bright gold, copper and silver. It is a valuable lustre. 
COPPER 
Copper, by itself, is a fine rich color, resembling the old. 
fashioned copper lustre. Used with covering for gold over it, 
the effect is an iridescence, through which the copper still 
shows. Other colors which look well over copper are both 
greens, ruby and violet. 



94 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




JM-R. 

A?«E5 



FIGURE 

DECORATIONS 

FOR 

CHILDREN'S 

DISHES 




KtfVj LL of these quaint little figures are from " Chan- 
sons de France" by Boutet de Monvel. They 
illustrate a quaint old song telling how ten 
little maidens were in a field when the son of 
the king came by. He saluted each little 
maiden until he came to "la Dumaine," whom 
he chose and kissed and sent the rest away. These are 
very interesting in lustres on children's dishes. A mug, with 
the figures going round, and one or two coming up from the 
base on either side of the handle or arranged in the same way 
on the pitcher of a bread and milk set, is very effective. 

In making a band design, make a line below the feet, one 
above the head, and another about one-third of the distance 
from the lowest line. Then for the upper part of background 
use Blue Gray, representing sky ; for the lower part Light 
Green to represent grass. Use your own fancy in coloring the 
dresses. Brown makes the best color for flesh, and Black for 
shoes. The outlining should be done in Black. Follow the 
directions given elsewhere in this number for treating figures 
in lustres. The balance of the mug, pitcher, bowl or dish can 
be tinted with any desired lustre. If you wish a dark effect, 
use Copper or Steel Blue above or below the band decoration, 
and let some of the little figures come up against this dark 
ground. It is not necessary to make the intricate little de- 
signs on the dresses, but they are very quaint and interesting. 
These little figures could be done in ordinary china colors 
also, using them in a flat and decorative way, without much 
shading, with the drawing to give the character. The little 
ones would be delighted to have these funny little children to 
make them laugh at meal time, and laughing, you know, aids 
digestion. 




KERAMIC STUDIO 



9$ 




MEDALLION PLATE TREATMENT— ANNA B. LEONARD 



THE six medallions and the band connecting them are in 
gold, edged with raised paste beading. The settings for 
enamels are also of raised paste dots, which must be very fine 
and as close together as possible without touching, and they 
should not be raised very high. When this beading or line of 
raised dots is dry, run the finger lightly over to see that no 
sharp points are prominent, as that stamps the amateur worker 
at once, and the result after firing is anything but agreeable. 
The work must be smooth, so that there may be nothing un- 
pleasant to the touch, and also to prevent the lint from the 
linen clinging to the plate when it is being cleansed. The ex- 
treme outer edge and the inner band are tinted with a com- 
bination of Night Green two-thirds, and Deep Blue Green 
one-third ; then add flux, one-fourth of the whole mixture. 
Put on the tint so it will be a deep rich turquoise blue, not 
the pale, washed-out looking tint one sees on the cheap china. 
The English factories claim that their turquoise blue has 
reached a greater perfection than that from other factories. 



Bear this in mind and try to prove that it can be accomplished 
on other porcelains. This tint must be fired very hard (it 
cannot be destroyed) and it will bear repeated firings (the 
writer has a plate that she fires every time the kiln is used 
and after fifty fires it is still as bright and clear as ever). Of 
course the Beleek must not be fired so hard. Directions have 
been given for the rose garlands. The best pink to use for 
the small roses is Carmine 3, for the deep roses use Carmine 3 
and Ruby Purple (German) half and'half. Make the leaves a 
tender green for the first firing, using Apple Green and Mix- 
ing Yellow, with variations of Brown Green, Deep Red Brown 
and occasionally some grey leaves. The colors are better pure 
and clean, and a pointed shader No. 8 (with good point) will 
give a particularly effective stroke for the small leaves and 
sharp little stems and accessories. 

This plate may be used as a serving plate, or a dessert 
plate, and it is charming in a cabinet, which makes it accepta- 
ble too as a single plate for a gift. 



9 6 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




T EAGUE We are very proud to have the duty of 

NOTES we ' cormn g tne members of the Duquesne 
Ceramic Club and the Indianapolis Associa- 
tions to our League at the commencement of our year's work. 
Officers and addresses of the Duquesne Club, Pittsburg, 
Pa., are : President, Miss Sophie G. Keenan, 5550 Hays street, 
E. E.; vice-president, Mrs. Simeon Bissell, Murtland avenue, 
E. E.; secretary, Miss Myron Boyd, Penn avenue, near Lang, 
E. E.; treasurer, W. E. Moreland, jr., 4745 Ben Venue ave- 
nue, E. E. 

Mrs. Mary Alley Neal has been elected to fill the vacancy 
on the advisory board, caused by the resignation of Mrs. F. 
Rowell Priestman. The League welcomes the new member 
and appreciates her ready acceptance of board duties. 

Mrs. S. Burritt Hinsdale, Woodbridge, New Jersey, has 
been chosen chairman of League catalogue committee for 
Paris exposition. 

The vice-president of the Minneapolis Keramic Club, 
Miss Helen Mcintosh, will assist the catalogue committee in 
obtaining lists from individual members. 

Mrs. John L. Minor, North Platte, Nebraska, writes en- 
couragingly of keramics in Salt Lake City and other fields. 
We are glad to have this new member's sympathetic interest. 

In separating the League exhibits to be returned from 
Chicago to owners, from those to be forwarded, mistakes were 
made which caused considerable anxietv- Miss Butterfield, 
hostess Public Comfort Building, most generously undertook 
the supervision of repacking and returning the mis-sent pieces, 
and now reports all shipped from Omaha in perfect condition. 
The warmest thanks of the League are given to Miss Butter- 
field for her work. 

A report from one gentleman who has assisted in all of the 
expositions since '92, says that the china exhibit, Fine Arts 
Building, Omaha, is much superior to any previously shown. 
That great interest in it is manifested, and that the value of 
the National League is being understood. 

It is with sincere regret that we record the withdrawal of 
the Louisville Keramic Club. This is the first and only break 
in our ranks since the beginning of this triennial. 

The names of the jury for League Paris Exposition work 
will be published in October KERAMIC STUDIO. 

The transportation committee for the east, Miss M. Helen 
Montfort, chairman, is at work obtaining information for 
selection of transportation company, and advice for making of 
contracts. 

The seventh annual report of the National League of 
Mineral Painters has gone to press. These reports will be 
mailed to officers of clubs, individual members, and colleges 
conducting keramic departments. 

At the last meeting of the Atlan Club of Chicago the 
following members were elected to office: Mrs. E. L. Hum- 
phrey, president; Mrs. J. E. Zeublin, vice-president; Mrs. 
F. M. Steele, secretary; Miss Mary H. Phillips, treasurer. 



JN THE Miss Anne May Seymour of Utica is 

STUDIOS P robabl y one of tlle busiest artists in the 
State. Her reputation as a keramic artist 
extends over a great part of Central and Southern New York, 
calling her to a dozen or more different towns where she has 
successful classes. 

Mrs. S. V. Culp, after her busy season at the Summer 
School, Chautauqua, will visit a number of eastern cities, in- 
cluding New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Detroit and Syra- 
cuse, before returning to her home in San Francisco. A de- 
lightful woman to meet socially, and a thorough artist ! 

Miss Laura Overly of Pittsburg, Pa., will have classes this 
month in Portland, Me., and opens her home studio, Oct. 5th. 

Miss Jeanne Stewart is seeking inspiration in the Far 
West. She is at present in California, studying the fauna and 
flora of that State. Her studio in Chicago will be open early 
in October. 

Mrs. L. Vance Phillips will open a studio in New York- 
City the first of October. The address will be given in the 
next number of the magazine. She will spend the month of 
September on the coast of Maine. 

Mr. Marshal Fry will, after his season closes at Chautau- 
qua, go to Shinnecock, there to remain until October 1st, after 
which date he will be back again in his New York studio, 36 
West 24th street. A hard worker is he, and a living exam- 
ple of what perseverance in studying direct from nature brings 
to the artist. 

CHAUTAUQUA SUMMER SCHOOL 
August the 25th, the Keramic Art School, under the 
management of Mrs. Vance Phillips, closed its fourth suc- 
cessful year, with an increased interest and a widening 
acquaintance. Three teachers were busy during the entire 
season of seven weeks, and in the mid-season rush were ably 
assisted by Mrs. Katherine E. Cherry of St. Louis. The en- 
tire studio regretted her inability to remain throughout the 
season to give instructions in the modeling of paste. In this 
feature of her art work she seems as happily at home as in the 
broad decorative painting by which she is best known. 

The large, well-equipped studio is a delight to all 
who enroll as students. A Revelation kiln of large size- 
does duty in the studio, and contributes much to a 
perfectly adjusted arrangement for the rapid completion 
of work. Instructions in figure and miniature painting 
were, as usual, given by Mrs. Vance Phillips, who exhibited a 
number of beautiful pieces completed during her winter on the 
western coast. Many agree that by far her finest work has 
been done during the past year. Her home-coming to New 
York will be hailed with delight in keramic circles. 

Each season Mrs. Vance Phillips has sought to add new 
features of interest to the Chautauqua School, giving always 
to the large general classes, at popular prices, some one of the 
high class teachers, and in addition to arrange for special 
lessons from one of those teachers who have a national repu- 
tation. This year the latter condition has been fulfilled by the 
presence of Mr. Marshal Fry, Jr., to the delight of all who 
had the privilege of entering his private classes. Mr. Fry's 
work this season has been masterful. His glowing color 
effects, fine drawing, and beautiful compositions, all told, not 
only of the artist born, but of the artist carefully trained. Mr. 
Fry, together with some other of our best keramic artists, 
stand as examples of the value of an art education given 
where there was talent, and accepted where there was willing- 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



97 



ness to work with love and with diligence. Mrs. T. M. Fry 
accompanied her son and gave instruction in lustres. 

Mrs. S. V. Culp of San Francisco sustained in every way 
the high reputation of the decorative class-room. Her charm- 
ing treatment of double violets and pansies was enthusiasti- 
cally received. Not only in the handling of color did Mrs. 
Culp impress her class, but equally did they appreciate her 
painstaking explanations of what to avoid, what to do, and 
how to do it. 

This little colony of keramic artists made up a studio 
well worth a long trip to enjoy. In no other summer place 
can such perfect environments be found as are furnished by 
this unique city of trees, fenced off from all the world, with a 
little civilization of its own, its people the cream of the intel- 
lectual element of America. 

*• -f 

TN THE As our colored supplement this number 

cuv-ypc ' s Chrysanthemums, it will be interesting to 
know that Colamore is exhibiting in his win- 
dow a new punch bowl from the Doulton works, decorated in 
white chrysanthemums, fading into a delightful background 
of shaded greens, from the blue greens to the fresh warm yel- 
low greens. The flowers are vague and suggestive and seem 
to melt into the background. Our supplement by Mr. Aulich 
could be used beautifully for such a decoration, and it will be 
something different from the much abused grape designs. 

«Miss Wynne continues to offer bargains before her re- 
moval from East 1.3th street. We noticed some dainty tea 
plates, bread and butter plates with open work edges, which 
were marked down. She has some odd spoons that would 
make attractive sale pieces. It is rather difficult to find deco- 
rative bowls of the desired size, so a small bowl and one of 
these spoons decorated to match, would be suitable for 
whipped cream or mayonnaise. 

At Vantine's there is some interesting underglaze, called 
the Intarsio Ware ; it is English and reproduces some old shapes 
and oriental designs found in the British Museum. The 
colors are clear and brilliant, the designs being large and bold. 
It reminds one something of the Rosenberg pottery, only the 
colors are brighter and the outlines sharper. 

The undecorated china seems very attractive and allur- 
ing — the shapes are plainer and better. There is a good 
assortment now of plain vases, plates, chop dishes and trays. 

We noticed some plates with the "acid eaten" designs on 
the rims. These are expensive, but decorate charmingly 
when one does not care to make the entire design. We will 
give a design of these later. 

A LETTER FROM PARIS 

A /in Shaw. 

IT is not to be marveled at that the French are so wonder- 
fully gifted in all matters pertaining to art and seem 
inspired, from infancy almost, to cozen, from their palettes such 
dainty productions of charming bits of color. The floods of 
sunshine, the artistic and historically rich environments, the 
ever joyous caroling of the birds in seemingly countless gar- 
dens fill one with the desire to remain on, indefinitely, in an 
atmosphere so stimulating to an artistic nature. The poetry 
of life comes to the surface now and again, and the latest 
strong manifestation of it has, to me, been the study of some 



of the beautiful miniatures in this year's Salon. A compari- 
son with the exhibits of other years demands no apology for 
the current one, larger as it is in number, and many of an excel- 
lence well nigh approximating that of the old masters' work. 
Individual mention would encroach too much upon your 
columns, but several of the miniatures are, in my judgment, 
remarkable, and worthy of description. The first to attract 
and hold one's attention is the portrait of an aged woman, 
with hair like threads of spun silver and a skin that even with 
the flight of time has not lost the delicate creamy tones that 
must have blended so well with the once dark tresses. The 
handling is superb, the hair being soft and rich, yet the masses 
of light and shade are well defined, while the gray tones seem 
wonderfully transparent — the blue and cold ones fading most 
harmoniously into the warm shadow tones of the skin. The 
color is slightly loose, but the finish is very careful and the 
modeling absolutely faithful. The lips are transparent in 
color — pure carmine, washed lightly with yellow and a touch 
of cobalt to accentuate the lines and shades and give them 
firmness. The features are exact in limning, without giving a 
disagreeable impression, and the eyes, a dark blue gray, have 
in them a light that will only fade with death, yet the effect 
of age is portrayed by a slight receding of the eyes' sockets. 
A touch of Prussian blue (a color so strong that exceedingly 
careful handling is necessary to prevent it from staining the 
ivory) is put just at the inner corner of the eye and fades 
agreeably into the cheek tones. A gray satin gown is grave 
yet rich in the color that has been washed over color to 
secure the satiny texture, and a green gray background 
completes a specimen of modern miniature work that in 
color and finish rivals any chef tfoeuvre handed down from 
another time. The committee's award of the medal to it is a 
well deserved honor. Near this hangs another miniature that 
in subject, color and handling is a most charming example of 
the modern school. It is a semi-nude torso of a girl reclining 
among white cushions, her hair falling in a cloud about her 
face and shoulders and partially covering the rise of her chest 
and bust. The work is very dainty and high in key, the light- 
est parts of the skin being the ivory itself, while a touch of 
white brings out the high lights of the hair; its darkest tones 
are but little deeper than the lights of the ordinary miniature. 
The color is perfectly transparent and handled entirely in 
washes, quite smooth and one over another. Very little car- 
mine is used save a touch in the lips, which are partially open, 
the depth of tone between them being made with a bit of co- 
balt blue and vermillion. Some daring and effective blue and 
yellow tones are used, but broadly and by so experienced a 
hand that they at once model and color. The chest, throat 
and bust are symmetry itself. The eyes half-open in a dreamy 
fashion, and with a few strokes of delicate purplish gray is 
revealed an expression as of one returning from a journey into 
the land of reveries. The color fades into the tone of the 
ivory all about the outer edges. The drawing is strong, com- 
position good, and the whole a most pleasing inspiration, one 
the committee deemed not only entitled to a medal, but 
worthy of a permanent place in one of the State galleries. 

Were most of the work of the modern school to follow 
in the wake of this miniature, a portion of the critic's disagree- 
able duty would be minimized. 

Paris, June 1st, 1899. 

4? jP 

The laws of proportion demand balance — symmetry, 
subordination of details, variety in unity. 



98 



KERAMIC STUDIO 





LUSTRE VASE DESIGN— ADELAIDE ALSOP-ROBINEAU 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



99 




TREATMENT OF LUSTRE VASE DESIGN. 

IE effect of this vase is as if a Malachite 
green glass vase were set in a golden 
holder with stained glass figures in the 
panels. The base of the vase and back- 
ground of figures, the raised work and 
mouth of vase are gold, the shoulders of the vase and the 
panels running down the side are of Light Green lustre 
painted on three times, being darker at the top and shading 
into light in the lowest oval pendant. The little raised buds 
scattered over the lustre are of Apple Green enamel, made 
by tinting Aufsetzweis with Apple Green. There are two 
figures on opposite sides. The colors used are as follows: 

Hoy — hat, Light Green ; feathers, Violet and Yellow ; 
face, Brown; waist, Light Green; sleeves and ruffle below 
waist, Yellow ; legs, Violet and Yellow stripes; shoes, Light 
Green ; shield, Copper with Silver edge.; Violet grapes. 

If you are sure of your drawing the best way will be to 
sketch in your figures delicately with India ink, put on your 
lustres and gold ground, and fire. For the second fire go over 
your lustres where necessary, put on the raised paste and out- 
line your figure in German or Outlining Black. For third fire 
touch up lustres where necessary, put on the green enamel 
figures on the lustre, go over your paste and background 
with Gold and strengthen any weak spots in your black out- 
lines. If a fourth fire is necessary to touch up again, it will 
do ho harm. Give hard fires. If you are afraid of losing 
your drawing follow the method given in the May number for 
the Tankard figures. 

For the girl's figure, shade head dress, yoke and upper 
sleeves with Blue Grey, quite delicately used, leaving white 
china for high lights; ribbon about neck is pink, made 
of Ruby, thin ; light part of dress, Light Green ; bands of 
Ruby. Where the figured pattern comes, put on the figure 



with Ruby for first fire, and in the second fire wash the whole 
dress over with Light Green ; flowers of Ruby, thin ; leaves, 
Green ; face, hands and feet, Brown. Put on the Brown thin 
for face and hands, heavier for shoes. The bag is of Ruby 
and the girdle and ribbons of Pink made of Ruby, thin. 

This vase could be treated with China colors in the same 
way. If the Beleek shape is used, they would be preferable. 
This vase is in white China as it is more reliable for lustres. 




i? i? & i? i? j? 




TREATMENT FOR PLATE DESIGN 

Emily Peacock 

THERE is the greatest need of accuracy in putting 
on the design for this plate. All lines should 
be drawn in ink, and for first firing tint carefully 
from outside edge to inside line with deep Red 
Brown to a delicate Pink, taking out of long and 
diamond-shaped panels any color left there. For 
second firing, outline design in tiny dots of raised 
paste ; also figures around diamond panel. Third 
firing, draw forget-me-nots, put in in pale tints of 
enamel making some petals lighter to give the high 
lights. Use Dresden Aufsetzweis for this model- 
ing. Put in centers with yellow enamel, and paint 
background delicately with same colors, making 
it deepest' nearest center figure. Go over all paste 
work with gold, also edge of plate. Fourth firing, 
go over centers of flowers, if necessary deepen 
background. Put enamel in center figure and go 
over gold again. Any small flower can be used in 
this design, which may be adapted in many ways. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 






SUGGESTIONS 
FOR A CUP AND SAUCER 

HE body of cup may be tinted any 
color, but something dark will be 
preferable if there is much gold 
used. Use a dark green tint. Have 
the band on top and bottom gold, 
with the chrysanthemums, leaves 
and stems modeled in colored enamels, the handle 
in gold. After the gold is fired, shadow leaves in 
color can be painted directly upon it, which gives 
an interesting effect of colored bronze. Use 
white enamel that will stand a hard fire (see 
article on Enamel). It may be colored with an}? 
of the Lacroix colors, but if pink is used, remem- 
ber that pink will fire darker. The flowers can 
be modeled in the white enamel, fired, and then 
afterwards painted. In making the petals of 
enamel (or paste), be sure to give that crisp little 
turn or twist that the petal has in nature. It 
should be done in one stroke of the brush. 
Enamel will fire quite safely over good gold, 
it will be poor economy to use anything but 
the best. The design can be carried out simply 
in color, if one does not care to put more work 
upon it. 





KERAMIC STUDIO 



IOI 




TREATMENT FOR PLATE DESIGN-ELIZABETH MASON 



THE outside border of the plate can be in Blue Green, either pink or blue as best harmonize with the colors used in 

Sevres Green or Rose for Grounds, with the space the border, 
between the two lines of paste scrolls in Ivory. The shadow leaves and tendrils should be painted in 

The flower sprays are in natural colors, the flowers being Copenhagen Blue and Gray Greens. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 





SOME CHINESE CONVENTIONALIZATIONS 

A. G. Marshall. 

EFORE Aubrey Bcardsley, was John Chinaman. 
He, in the distant centuries ago, without any 
theory as to the mission of decorative art or 
thought of revolutionizing its practice, hit 
upon some "ideas," which in late times have 
been by occidental people the subject of amuse- 
ment, ridicule, neglect, oblivion, re-discovery, 
"original invention," enthusiasm, fad. The Chinese decorator 
looked upon all objects as legitimate material for his craft — 
all was fish that came into his net, but he did not, like modern 
decorative gourmands, swallow his fish au nature/, whole and 
unseasoned. With the truest decorative instinct, the innate 
sense of what would look well and be fitting to the purpose 
intended, he selected his solid meat, rejecting all superfluous 
externals and internals, both the scales and fins of naturalism 
and the soulful insides of sentimental idealism. Without 
exactly realizing it, he invented motifs on which he rung the 
changes and recurrences as deftly as they go in a Wagner 
opera. Compared with classical western conventions his dec- 
orative verse may not always rhyme, but when its language is 
understood it is found to have amazingly good sense. 

It has long been known that the innocence of perspective 
and eccentricities of anatomy discernible in Celestial decora- 
tion are not the result of childish inability to see or to draw. 
It was the critics who could neither see what true decoration 
meant nor draw a correct inference from precious examples. 
Now the newest school, not alone in decoration, but in picto- 
rial art as well, is deriving its very life from Chinese and 
Japanese modes of seeing. After several thousands of years 
this is a sweet revenge for the almond-eyed. Their empire 
may be going to potsherds, but their ideas have set out to 
conquer the world. 

It has been said that Chinese art, architectural and 
graphic, has never risen in conception above a dish. Perhaps 
this is the reason for the superlative perfection of their won- 
derful dishes, of the secrets of whose fabrication the most 
miraculous stories were once believed in Europe. 

The Chinese pottery painter never fell into the error of 
copying natural phenomena upon his wares. His instinct 
taught him too much respect both for nature and for his 
marvellous enamels to permit the degradation of the one and 
the ruination of the other in that manner. In his eyes a pot 
was a pot, a vehicle for liquids, but not for instruction in 







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KERAMIC STUDIO 



103 



history (natural or unnatural) or systems of religion. His 
first thought concerning it was to decorate— his next thought 
was to decorate — and his last and every thought between was 
always TO DECORATE — to enrich his surfaces with forms sug- 
gesting natural facts but never with the decorative function 
sunk in the pictorial. And how fertile his invention — how 
quaint his conventionalization — how satisfying his adaptation ; 
here a spot where the eye wishes it. but can assign no canoni- 
cal reason for expecting it ; there a plain space or a soothing 
repeat or diaper where we long for a rest, but from our experi- 
ence with Renaissance things fear we are not going to get it, 
Good Chinese decoration has the great distinction that it 
always entertains and never irritates. We may believe all our 
days that our Chinese teapot is awfully queer and ugly, but 
we do enjoy living with it more and more to the end, and 
then bequeath it by name to our coziest friend. 

A little study of Chinese ornament will dispel any notion 
of inherent ugliness in the "apples" of almond-eyes, and 
reveal certain beauties resulting from their peculiar angle of 
vision. The exquisite delicacy of brush work, as well as the 
glories of color and enamel must be imagined in our hard pen- 
line illustrations, which further suffer from dissection, being 
cut from large compositions in order to study them without 
the distraction of well-known mandarins, dragons and other 
celestial personages. What delightful impossibility in the 
architecture ; and with what pleasing respectfulness the flow- 
ers and fruits all turn their fronts towards the spectator. Ob- 
serve the ornamental treatment of the detail of stonework from 
the bridge. Admire the sublime escape from geological clas- 
sification as well as gravitation on the part of the rocks. And 
do not forget to approve the biped arrangement by which the 
trees maintain their position on the decorative terra ftrma. 
As the opera is an ideal world apart from the actual, so the 
Chinese decorative landscape is an ideal creation, a dream- 
world, which is eminently proper. It matters not that we 
cannot botanize the vegetation, or that the buildings have no 
other side — fancy is free from the trammels of the sordid 
actual. Let enjoyment reign supreme over this porcelain 
dreamland. 

Less spiritual than the Japanese, the Chinese decorator 
seizes the richer elements of rounded curve and square angle, 
creating with them a complete scheme of suggestive forms, 
flexible to every requirement. No sacred mountain, no in- 
spired pantheism forever haunts his vision, just the luxurious 
application of form to space is his business. If the Japanese 
may be considered "the French of Asia" in subtlety of refine- 
ment and taste, the Chinese may be called the Asiatic Dutch, 
taking an honest and plodding delight in the fair outside of 
things. And if Japanese art may be credited with a certain 
feeling for beauty of line analagous to the Greek ideal, then 
Chinese art, its predecessor, may be compared in its spirit to 
that of Persia and Assyria in which the decorative element 
was dominant, and rather to the advantage of the Celestial, 
for the Assyrian degraded natural forms by reducing them to 
ornament, while the Chinese evolves his suggestions of nature 
by the play of a fertile fancy from purely decorative elements. 




NATIONAL LEAGUE OF MINERAL PAINTERS 

Members of the Council : 

It is with genuine pleasure that I see the summer vaca- 
tion drawing to its close. I sincerely hope that we return 
entering upon our work with renewed enthusiasm and strength- 
ened resolution to employ every opportunity for progress that 
the approaching century offers. That the Council has not 
yet learned its value to the League and the important place 
that it occupies on its staff of officers is evinced by the small 
number of plans and propositions presented to the Board of 
■Managers. And because of this, I am making direct appeal 
to you. 

We are entering upon a year that demands clearer con- 
cepts of our work than ever before ; a year, too, that demands 
a more serious artistic expression from those who represent 
the National League of Mineral Painters. Your heartiest co- 
operation is needed to successfully and artistically meet these 
demands, especially in our international exhibition. 

The League is what the individual clubs make it. It was 
created from them, and draws its life force from them; and 
the fact that each council member has a sixteenth controlling 
interest in the League, should bring to us her active support. 
Before the present issue of this magazine, the Council will 
have received the Course of Study for the year. At the last 
conference of delegates held in Chicago, careful attention was 
given to various lines of work for 1899-1900. Information 
elicited showed that only one-half of the clubs had been able 
to use the subjects for monthly competition according to printed 
program. Plans for a more universal use of Study Course 
were discussed. The proposition which seemed to meet with 
most favor from those present was, that each club should, in 
its local annual exhibition, make a special exhibit of work 
drawn from and executed in accordance with the League 
Course of Study ; and that the special exhibits of these clubs 
be made a feature of our next annual League exhibition. It 
was decided to make no change in the subjects for original 
treatment issued last year. 

The competitive designs for a government table service 
will be called for January 1st, 1900. The names of the judges 
will be published in the preceding November, together with 
needful instructions for submitting these designs, which must 
be done in water color, upon sheets not exceeding 14x16. 
Any part of a table service may be selected, but the decora- 
tion must be adapted for, and shown upon, the article chosen. 
With the decision of the judges will be published the condi. 
tions to be observed in applying the approved designs to the 
china, the subsequent display of the decorated pieces in com- 
parative annual exhibition, and their final disposition. The 
Board of Managers will be glad of assistance from every coun- 
cil member in making this effort a worthy and acceptable 
addition to the historical china of the Executive Mansion. 

By request of the Board, I have forwarded the new sched- 
ules of Circular Letters for each club enrolled August 15th. 
Considerable time has been expended in obtaining the exact 
"Roll of Clubs," as the vacation found us with application 
papers taken out, but not filed. To prepare sixteen schedules 
so that not one clash may occur, requires considerable time 
also. The successful carrying out of this entire scheme 
rests with the Council. If one club fails to follow its sched- 
ule at the time laid down, the chain is broken, and the whole 
a tangle ! The circular letter started last year with enthusi- 
asm, but was soon demoralized. Who and where mattered 
little : the wheels were blocked. The newly enrolled clubs 



104 



KERAM1C STUDIO 



have the advantages of starting with us at the beginning of 
the year's work. Before the stress of exhibition labor is upon 
us, you will be in full swing, ready to do your part, and well 
acquainted with the League through this exchange of club 
letters. 

The space assigned the League by the United States Com- 
mission to the International Exposition is not large, but it 
is sufficient for a very general representation of our artists; 
and, if the lines have to be rigidly drawn in the selection of 
our exhibition, let us remember that not only our national 
pride, but the material interests of our art and artists demands 
that our display be distinguished for quality, not quantity. 
Acting upon Director Hurlburt's advice, application will be 
made for each exhibitor. In event of awards the advantage 
is apparent : the individual receives the award. In appear- 
ance in the catalogue, the advantage would be, that, whereas 
application for the National League would, perhaps, occupy 
two inches in a column, application for members individually 
would probably occupy pages. The lists of applicants for 
space should contain full addresses and be in my hands on or 
before September 15th. 

These matters will, I am sure, receive your hearty and 
prompt attention. Mrs. Worth Osgood, 

President National League of Mineral Painters. 

TREATMENT FOR CORN-FLOWERS 

Mary Chase Perry 

Tins quaint flower, long relegated to the old-fashioned gar- 
den, has once more regained popularity and the senti- 
ment formerly attached to it. It lends itself very gracefully 
to all manner of decorative effects, as it is both varied in 
form and many-hued in color. 

The central prominent flowers are creamy white, with pink 
ones at the right ; those underneath the leaves and the mass 
at the base are blue — deepening into purples as they are lost 
in the deep background. Treat the arrangement as a whole, 
letting the color scheme go from light at the top, down to 
strong tones at the base. In this way the decoration will 
consist of a color background, with the flowers as accessories, 
yet holding their own value. For colors use a soft green and 
grey — White Rose and Copenhagen to model the white 
flowers, glazing in the second firing with Ivory Yellow and 
touches of pink and blue as reflected from the colored flowers. 
Use Rose in the pink flowers with green and yellow toward 
the centres; for the blue flowers use Deep Blue and Banding 
Blue, strengthened with Ruby or Roman Purple. 

For greens, use Yellow or Moss Green, Brown and Shad- 
ing Green, keeping the stems crisp and clear. The centres of 



the flowers are an interesting study in themselves; the white 
ones have delicate pinkish stamens while those in the pink 
flowers are often white or pale green. The blue flowers have 
purple ones, with perhaps one strongly marked white one. 
The buds and that part of the calyx which shows in the full 
flower have a characteristic marking which is too often ex- 
pressed with the effect of a cross-bar. A few touches on the 
right side are really all that is necessary to suggest the growth. 
Paint in the background at the same time as the flowers, so 
as to keep all in harmony. Make the light tone above of 
Ivory Yellow and Russian Green, changing into Yellow Brown 
at the left and Gold Grey at the right ; darkening into Copen- 
hagen and Roman Purple at the base. Do not be afraid to 
let the color go directly into the flowers even if you lose their 
outlines. A crisp touch or two with a dry brush will bring 
them back sufficiently and an effect of softness is maintained. 
The shadowy flowers at the left are to be barely suggested 
and then are quite lost in the background. 

After the whole has received the first painting, let it be- 
come fairly dry — in fact so dry that the colors are perfectly 
set and hard to the touch. Then the tints "may be strength- 
ened and softened by dusting on dry color. Often chance 
effects may be taken advantage of or many delightful sur- 
prises may appear. A little experimenting at this stage is 
both fascinating and irresistible, yet always with an under- 
standing of the general demands of the design. Dust with 
the same colors with which the wet color was laid on ; or if it 
appears too cold, use Yellow Brown or Pompadour — the latter 
very sparingly — if it is too warm use blue or Copenhagen. 
The color scheme may be carried out in a lighter or darker 
key as one chooses, so long as the correct values are main- 
tained. For the second firing" paint and glaze so as to bring 
the whole together well, adding more accents in the third fire, 
should it seem to need it. 

Should the design be applied to a vase with a straight 
neck, chocolate pot or tobacco jar, the semi-conventional band 
may be used, developing it in gold or raised paste, or with 
color and jewel effects carried out in the narrow border at the 
lower edge. 

The tiny flowers suggested in the design add a decorative 
finish and as in the original study from nature they grew near 
the corn-flowers and were gathered with them, it is quite 
natural to use them in the same connection. If so, just before 
firing, the little petals and tiny stems may be taken out with 
a sharp pointed stick. This must be done very daintily so 
that the lines will be fine and smooth. At the last firing a 
touch of enamel may be added to them — yet do not depend 
upon that finish to preserve the form of the blossom, but 
rather to accent that which you have already expressed with 
the brush. 




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KERAMIC STUDIO 



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KERAMIC STUDIO 




TREATMENT INDO-PERSIAN DESIGN— MABEL C. DIBBLE 



THE dish is about the depth of a soup plate with flat rim or 
shoulder, which the border design just fills. The shape 
is made in several sizes, but this is the eight-inch size. The 
color scheme is given, but to know which colors to lay in for 
first fire will be a great help to the student. First lay in the 
pale blue tint — Deep Blue Green with little Apple Green 
added, using the tinting oil you prefer. I use two parts Bal- 
sam of Copaiba to one part Oil of Lavender. The large 
panels, two center bands, and small panels in border all have 
background of the pale blue. Wipe the design out carefully, 



when thoroughly dry, outline all flowers and leaves with a 
dark blue line, not too heavily or distinctly, a soft line making 
the work more artistic. Use Dark Blue with touch of Bruns- 
wick Black and Deep Purple in it for the outline, and grind 
it only with turpentine, no oil. Then fill in the reds- Deep 
Red Brown and Capucine Red, equal parts, and little oil to 
make it flow smoothly in the bands. The center of all the 
flowers and three bands are red. The gold bands arc also laid 
in for the first fire, and a line of gold around each little green 
circle in the border. The dish is now ready for first fire, and 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



>/ 



you will find that the entire design has been preserved, if 
directions have been followed. 

For second fire make the dark blue enamel by adding a 
trifle of Deep Purple and Brunswick Black to Dark Blue. Use 
only turpentine, and add one-eighth ot Dresden Aufsetzvveis 
(in tubes). Use a long-haired tracer, No. i or 2, fill the brush 
with the enamel, made quite thin with turpentine, and fill in 
each petal at one stroke : no touching up, or the enamel will 
look patchy. If the enamel is just right it will flow to the 
outline and look smooth and dull when dry. For the broader 
washes of blue in the border, work in the same way, using 
enamel even thinner, and work rapidly in order that one brush 
full may melt into the one before, for as turpentine is the only 
medium used, it dries rapidly. This blue should fire a beau- 
tiful dark blue, highly glazed, but only slightly raised from 
the dish. For the green enamel leaves and background above 
panels, use Apple Green with a little Silver Yellow added, and 



a touch of Chrome Green B, adding one-fourth Aufsetzweis, 
and turpentine only. Make the smaller leaves a lighter green 
by using Mixing Yellow instead of Silver. Outline all the 
gold bands and little patterns with a clear fine black line 
(leaving the gold on edge of dish, of course), made from 
Brunswick Black with touch of Dark Blue added. Also out- 
line the red bands with the same. 

Now all rests with the fires. Do not fire too hot, or too 
long, and the enamel will never flake off, blister, or do any- 
thing but prove a joy forever. A test of these enamel mix- 
tures would be advisable before using them in this design. 

A new decoration has been introduced by the Rookwood 
Pottery. The firm has artists scouring the country in the 
vicinity of Cincinnati for views, historical and otherwise, to 
decorate their ware. Some exquisite productions are promised. 




TREATMENT OF CUP AND SAUCER 



DRAW on your design carefully with India ink. Dust the 
upper light background with Pearl Grey, the lower por- 
tion with Copenhagen Grey. Take a mixture of Dresden 
Aufsetzweis and best English Enamel, half of each, and model 
the flowers as you would raised paste. For leaves and stems, 
mix a very little Copenhagen with your enamel, remembering 
that it fires darker, and your enamel must be lighter than 
your ground. Use a little Copenhagen to shade centers of 
flowers. Or treat the design with lustres: tint the background 
with steel blue used thin ; clean out flowers, leaves and stems. 
Dry thoroughly in oven, being careful not to dry too much or 
it will rub off. Now go over stems and leaves with Light 



Green. The center flower shade with Orange, the side ones 
with ruby, and the buds and lower flowers with Rose. 

For second fire, go over lower portion of background with 
Dark Green. Dry. Shade leaves and stems with Light 
Green, Go over the orange poppy with Yellow, the ruby 
ones with Orange, and the rose with Orange also. The ruby 
ones will come out scarlet, and the rose mahogany. Now out- 
line carefully with black. 

For the third fire, strengthen any needed shading and go 
over any weak spots in your outlining. 

The handle should be Ruby for first fire, Dark Green for 
second. No gold. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



ENAMEL 

OWING to the texture and hard glaze of the china that is 
generally used for decoration (the French and German) 
there are many difficulties that prevent perfection of designs 
carried out in enamel. Perhaps it may be the failures that 
make their use so fascinating. English potteries have reached 
a greater perfection in enamels than any other :— there is 
something in the glaze that seems to hold them and to affili- 
ate with them as one body, so also does the ware from the 
Ceramic Works at Trenton, — but they have very few shapes 
suitable for table service fas Mr. Binns told us in our last 
number), and enamels are particularly attractive on rims of 
plates. The English ware sometimes fires in our kilns with 
tiny black spots, so we are limited to the French and German 
wares. ( Oh ! for the American ! ) 

In buying enamel from a dealer or a teacher, always in- 
quire if the enamel requires a hard ox a light fire, for it is the 
firing that makes the difference in the effect. 

Anfsetzzveis (German relief white) and one-third best 
English enamel is the safest enamel to use. The aufsetzweis 
comes in tubes or you can buy it at wholesale in the powder, 
which is much cheaper but requires considerable grinding. 
Mix the enamel with Dresden thick oil, just enough to change 
the character of it, but not enough to make a paste of it, thin 
with lavender and rectified spirits of turpentine. Rub thor- 
oughly until it drops or follows the brush and stays exactly 
as you place it. The enamel should look dull when placed in 
the kiln. If large surfaces are to be covered with enamel, see 
that it is not put on thin, for it is apt to chip off in that case. 
Our article in the August number, on glass, gives excellent 
directions for paste, which can be applied with success to 
enamels. Then in Miss Dibble's treatment in this number 
will be found good suggestions for carrying out designs in 
enamel in flat designs. 

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS 

Any questions to he answered by this department must be sent in by tie tOth i,, 

the month preceding issue. 

Mrs. M. C. A. -Ivory glaze, in the case to which you refer, simply 
means to tint the center of the piate delicately with ivory yellow, so as to 
obtain a uniform glaze on the plate, which is decorated in the border. But 
there is an ivory glaze put up in powder form. This is used dry and brushed 
over the half dry color of a finished piece of painted decoration with a hit of 
cotton wool. It blends the colors all together in firing, and gives a tine under- 
glaze effect, though it is liable to absorb other colors such as iron reds and 
greens and Rive a rather monochromatic effect. To make a solid Black ground, 
dust on the powder color twice. Use best German black. A luminous black 
effect is made by dusting on red brown the first time, and dark blue for the 
second fire. For outlining, use outlining black (Brunswick or German black). 
The expression "flowers were in relief in white and incised under the glaze," 
means that the piece of pottery had the design incised or. cut out before glaz- 
ing, and some of the flowers put on over the glaze in relief white, or built up 
on the piece of pottery in relief and the glaze flowed on over all. the 
peach blow effect can only be obtained under the glaze. We hope to have an 
article in regard to this in the near future. The nearest effect in over-glaze 
would be obtained by dusting gold grey over blood red, shading lighter 
towards top. The effect of peach blow over silver can only be obtained by 
enameling over meial. The suggestion was given in order that some one 
might be inspired to experiment on china to get something of the same effect. 
We hope to have a colored plate in the near future with Dresden roses, by 
Mrs. Leonard. 

Mrs. C. S. S.— We do not expect to give any designs especially adapted 
to a Louis XIV pudding set, as we have given a number of designs that 
could be adapted to this pattern of china. We refer you to the plate design 
by Miss Mason in the May number, plate by Mrs. Robineau inthesame num- 
ber, plate by Mrs Leonard in June number, plate by Mrs. Cherry in July, 
and plates by Miss Mason and Mrs. Leonard in this issue. 



VV. L. D.— The information in regard to the chocolate pot of Mrs. Leonard 
in July issue can be obtained by writing to any of our advertisers who deal 
in white china. 

Mrs. A. W. D.— The word "Prosif on the tankard design by Mrs. Rob- 
ineau is an expression used by German students. It is Latin, and the free 
translation is "Your health." You need not use it on your tankard unless 
you wish. 

A. L. R.— Under-glaze, is painting on the rough china or biscuit before 
glazing. Over-glaze, is painting on the finished glazed china. Write to any 
of the teachers who advertise with us, and they would let you know whether 
they would be willing to instruct by mail. It is an unsatisfactory method at 
best, and our "Answers to Correspondents" column and the articles "For 
Beginners" ought to afford you more valuable information than could be 
obtained that way, at less cost. Ask us for any information in regard to 
china painting, and we will be glad to give you the desired instruction through 
the magazine. 

S. G. D.-We give a good and reliable formula for gold in the next issue 
(October). Etching on China is done with hydrofluoric acid. It is a very 
dangerous process, and we do not advise you to try it. The effect hardly 
pays for the trouble, especially as you can buy from the china dealers pieces 
already etched, for a very reasonable price. A very similar effect can be 
obtained by using the following process : Draw your design carefully with 
India ink. Then dust on to the background, paste for raised gold, in the same 
manner as color is dusted on grounds. Use the grounding oil thinned about 
one-half with turpentine. The dusting process has already been described in 
this magazine. Then model your design in raised paste. After firing and 
gilding, go over with glass brush, touching up high lights on raised design 
with agate burnisher. To use the acid, draw your design carefully with India 
ink. Heat your plate, then pour melted wax over the entire surface and let 
it dry with a Ihin coat, as even as possible. Then with a knife and stick 
clean out the design. Pour the acid into these cleaned spaces and le. 
it has eaten deep enough into the glaze. Then wash off thoroughly in run- 
ning water. Do not get any acid on your hands or you may suffer horribly 
from the burning. After washing, see that all parts are cut sufficiently deep. 
If not, go over it again with acid, and wash again. When etched, put the 
plate in hot water and soda, the wax will melt off and you are ready lor gild- 
ing. The parts eaten with acid will come out from gilding with. a frosted 
effect, and where the glaze is left will burnish bright. 1 here are other 
methods, but this is as satisfactory as any. Do not breathe the fumes from 
the acid, as they are said lo form ulcers in the lungs. We would be glad to 
have you submit designs, and, if available, would be pleased to publish them. 

Margaret.- Write to our advertisers for the Meissen powder colors. For 
the plate design by Mrs. Cherry, the design is traced in India ink, which 
shows through dusted color, if not put on too heavily. The color is wiped 
out where the paste is to go on. 

Mrs. J. VV. D.— Good gold, well put on, and well tired, will neither 
blister nor burnish off. It gold blisters, it is either because it has too much 
fat oil or is put on too heavily, usually the latter. If it burnishes off, it is 
put on too thinly or fired too lightly, or has not enough flux in its composi- 
tion. If gold blistered and burnished off on the same plate, we would con- 
clude that the gold had been put on very unevenly, too thick in some places, 
too thin in others. The best way to get an even gold is to put on a medium 
thin coat, dry in the oven, and put on a second coat. Two thin washes are 
always more effective than one thick coat. Better still, if you have your 
own kiln, is to fire after your first thin coat, then put on your second wash 
and fire again. It takes considerable practice to put on one heavy coat properly 
so that it will not need retouching. Gold frequently blisters over deep color. 
Wherefore it is always best to clean out color where gold is to go. 

L. A. S.— There is always great danger of moss green turning brownish 
in firing, especially on Beleek. Royal green is more reliable on white china, 
but there is the same danger with Beleek. Usually a hard fire is less dan- 
gerous in this respect than a light one. Grass green, Sevres, Coalport, and 
all greens of this order are more or less liable to surprise you in this way, 
but moss green is the worst. Especially when dusted on or tinted, the 
painted color seems to work better as a rule. It is neither your fault or that 
of the kiln. The only way is to avoid those colors when you do not wish to 
run the risk of their discoloring. 

G E. S.— A good way to cover up the soiled tinting on the border of 
your plates is to cover the tinted portion with silver lustre. It will come out 
with a frosted effect, which is very soft and pretty. If you wish to make 
them ealborate, put on a design in raised paste over the lustre, making a 
gold design on a frosted silver ground. You can use enamels also with your 
gold design, which you could not do with burnished silver, the pinks being 
entirely destroyed in using with silver. Or you could dust a deep color over 
the tint and put on a design in white enamel, giving a cameo effect. 



EWHfflfiK 

K ^ OCTOBER: MDCCCXCIX Price 35c. Yearly Subscription $3.50 



f 



CONTRIBUTORS 

MRS. A. A. FRAZEE + j* * * + 

MRS. ANNA B. LEONARD jt ^ * > 

MR. A. G. MARSHALL.* > jt * * 

MISS LIDA S. MULFORD j» .*» ^ ^» 

MISS EMILY F. PEACOCK.* ^ ^ j» 

MRS. ADELAIDE ALSOP-ROBINEAU > 

MISS JEANNE M. STEWART j» ^ .* 

MISS SARA B. VILAS ^* ^ * * * 
MISS HENRIETTA BARCLAY WRIGHT 

MISS DOROTHEA WARREN * * jt 



I 



FOR: 



HO€3ZIH£: 

THE: 









[ The entire contents of this Magazine are cohered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted Without special permission. ] 

CONTENTS FOR OCTOBER, 1899 



Editorial Notes, 

Gold, 

Design for Plate in Thistles (Supplement), 

The Application of Ornament, 

Historic Ornament — Arabian 

Plate Design, 

General Principles of Decorative Art, 

For Beginners, 

Turkish Design for Stein, 

Plate Design in Hawthorn, 

Treatment for Bon-Bon and Cup Design, 

Peacock Tankard Design, 

League Notes — Club News, 

In the Shops — In the Studios, 

Design for Lemonade Pitcher — Cherries, 

Cupids in Lacroix Colors, 

Plate Design, 

Indian Pipe Treatment, 

Tea Pot Design in Violets, 

American Work in Pottery, 

Thistle Cup and Saucer, 

Answers to Correspondents, 



Emily F. Peacock, 
Jeanne M, Stewart, 
<A. G. Marshall, 
c/ldelaide Alsop- c Kphineau, 
Sara B, Vilas, 



Dorothea Warren, 
Anna <B. Leonard, 
A, A. Frazee, 
Adelaide Atsop-lfebineau, 



Henrietta Barclay Wright, 
<Anna B, Leonard, 
Lida S. SMulford, 
Anna B. Leonard, 
Anna B. Leonard, 

Adelaide Alsop-Robineau, 



PAGE 

109 

no 
no 
in 

112, 115 

m 

116 

JJ6-JJ7 

117 

118 

U9 

J20-J2J 

122 

123 

124-125 

125 

126 

127 

125, 127 

128 

129 

130 




SYRACUSE, N. Y. 



Vol. 




' T IS very gratifying to see the decorators returning 
to their studios, looking and feeling refreshed, 
and in nearly every instance bringing home 
sketches of fruit and flower made from nature, 
which they will utilize in their season's work. 
This is the only way to introduce originality and 
individuality in decoiation and to stop the slavish 
imitation of other decorators, who have made 
successes upon certain lines. There should be a 
tremendous improvement in this direction, when 
this same criticism was so generally made at the 
last League exhibition. There may be many 
decorators who are not ready to stand alone, but perhaps 
they have not tried very hard to break away from old ideas, 
rules and regulations. This is the best time of the year to 
begin ! The New York Society of Keramic Arts fought to 
establish a rule that "no work should be exhibited that had 
been done under a teacher," and when the experiment was 
tried the members and public acknowledged that it was the 
greatest step towards improvement that the club had made. 
The work became individual and extremely interesting from 
that point alone. Each member now is studying and working 
upon lines that give her or him the most satisfaction and 
pleasure, without trying to imitate this one or that one, with 
results that are far more artistic and interesting. 

We have heard of one china shop, and that several times, 
where decorators were not given a welcome, and this is one 
of the oldest and most reliable houses in the country. Some 
one who is only an amateur called the other day and thought 
she might pass a pleasant half-hour by studying the finer 
wares that could be seen in this place, which is possible if the 
clerks are ignorant of the fact that the visitor is a decorator. 
She meekly stated that she decorated china just for her own 
amusement, and was interested in it, and would like to see 
some of their finer plates. But to her utter amazement and 
mortification she was told that the house did not like to show 
their wares to decorators, that their importations are exclusive 
and very expensive, and that the decorator came only to copy 
or to steal ideas! The visitor then asked if any objection 
would be made if decorators looked at the wares in the win- 
dows. Now we can understand that there may be trying 
cases when visitors are not always agreeable, and may criticize 
the work shown, and in that way antagonize the dealers. For 
instance, we know where one decorator made the remark that 
she thought some amateurs in this country could do better 
decorative work than the imported, etc. Naturally, remarks 
like that will create a little feeling, but when, on the other 
hand, nothing like that has been said, there is no excuse for 
discourtesy; we can scarcely believe that the proprietors are 
aware of the several incidents that have been reported to us. 
At any rate there are many shops where students and artists 
receive a welcome. Studying the Jiner imported china is the 
only way it will ever be fully appreciated and sought. Our 



teachers and students in turn will impress others, and in that 
way the cultivated taste and love for beautiful china grows. 
Dealers can then talk intelligently upon the subject, knowing 
it to be better understood and appreciated ; therefore a 
greater demand. We constantly urge decorators to study the 
technique of foreign wares. That alone is sometimes so won- 
derful that inspiration comes to do better work. But we 
never recommend copying anything nor anybody. Our line of 
work is to encourage originality and individuality. 

Mrs. Alsop-Robineau will make a sheet of Cupids and 
medallion heads in colors for one of the supplements in the 
near future. Mrs. Leonard is preparing a color sheet of deco- 
rative suggestions, among them some of her dainty Dresden 
roses. 

The peacock design for tankard would make an effective 
punch bowl design by shortening the tails of the birds. 

4= 

In this number will be found the first of a series of articles 
on "The Application of Ornament," by Mr. A. G. Marshall. 
These will be of the greatest assistance to students. In future 
papers the principles governing the application of ornament 
will be explained with the assistance of illustrations and dia- 
grams. 

4= 

We give below an extract from a letter written by Miss 
M. Owen of Cincinnati in regard to American glass for deco- 
rating. Miss Owen recently took a first premium for the 
glasses mentioned, at the Elks' Carnival and Fair at Lexing- 
ton, Kentucky. Her letter is especially interesting, since the 
subject of American wares for decorators is coming so promi- 
nently before us at this moment. 

" I hope whoever writes your articles on glass decorating 
will not make the mistake of making the incorrect statement 
that you cannot decorate or fire American glass, that you 
must have Bohemian glass to stand the fire. It is not so at 
all. I have used both, and used to somewhat fear American 
glass, but recently I decorated twelve hundred American 
tumblers and fired nine dozen at a time in a No. 6 Revelation 
kiln, without a breakage." 

•4° 

We have so many requests for color studies of various 
subjects that we have come to the conclusion that few under- 
stand the great expense of getting out first-class color studies 
such as we publish, in fact few realize the cost even of the 
original half-tone illustrations and the cuts which illustrate 
the Keramic Studio. We wish to do all in our power to 
please our subscribers. We have promised six color supple- 
ments for the first year, and six color half-tone supplements. 
We will carry out our promise, but we can not give in a year 
all the subjects asked for. Anything in black and white that 
is asked for by a subscriber, we will publish at an early date, 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



but subjects in color wait their turn. We are but just six 
months old, we are growing beyond our expectations, yet it 
will be some time before our subscription list will warrant an 
issue of a color supplement every month. It all depends 
upon the subscribers. The more they help us to swell our 
subscription list, the sooner will come the time when they can 
have their desires satisfied in this regard. 



At the Exposition in Omaha may now be seen a most 
valuable and interesting exhibition of decorated porcelain and 
pottery. The larger portion of the exhibit was loaned by the 
National League of Mineral Painters, from their late annnal 
exhibition in Chicago ; the remainder is selected from local 
artists of Omaha. It is a most unexpected and interesting 
surprise that greets a visitor upon entering the art galleries, 
to find many cases of beautiful china, which are well placed. 
The plates are most pleasingly arranged for a front view in a 
tall slanting case. The vases and pieces of pottery are well 
arranged in square standing cases in the center of the various 
galleries. The entire collection is varied, and well merits the 
location it has received. All persons represented by their 
porcelain, should be highly gratified that they have had the 
privilege of contributing to an exhibition that is so well 
received in this western city by its many visitors. 



Mrs. Nina E. Lumbard, who has a studio in both Fremont 
and Omaha, Nebraska, will send us an account in detail of the 
keramic exhibition at the Exposition in Omaha. She writes 
as follows : 

" Of course we are all glad for our show of keramics, 
now in the Fine Arts Building, yet I regret that some have 
taken advantage of the opening and have placed studio work- 
done under instruction on exhibition, as individual work. It 
seems too bad, for we should make our work an individual 
interpretation of motifs, and not a hackneyed copy. In the 
Liberal Arts Building is a 'live' exhibit, under the supervision 
of Mrs. Wright and Mrs. Morrow, in which they demonstrate 
the use of kilns and colors. They instruct such as wish it, and 
make practical the mysteries of interglaze work to the novice. 
In their department is also a branch of water color work as 
applicable to keramics, of which I can say but little, since I 
am instructor in this line of work. We study natural forms, 
not from the interpreted work of others, but directly from 
nature, this being one of my hobbies. In my own studio we 
have had a good class in the study of design and keramics, 
during the summer. The winter promises some good results 
from this serious line of study, and I take courage that I, at 
least may help raise a higher, broader standard for our work. 

GOLD 

Emily F. Peacock. 

To the amateur, the preparing of gold for keramic decora- 
tion seems a great undertaking, but with the proper appar- 
atus, materials and care, this should not be. Then the pleasure 
and profit derived from using pure gold, more than compen- 
sates for time expended. There are two methods generally 
used. In both, the metal is dissolved in aqua regia, and when 
precipitated is in the form of a light brown powder. By one 
method the gold is precipitated by ferros sulphate (copperas), 
the other by mercury. The former I prefer, and give as 
follows : 

Take four pennyweights of pure ribbon gold, cut into 
small pieces, and put in a large measuring glass or porcelain 
vessel holding not less than a pint, cover with about an ounce 



and a half of aqua regia, placing over vessel a piece of common 
glass. Let this stand over night in a large room, or prefera- 
bly, in the open air. In the morning pour this chloride of 
gold into two glass vessels, each holding three pints or more, 
being very careful not to waste a drop, as every grain counts 
when the precipitate is formed. Then make a solution, taking 
about a quart of warm water to an ounce of ferros sulphate. 
When thoroughly dissolved, add to the chloride until precipi- 
tation begins, clouding the liquid, and the gold in the form of 
brown powder will begin to fall to the bottom of the vessel. 
Let this stand four or five hours, or until entirely settled ; then 
pour off the clear liquid from the precipitate, treating it as 
before, as the gold held in solution may not all have been 
precipitated ; i. e., pour off clear liquid into another vessel, to 
this must be added more of the prepared solution, until it is 
cloudy as in the first instance ; if it refuses to cloud there is no 
more gold in solution. Wash the precipitate left in the vessels 
with warm water, let it stand until settled, pour off, and repeat 
the process twice. The washing consists of stirring the pre- 
cipitate with a glass rod a few times in the water. When it 
has settled for the last time, pour off the water and transfer 
to a shallow plate that will bear heat ; place over this a paper 
cover, and put in front or over a fire. When quite dry, rub 
down with a muller, when it is ready for use or to be fluxed. 
Divide your powder into pennyweights. In this way you will 
find out how much you have made. All liquid used should 
be poured through filter paper afterwards, to make sure you 
do not lose the smallest quantity. When dry this may be 
burned, and only the grains of gold remain. To make flux, 
use nitrate of bismuth, twelve parts, to one part of pulverized 
borax ; mixing one part flux to twelve parts of the gold pow- 
der. When ready to use, rub down to a proper consistency 
with fat oil and spirits of turpentine, taking care not to make 
it too thin. If made as directed, one coat of this gold is suffi- 
cient for most purposes. 

A couple of glass rods, several pieces of glass for covers, 
and a large jar to hold solution, besides vessels already men- 
tioned, will be necessary, and each one of these must be 
washed scrupulously clean before using. Glazed paper is best 
for wrapping up gold powder, and a small pair of scales will 
be found very useful. 

•f if 

DESIGN FOR PLATE IN THISTLES 

Jeanne M. Stewart 

AFTER sketching design, lay in the background, shading 
from Ivory Yellow to Blue Green and Shading Green. 
While the color is still open, wipe out design with clean 
brush, blending edges in shadow. Lights should be kept clear 
and white. Wash flowers in simply a mixture of Turquoise 
Green and light Violet of Gold ; leaves of Yellow Green and 
Blue Green (light) with Olive, Shading and Brown Green in 
shadows, taking out high lights very sharp and clear; seed pods 
in Lemon Yellow, Yellow Ochre and Chestnut Brown ; shadow 
leaves in Grey for flowers and Yellow Green. 

In second fire, work up design by accenting shadows with 
same colors as in first painting, adding detail. 

For third fire, deepen background with Shading Green or 
Black Green, bringing color well over edges of design in 
shadow, blending softly into light tones with silk pad. When 
color is almost dry and will not rub up, a light dusting of 
powder color, with pad of cotton will give depth and glaze. 
A few finishing accents may be added to leaves and flowers. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




THE APPLICATION OF ORNAMENT 

A. G. Marshall 
INTRODUCTORY 
SOMETHING more than technical ability, though 
it be of the very highest order, is required 
for the accomplishment of successful deco- 
ration. The most admirable skill in the 
handling of processes, joined to the most 
subtle perception of color and tone, and exquisite perfection 
of brush work, may fail totally to produce a fine or even good 
result. The ability to make first-rate pictures may exist, and 
frequently does exist, quite dissociated from any talent for 
applied decoration. Yet it is often assumed that the pictorial 
artist is, of necessity, better equipped as a decorator than the 
man whose life has been spent in decorative art, but who has 
never turned out anything to frame and hang up by an inde- 
pendent string. This attitude is responsible for much false 
decoration, vitiation of taste, and misapplication of pictorial 
talent to utensils and textiles and furniture. It ought to be 
apparent that the function of a dish, for example, is utilitarian, 
and that of a picture is ideal, and that the two functions can- 
not be fulfilled by the same object. The pictorial is too 
precious to be sacrificed to utility, and the use of the dish is 
too important to be destroyed for the sake of supporting pic- 
tures which can be much better done by other and specially 
appropriate materials. Because a landscape or figure or spray 
of flowers is in itself beautiful, is no surety that it will be 
beautiful wherever placed. We would not tread a rare flower 
under foot, or recline against the sky or a fountain, or sit upon 
angels' faces, or eat pudding and milk from the back of a cat. 
Why then should we do these things to the realistic pictures 
of such objects, or paint them where they will be subjected to 
such treatment? This prohibition need not debar the mineral 
painter from reproducing in the most realistic manner flesh 
and fish and bird and beast and fruit and flower and earth and 
air and fire and water, — only keep such representations out of 
platters and soup plates and tea cups and slop bowls and off 
from unbrella stands and jardinieres and soap dishes, reserving 
them for panels and medallions that shall be set apart for 
purely aesthetic purposes. Remember the everlasting fitness 
of things. 

Unfortunately the taste of a great many persons is still 
undeveloped, or as it would rather seem, warped from what 
would be its natural direction had bad examples never been 
set before their eyes. Such persons delight in shams and in- 
congruities and the lavishing of skill upon the most inconse- 
quential and inappropriate objects. Their table service and 
linen must be painted and embroidered with flowers and birds 
and butterflies "so real that you could fairly pick them off," 
they revel in such delectable objects d'art as receivers for hair 
combings made of porcelain in the shape of a feather fan, 
curled up and tied with ribbon with a Watteau scene painted 
on the feathers, and probably would be wafted into the sev- 
enth heaven of aesthetic rapture could they possess a Meis- 
sonier warrior and a Raphael Holy Family ornamenting the 
obverse and reverse sides, of a coal scuttle with roses and 
forget-me-nots around the rim and Cupid and Psyche nestling 
within at the bottom, the handle, perhaps, being a gilt serpent 
and the spout bearing a fictitious coat-of-arms, unity of design 
being supposed to be brought in by a straggling inscription 
setting forth the exciting and novel information that "while I 
was musing, the fire burned." This may be a shocking indict- 
ment, but observation seems to justify it. And yet five 



minutes' reflection ought to convince anyone that things are 
not decorated by haphazard assemblage of designs, nor when 
the objects represented upon them are desecrated by the asso- 
ciation. So, at once and forever, let us eliminate all incon- 
gruity and all realistic painting from the field of applied 
decoration, and instead of striving to make things look like 
what they are not, endeavor to emphasize and beautify them 
for what they are, by means of ornament which is appropriate 
to their use, consistent with the character of their material 
and adapted to their structure and form. 

Good decoration demands that the thing decorated shall 
not be impaired in utility. This object is certainly not attained 
when the decoration is so valuable or so delicate and fragile 
that "Hands off" must be appended for a motto. And right 
here let us protest, with all the energy of our being against 
the practice of having things too fine for use and using things 
too poor to be regarded. This gets one into a rotten-apples 
way of life, if it does not make for actual hypocrisy. Things 
of good design cost no more and are infinitely more satisfying 
that the cheap, flimsy, trashy, "decorated" stuff sold at the 
bargain counter, which seldom fails before many months to 
find its proper level, the ash barrel. Utility is impaired when 
the decoration by its relief or roughness, as about the edge of 
a drinking cup or on the seat or back of a chair, interferes with 
the agreeable and convenient use of the article. Again, the 
decoration may be carved or incised or otherwise applied in a 
way that shall weaken the object. And aesthetically, utility 
is absolutely destroyed by ornament which is incongruous, or 
destructive of the sense of surface or security, as a realistic 
landscape with space and atmosphere to cut beefsteak on, a 
majolica toad or lizard to drink milk from, or table legs which 
appear to be made of flexible ropes. Consistency with the 
character of the object is upset by false decorations like those 
just mentioned and by anything applied to it which would 
suggest that it is not in substance or form or purpose just 
what it is. Adaptation to structure and form require that the 
decoration shall not actually or apparently falsify the material, 
or weaken it, or add needlessly to its strength in any part, 
shall not disturb its balance or relation of parts, and shall con- 
form to its surface and structural lines. If a proposed decor- 
ation is found to be unfit in any of these essentials, it should 
be rejected without hesitation and something else substituted. 

The points involved in the adaptation of designs to deco- 
rative purposes seem to be less generally understood than 
almost anything else in the realm of decorative art. And yet 
they are of the very first importance, and if more appreciated 
we might be spared some things, such as over-gilding, making 
fine porcelain look like clumsy metal work, imitations of 
baskets and lace in china and metal and solid wood and a 
thousand other tasteless shams, as well as ornaments stuck 
on wholly unrelated to the spaces they are supposed to adorn. 
One of the most frequent and serious faults is over-decoration. 
This error is most likely to arise from lack of knowledge as to 
the effective disposition of ornament, no arrangement seeming 
satisfactory, short of a surfeit of crowded details which may 
be supposed to reach finality by the uninstructed lavishment 
of labor, like a case of hopeless disease, where "all has been 
done that could be done," — except to cure. 

LUSTRES 

Chatoyant is a deep rose with a gold lustre. It is easily 
spotted and must be very carefully treated. Light green 
makes a very pretty effect over this color. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 





HISTORIC ORNAMENT— ARABIAN 

HE Arabians created an original decorative style which furnished 
primitive types to other Orientals. There is a strong resem- 
blance between the Arabian, Moorish, Turkish, Persian, and 
Indo Persian decorative art, but each has its distinctive pecu- 
liarity by which the pure forms of each can be distinguished 
from those of the other. With the Moors the distinguishing 
colors are dark blue, red and gold; their designs are almost 
entirely made up of geometric patterns, composed of interlacing straight lines 
and angles, after the style of the " Star of Solomon "or the center of the 
Arabian rug pattern. Persian art differs from the Arabian in the intro- 
duction of flowers and living objects into designs. Turkish art is a mixture 
of Arabian and Persian, using the shaded color effects which the Arabians 
borrowed from the Byzantines, and the forms more akin to the Persians. 
The Indo-Persian elaborates the Persian motives still farther, their back- 
grounds being completely covered with delicate tracery. 

The original architecture of Arabia wa"s Roman or Byzantine. The 
Mahommedans gradually threw off that influence, formed and perfected a 
style peculiarly their own, They still retain the peculiar shaded color effects 
found in Byzantine and Mediaeval art, using it sparingly, however. The 
Arabs are not as perfect as the Moors in distribution of masses or in orna- 
menting the surface of ornaments. Their guiding instinct is the same, but 
their execution inferior. There is more monotony but less contrast, their 
designs being almost entirely on one plane, while the Moor uses several 
planes, giving the effect of breadth and restful spaces, even while ornament- 
ing still more elaborately. The Arabic constructive feeling shows more 
grandeur, the Moorish more refinement. The Greek influence can be traced 
in several designs, especially in the use of two flower-like forms, one turned 
up, one down, but with the Arabs the flower forms part of the scroll. 

The use of flower-forms combined with lineal ornament shows the in- 
fluence of the Persian. There is a complete absence of living figures, repre- 
sentation of which was strictly forbidden by the Koran. Thus, in the primi- 
tive Arabian style, the flower is not to be found, but other forms resembling 
and directly inspired by nature. Thus conceived and employed, the orna- 
mental forms of the Arabs, being still more conventional than the Greek, are 
a purely decorative conception and are above and beyond nature. Symbol- 
ism, also being forbidden by the Koran, any sentiment to be found in Arabian 

art is directly expressed in verses 
from the Koran, the actual words 
and letters being introduced as 
part of the ornament. This can 
be seen in the head and end pieces 
to this article. Running inscrip. 
tions frequently form part of their 
^5 «#XJ* f*Hi^ ^^?W»> decorations and produce the hap- 

piest effects. This style is so 
strongly impressed with the 
Arabic genius that the term 
Arabesque still applies to the 
whole style of ornament which 
other nations have appropriated, 






THISTLES— JEANNE SM. STEWART 

KERAMIC STUDIO PUBLISHING CO. 



SUPPLEMENT 
OCTOBER 1899 



KERAMC STUDIO 

while recognizing the origin. Another form of decoration originating 
with the Arabs is what is termed rose-ivork, Nos. i, 2, 3 and 4 being exam- 
ples ; also the "Star of Solomon." These are frequently ornamented with 
words and sentences from the Koran, the background being formed of an 
interlacing ornament. The design of these roses is formed by the inter- 
lacing of curved lines attached to a common center and radiating toward 
the circumference. There is a continuity of ornament entirely filling the 
surface, nothing can be taken away without leaving an unseemly void. 
This imaginative construction is frequently double, formed by two com- 
plete systems, which follow each other to an end (see No. 4) without con- 
fusion ; in which construction the meetings and overlappings produce 
incidental figures. The intersections and alternations, relieved by color, 
form the ground, amid the interlacing of foliage. The decoration remains 
clear and distinct, thanks to the purity and fineness of the lines and the 
general rule excluding superfluity, also to the principle observed in the 
construction of roses, i. c, reserving the wider expansions for the extrem- 
ity of the circumference, leaving the fine work to the central point of the 
circle. The Arabs are also the inventors of the ingenious design producing 
a double effect, the silhouette of which has two exteriors, tracing with a 
single line two opposite figures. This is shown in the first of the column 
of borders, the white band marking a scallop of one shape from the top, 
and another from the base. Their upright border patterns are exquisitely 



113 





ARABIAN RUG PATTKRX. 



ii4 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



designed, in which repetitions of patterns side by side pro- a very rich and refined effect, carried out in gold and enamels 

duce another or several other patterns. The colors used are with a ground of yellow ochre or pale blue or green, the dark 

dark blue, red, gold, shaded effects of red, blue, green and part in dark blue, dark green or red brown, 
purple into white used in flower-like ornaments, black, The teapot design is elaborated from the rose No. 4. The 



white, green, ochre and olive. 




Application to The plate design by Miss Vilas shows 

Modern wna t can be done by a pupil without any 

f pretension to originality, by simply taking a 

«• rose pattern and enlarging the outer design 

into a border pattern. Those who say that they can not 

design, should try this simple method to begin, and will soon 

find themselves making original designs. This designs makes 



dotted effect in the background is simply to indicate a differ- 
ent color. The tracery should be in flat gold, the wider parts 
in flat enamels, following the general color scheme given 
before. 

The sugar bowl is made from the rose design No. 1. This 
could be made with a jewelled effect in turquoise, white and 
gold. This is not an Arabian_ treatment, but would make a 
very effective design. 

The creamer is a combination of rose No. 2 and an in. 
scription from the Koran. This would look well in dull blue 
and white, or dark blue on a ground of yellow ochre covered 
with gold dots, the inscription in white. Or you can use any 
other combination of colors that fancy dictates, as long as the 
colors are those used by the Arabians. The inscription being 
Arabic, the whole scheme must be in keeping. 





u6 



KERAMC STUDIO 




GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF DECORATIVE ART 

[From Owen Jones's Grammar of Ornament.] 

LL designs should possess fitness, proportion 
and harmony, the result of all which is 
repose. 

True beauty results from that repose 
which the mind feels when the eye, the intel- 
lect and the heart are satisfied. 

Construction should be decorated, decoration should 
never be purposely constructed. 

Beauty of form is produced by lines growing out, one 
from the other, in gradual undulations. There should be no 
excrescences, i. e., nothing could be removed and leave the 
design equally good or better. 

General forms being first cared for, these should be sub- 
divided and ornamented by general lines. The interstices 
may then be filled in with ornament which may be again sub- 
divided and enriched for closer inspection. 

Throughout Decorative Art every assemblage of form 
should be arranged on certain definite proportions. The 
whole- and each particular member should be a multiple of 
some simple unit. Those proportions will be most beautiful 
which are most difficult for the eye to detect. Thus the pro- 
portion of 4 to 8 is less beautiful than that of 5 to 8, 3 to 6 
less beautiful than 3 to 7, 3 to 9 than 3 to 8, 3 to 4 than 3 
to 5. 

Harmony of form consists of proper balancing and con- 
trast of the straight, inclined and curved. 

Distribution. — Radiation. — Continuity. — In surface deco- 
ration all lines should' flow from a parent stem, ever}' ornament 
should be traced to branch or root. (Oriental practice.) All 
junctions of curved lines" with curved or straight should be 
tangential. 

Flowers or other natural forms should not be used as 
ornaments, but conventional representations founded on 
natural forms, sufficiently suggestive to convey their image to 
the mind without destroying the unity of the object they are 
employed to decorate. 

Color is used to assist in developing form and to distin- 
guish objects or parts of objects from each other. It is also 
used to assist light and shade r helping undulations or form by 
proper distribution of the several colors. This object is best 
attained by using primary colors on small surfaces and small 
quantities of secondary and tertiary colors on larger masses. 

Primary colors should be used on upper portions of 
objects, secondary and tertiary on lower. 

Primary colors of equal intensity will harmonize or neu- 
tralize each other in the porportion of 3 yellow, 5 red, 8 blue 
(16 integrally.) Secondaries in the proportion of 8 orange, 13 
purple, 11 green (32 integrally.") Tertiaries in the proportion 
of 19 citrine (orange and green), 21 russet (orange and pur- 
ple), 24 olive (green and purple), (64 integrally). 

Each secondary being a compound of two primaries is 
neutralized by remaining primary in same proportion. 8 
orange (red and yellow) is balanced by 8 blue; 11 green (blue 
and yellow) is balanced by 5 red; 13 purple (red and blue) is 
balanced by 3 yellow. 

Each tertiary being a binary compound of two secon- 
daries is neutralized by the remaining secondary. 24 olive 
(green and purple) is balanced by 8 orange; 21 russet (orange 
and purple) is balanced by 11 green; 19 citrine (orange and 
green) is balanced by 13 purple. 

This applies to colors used in prismatic intensities, but 



each color has a variety of tones when mixed with white, or of 
shades when mixed with black. So when a full color is con- 
trasted with another of a lower tone the volume of the latter 
must be increased. 

Each color has a variety of hues obtained by admixture 
with other colors, in addition to white or black. Thus we 
have on one side orange yellow, on the other lemon yellow, 
scarlet red and crimson red, and of each every varietv of tone 
and shade. When a primary tinged with another is contrasted 
with a secondary, the secondary must have a hue of the third 
primary. 

In using primary colors on moulded surfaces, use blue 
which retires on concave, yellow which advances on convex, 
red which is intermediate on underside, separating colors by 
white on the vertical plane. When proportions required can- 
not be obtained, we may procure balance by changing colors. 
If surface should give too much yellow, make red more crim- 
son, and blue moie purple (i. e., take yellow out.) If too 
blue, make yellow more orange and red more scarlet. Various 
colors should be so blended that the objects colored, when 
viewed at a distance, should present a neutralized bloom. 

No composition can ever be perfect without the three 
primary colors either in natural state or combination. 

If two tones of the same color are juxtaposed, the light 
tone will seem lighter, the dark tone darker. 

If two different colors are juxtaposed, there is a double 
modification; the light color seems lighter, the dark color 
darker, and each color is tinged with the complementary color 
of the other. 

Colors on white grounds appear darker, on dark grounds 
lighter. 

Black grounds suffer when opposed to colors which give 
a luminous complementary. 

Colors should never be allowed to impinge on each other. 
Ornaments in color on a ground of contrasting color should be 
separated by an edge of lighter color. Ornaments in color on 
gold ground should be separated by an edge of darker color. 
Gold ornaments on colored ground should be separated by a 
black edge. Ornaments of any color may be separated from 
ground of any color by edges of white, black or gold. Orna- 
ments in color or gold may be used on white or black grounds 
without outline or edge. Self tints (tones or shades of same 
colon may be used light on dark without outline, but dark on 
light should have a still darker outline. 

Imitation of wood, marble, metals, jewels, &c, is only 
allowable when the use of the real article would not have 
been inconsistent. 

Principles discoverable in the works of the past belong to 
US, not SO the results. IT IS TAKING THE END FOR THE MEANS. 

if if 

FOR BEGINNERS 

YOU will find that only a few brushes will be necessary. 
Camels hair brushes (pointed shaders) Nos 3 and 5, 
two square shaders Nos. 5 and 8, and a sable rigger No. o for 
enamel and paste with medium length hairs. It is better to 
choose a sable brush for paste and enamel. It will be stronger, 
having a certain amount of spring to it, when used in model- 
ling. See that your brushes are put away clean. Shake them 
in turpentine, or a little lavender, and then thoroughly dry 
them. Alcohol is good, too, for cleansing brushes, or for 
removing stray spots of color that may be on your china, and 
that should be wiped off before firing. If one gets into the 
habit of looking after all these details, many blemishes may 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



117 



be avoided and work will progress more rapidly and easily. 

Covered palettes are the greatest convenience and labor- 
saving contrivances, as colors will keep fresh for a week or two. 
This is also economy! The chief thing is, that the palette is 
protected from dust, the arch-enemy of the china decorator. 

Arrange the colors, beginning with the pinks and reds, 
around the edge of the palette, leaving the center clean, for 
mixing the variations of shades while painting. This space 
will, after a morning's work, be muddy with the different 
colors rolled from the brush ; therefore, when through with 
the palette, clean off the muddy color, so that your palette 
may be ready for use when needed. It takes away one's in- 
spiration to try to paint with poor brushes and hard colors, 
besides interfering materially with the freedom of touch. 

The simple teapot design of violets, in this number, will 
be helpful to one beginning the decoration of china. It may 



be treated in various ways. It is not necessary to make decora- 
tions elaborate in order to be beautiful. It is more often the sim- 
ple things that are most satisfactory, but they must be correct. 

If possible, own your own kiln. In no other way can you 
so quickly understand the chemistry of colors, glazes and tex- 
ture of the china. You can plan your work better, and fire 
accordingly. There is nothing difficult about firing, and until 
you own a kiln you will never quite feel the entire fascination 
of china decoration. After you have learned to manipulate a 
kiln, you can lessen your expenses by firing for others ; but 
never fire with the idea of making as much money as possible 
out of each firing, and crowding in china where it does not 
belong. That is fatal ! Study each piece, and if you have 
not the proper place for it in the kiln, leave it out. We will 
give complete directions for firing later. 

Always read our answers to correspondents. 




TURKISH DESIGN FOR STEIN— DOROTHEA WARREN 



FOR the background use Dark Blue, a touch of Deep Purple 
and Brunswick Black with one-fourth Aufsetzweis. This 
ground should be laid in as you would lay a heavy wash in 
water color. Use plenty of turpentine, put it on quickly and 
leave it alone. The predominating colors should be Blue, 
Tan and Pink. A little Green and White can be introduced 
in the small parts of the design. 

For the tan enamel use Yellow Ochre, Silver Yellow and 



Brunswick Black, with one-fourth Aufsetzweis. For the pink 
use Hancock's Carmine with a mixture of two-thirds Aufsetz- 
weis and one-third Hancock's hard White Enamel. Use two 
tones of pink. For the green enamel use Chrome Green, 
Apple Green and Silver Yellow, with two-thirds Aufsetz- 
weis. 

Keep the little border at the base of Stein in Blue, Tan 
and Pink. Outline the design in outlining Black. 



n8 



KERAMIG STUDIO 




PLATE DESIGN IN HAWTHORN 



DRAW the design accurately in India ink. Tint the wide 
spaces with Rose Pompadour (Lacroix), put on solidly 
(thin tints in this color are ugly). Wipe off the color care- 
fully, which may have gone beyond the proper places. 

Paint the blossoms in flat washes, some in Rose Pompa- 
dour (Lacroix), adding a little (German) Ruby Purple for the 
darker ones, and leaving a few nearly white. The stems are 
painted in Moss Green and Brown Green (Lacroix). The 
centres are light washes of the Greens, with touches of Yellow 
Brown (German). 

There is not much shading, only sharp lights and shades 
here and there, but the washes must be transparently clear 
and quickly done, leaving the character of the design to the 
outline of Ruby Purple (German), which is made after the 
gold is put on, and which surrounds each blossom, bud, leaf 
and stem. Do not make each petal perfectly round like bul- 



lets, but vary the edges with sharp little angles and turns. 
The stems are thorny and have abrupt angles. 

There is a beading of raised gold dots all around the 
color, where the gold and color come together. 

The first wash of gold is put on after the blossoms are 
painted, this should, be done neatly; great care being shown 
in preserving the proper outline and character of the design. 

The enamels are White ; they should be used for the last 
firing. It is better to put two thin washes of gold on large 
surfaces than to try to get an even wash in one firing, where 
it is bound to be thick in some places and thin in others. 

This suggestion of flowers being inlaid in the gold can be 
carried out in any other color, for instance Violets, with a 
tint of the Copenhagen Blue dusted on. (Any of the colors 
of that name advertised with us we conscientiously recom- 
mend). 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



n 9 



TREATMENT FOR BON-BON 

A. A. Frazce 

CENTRE numbering I, Yellow enamel (Silver Yellow, mix- 
ing yellow 2/ Aufsetzweis, ^ Hancock's Hard White 
Enamel); 2, band around centre, Gold; 3, Yellow Enamel; 
4, Red (Deep Red Brown Capucine little Flux; 5, Dead-leaf 
Brown (Yellow Ochre, Silver Yellow, Brown 4 and little 
Black); 6, Green Enamel (Apple Green, Chrome Green, Silver 
Yellow, little Black, % Aufsetzweis); 7, which is the back, 
ground to design, and should also be on base of bon-bon, Sat- 
suma tint (Silver Yellow, Yellow Ochre, Brown 4, little Black,) 
laid lighter in value than the Dead-leaf Brown. 

Bands to border, Gold. Bands crossing border, Green 
enamel. Flower in border, Red. Background back of flower, 
Satsuma tint. All design outline in Black (Outlining Black. 
little Dark Blue). 




4 a.fraf- 



i?iz'1?tf i f'& a i?tf>t?ip 




CUP DESIGN— A. A FRAZEE 



ORNAMENT in square, Green Enamel (Apple Green, Silver 
Yellow, one-third Aufsetzweis), square filled in with 
Red (Capucine Red, Orange Red, little Flux). Scrolls, Gold. 
Dots, Green Enamel, outlined in Gold. Cross-bars to diaper 
panel, Gold. Dots in diaper, Green Enamel, outlined in Gold. 



Outer band, and bands dividing panels, Red (Capucine Red, 
Orange Red, little Flux), or if deeper color is preferred 
(Capucine Red and deep Red Brown with little Flux). 
Lower line next to design, Red. Last line, Gold. Handle 
Red. 




PEACOCK TANKARD DESIGN 



THIS design is to be carriecT'out with an oriental effect. The base is a 
Turquoise Blue or Apple Green, the background of the design beginning 
at the top with a dark rich blue, gradually taking a brighter tone toward the 
base of design, but keeping dark throughout. The design is carried out in 
raised and flat gold and white enamel, the "eyes" of the design being treated 
with enamels to give the color effect of the peacock feathers. The peacocks 
themselves should be laid in at first with lustres, Brown, Green and Orange, 
with Blue Grey thin on head and breast. For the second fire shade the tail 
and body with the same colors, touch the "eyes" with enamels and indicate the 
drawing of the feathers with flat gold. 

The " eyes " should be Dark Blue with a touch of Black, Apple Green next, 



then Orange Yellow shading into Yellow Brown, the rest of the feathers being 
brownish green. Another treatment for the background is to use bronzes, 
shading into a base of light yellowish brown, or a tint composed of Yellow 
Ochre with a touch of Red Brown. Lay the entire conventional design in 
with flat enamels, back, white, dark green, tan, with the eyes as directed be- 
fore, outline with gold or color. Yellow Ochre and Iron Reds will fire out of 
Aufsetzweis, so it is best where a tan or red shade is desired, to cover the 
space with white enamel for the first fire and paint over the enamel with ochre 
or red in the second fire. 

Oil of Lavender will be found easier to use than turpentine for flat 
enamel washes. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




TEAGUE There was an all-day session of the 

NOTES Advisor y Board, September 15th, at Mrs. 
Leonard's studio, 28 East 23d street. With 
assistance of the Council, the Board undertook to crystal- 
lize plans for proper transportation, installation and care of 
the League's exhibit for Paris Exposition. As evidence of 
League's intentions, and for the final closing of its contract 
for space, the contracts of members wishing to exhibit should 
be made out and returned to the United States Commission 
as soon as possible. Of this all clubs have been notified. 

The Catalogue committee are ready for the addresses and 
lists of exhibitors. A late revision of the catalogue will be 
made, in order to admit of changes in lists. 

While there was a little confusion in returning the china 
from Chicago, owing to the sending of a part of the exhibi- 
tion to Omaha, the executive is fully determined that the 
same mistake shall not occur again, and so far as the Board 
and Council are able, the whole business of transportation 
will be regulated on such rigidly drawn lines that mistakes will 
be impossible. 

The selection of work will be made in November and 
December, to suit the convenience of both judges and exhibi- 
tors. The shipment will be early in January. 

The invitation extended by the chairman of the Art 
Committee of the Local Board of the Biennial Conference G. 
F. W. C, to the League, to exhibit at the Conference to be 
held in Milwaukee, June, 1900, will receive careful considera- 
tion. The advice of the Council will be heard, and decision 
made, so as to not further hamper the movements of the Art 
Committee. 

Schedule for the circular letters to be written and re- 
ceived in September : 

New York receives letter from Boston. 

Detroit receives letter from Wisconsin. 

Bridgeport writes to Denver. 

Brooklyn writes to San Francisco. 

Wisconsin writes to Detroit. 

Providence writes to Indianapolis. 

Columbus writes to Washington. 

Indianapolis receives letter from Providence. 

Chicago writes to Duquesne. 

Denver receives letter from Bridgeport. 

Boston writes to New York. 

San Francisco receives letter from Brooklyn. 

Washington receives letter from Columbus. 
The entire success of this circular letter scheme lies with 
the different clubs. By promptly carrying out the schedule, a 
perfect system of monthly correspondence is carried on 
between the clubs. The first omission will break the chain 
and demoralize the whole system. 

The committee to decide upon the pieces to be taken to 
the Paris Exposition of [900 for the National League exhibit 
from the East has been formed ; also that of the middle 



West. The whole committee will be formed from non- 
members of the League, and the names submitted to the 
Commissioners for approval. To form the entire committee 
so that no travelling expenses shall be connected with this 
work, will require the co-operation of the Council. 

When the competitive designs for government service are 
chosen, the Keramic Studio will publish cuts of the original. 

On request of any Council member, the Corresponding 
Secretary of the League will furnish information of measures 
adopted in Advisory Board meeting of September 15th. 

The Corresponding Secretaries of Roll of Clubs will 
please note the name of the newly enrolled club and change 
same to read, "Ceramic Club of Washington." 

Members taking the League course of study are requested 
to submit designs made from the subjects for the month, to 
the President or Vice-President. The best of these will be 
selected and published monthly in the KERAMIC STUDIO, 
thus giving members the opportunity to become known to 
the public at large. We hope also by this means to demon- 
strate the usefulness of our course of study and the advan- 
tages of belonging to the League. It is hoped that there will 
be a general and cordial response to this invitation. 



CLUB 



The Providence Club will hold its first 



lvrgwc meeting the latter part of September, at which 
time the results of the summer work will be 
shown, the club members having agreed to work upon certain 
lines during the vacation, giving the opportunity for discus- 
sions and criticisms at their reunion. They look forward with 
eagerness to the winter's work and expect to derive help from 
the criticisms. This is a small but very active club and was 
organized by Marie Le Prince two years ago. 

The New York Society of Keramic Arts held its first 
meeting of the season at the Waldorf-Astoria, September nth. 
Plans for the fall exhibition were discussed, also the details of 
the League exhibition in Paris. 

The Detroit Club holds its meetings in the evening, thus 
saving valuable daylight, and combining with their business 
meeting a social element which seems to give satisfaction to 
the members. 

The Ceramic Club of Washington held its first meeting 
September 5th. The meeting was large and enthusiastic, the 
principal matter of business being the decision to join the 
National League of Mineral Painters. This club holds two 
meetings each month, one for business, and the other entirely 
social. At the business meetings, after the routine of club 
business, there is a paper read, or a talk, upon some subject 
relative to keramic art. The social meetings are planned by 
a committee of two, who undertake the entertainment of the 



KERAMC STUDIO 



12? 



evening, by inviting outside artists, or those interested in 
keramics, to meet with them. We are informed that this is a 
most enthusiastic club. 

Mrs. G. W. Martin, President of the club at Augusta 
Maine, reports her club as full of enthusiasm and anxious to 
improve the character of their work. They hold their first 
meeting for the year in October. 

The Duquesne Club of Pittsburg had their first quarterly 
meeting of the year in September. Only business meetings 
are held, and this method is adopted to the general satisfac- 
tion of the club. An executive board of six members suffice 
to answer the call of the President and attend to any matter 
of business that may come up between the regular meetings. 

The Portland China Decorators' Club is already preparing 
for its annual exhibit which is to occur the second week in 
December. The club gives a private first view, after which 
the doors are open to the public. Through Mrs. C. M. Rice, 
the efficient President for many years, good teachers from 
Boston and New York are secured to come each year under 
the auspices of the club for a four or six weeks' course of 
lessons, thus giving to each member the same advantage. This 
plan insures the newest and best methods of work coming into 
the club, with the result that its open days have come to be 
one of the most interesting events of the season. 

♦ 
TN THE The teapot given in this number is very 

cxj/-\pc cheap ( Miss Wynne has it marked down to 25 
cents), and is a good shape and fairly good 
china. It will take the heavy tints (dusted on) with an ex- 
cellent glaze, and, altogether, it Avill be useful for a sale piece, 
for exhibition or for a gift. 

There are many good shapes in white china, and the fall 
catalogues are all out now. To those living a distance from 
the city, it will be an advantage to send to our advertisers for 
them. 

Lustre colors are seen on much of the new china im- 
ported. Green and blue seem the most popular colors. 

On Fifth Avenue, near Thirtieth, is an interesting shop. 
The wares being high class Japanese and Chinese, the artists 
like to go there, not only on account of the interesting ob- 
jects, but because they are always welcomed by extreme 
courtesy on the part of the people in charge. It was here 
that Gibson found an interesting rattan chair, and from his 
illustrations in Life this man has sold thousands of them. In 
our last number we gave an illustration of the Chinese " Dog 
Fo," which recalls the porcelain "Dog Fo" in front of this 
shop. It is three or four feet high and very fierce in appear- 
ance, with its great teeth savagely en evidence. This triumph 
of the potter's art is a constant source of amusement to the 
proprietor, who watches the children climb over it, sometimes 
stuffiing all sorts of things into its fierce mouth. No one 
passes it without a remark. Even the dogs acknowledge the 
art, by being immensely afraid of it. During the last elec- 
tion some one hung a card around its neck, "Our Teddy for 
Governor." 

The newer Doulton work seen on vases and punch" bowls 
is all shadowy and vague in effect, with clouded backgrounds. 
The colors are soft and the flowers are often just a suggestion, 
there is no violent contrast of colors, but only the most har- 
monious blending from one tone into another. Bedell has 
some charming specimens of it. and we wish that every dec- 



orator who has an opportunity could go there and study the 
color scheme. Some of the choicest pieces are really more 
like a monochrome, the gradations of tone being so slight. 
This is not realistic painting, but it possesses the highest 
principles of decorative art, and still it is not conventional. 
We saw there some of the new Delft, which is a striking 
departure from the old. It resembles the Rosenberg pottery, 
is extremely decorative in color and design. There were some 
very attractive clocks made of it. The Rosenberg pottery 
seems to be making an impression, for we also notice that a 
French pottery has taken up that style, and there were tank- 
ards (tall vases with spout and handle) four feet high with 
something of this treatment, although not what we would call 
artistic. 

We are very much interested in the "Lonhuda pottery" 
from Zanesville, Ohio, which is running very close to the 
Rookwood ; but, after all, it seems only an imitation, and is 
not so rich in color. There were many charming lamps made 
of the "Lonhuda" (Princess), with the mountings and bowl in 
dull brass. 

There were some charming bowls in the Nancy glass, 
with flowers and leaves in colored relief. 



JN THE Mrs. H. P. Calhoun is now in New Brun- 

STITDTOS sw i c k an d writes that she has made some fine 
studies of fruit and flowers for her winter's 
work. She will open classes in October. 

Miss E. E. Page of Boston has removed from No. 2 Park 
Square, where she had her studio for seven years, to 384a 
Boylston Street, and will give an October reception. 

Miss Fairbanks of Boston, one of the members of the 
Advisory Board of the League, will attend the all-day session 
of that body in New York, on September 15th, at the studio 
of Mrs. Anna B. Leonard. 

Mrs. Frazee and also Miss Dibble of Chicago, will hold 
studio receptions in September. 

Miss M. M. Mason has returned to New York and is 
having her regular clases once more. Miss Mason was for- 
tunate in making excellent sketches from nature this summer. 

Mr. Griinnewald, formerly of Griinnewald & Busher, was 
in the city the first of September, calling at the differen: 
studios and meeting his many friends among the decorators. 
It is to Mr. Griinnewald that the West and South for many 
years have owed its interest in keramics. His untiring energy 
in the annual exhibitions, and his careful and generous advice 
to all who were having failures in the firing, etc., as well as his 
good importations, have given the great impetus to china 
decoration, the results of which we see to-dav. 

Miss Leta Horlocker is at home once more and has opened 
classes at 28 East 23d Street. 

Mr. Hasburg of Chicago called upon us and expressed 
the pleasure that the KERAMIC Studio is giving to its sub- 
scribers and advertisers. He gave us some suggestions 
for paste work to be done with a pen, which we will give our 
readers, after experimenting. (We have our grappling hooks 
out for all that will aid the work.) 

Miss Henrietta Barclay Wright will spend the month of 
September at her home in Minneapolis. October will find 
her in Duluth, Minn., and she is planning a trip to the Black 
Hills for November and December. 



I2 4 



KERAMIC STUDIO 







i 

I 

2 



5 



g 

w 
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KERAMC STUDIO 



125 



TREATMENT FOR LEMONADE PITCHER, CHERRIES 

Henrietta Barclay Wright 

MODEL the cherries with Pompadour and Blood Red, using 
a touch of Copenhagen for the upper and lighter side. 
Leave the light on the under right side for reflected light, to 
be washed over the second time with Yellow Brown. Model 
leaves with Brown Green and Dark Green, glazing for the 
second fire with Moss Green J. Paint the stems with Sepia 
and shade with Dark Brown. The background at the bottom 
of the pitcher is Green, Brown Green and Dark Green. As 
you near the cherries, commence working in Blood Red, shade 
from that into Pompadour, then into Yellow Brown, and 
finish at top with White Rose. Shade the handle same way. 
The cherries may be washed with Pompadour Red for the 
second fire and strengthened again with Blood Red. For the 
darkest ones add a little Ruby Purple and Black to the Blood 
Red. Repeat the treatment for the background, blending 
the colors together each time. The piece should have three 
fires if a dark rich effect is desired. 




CUPIDS IN LACROLX COLORS 

FOR flesh painting, the following colors will be necessary : 
Deep Red Brown, Silver Yellow, Yellow Brown. Ruby 
Purple, Deep Blue Green, Ultramarine Blue, Violet of Iron. 
Brown 4 or 17, Brown 3, Brown 108 and Carmine No. 3. First 
mix Deep Red Brown and Silver Yellow (Silver Yellow is always 
the best color to combine with reds) for the general flesh tone. 
Use the red just a little stronger, because it loses strength in 
the fire. Make two shadow tones, one warm and the other 
cold in effect. For the warm tone use Deep Red Brown and 
Brown No. 3. For the cold tones use a mixture of Ultra- 
marine Blue and Violet of Iron, which must be quite blue in 
tone. For the general shadow color, which can be used with 
either the other shadow colors, or single colors, to modify 
them, use a mixture of Silver Yellow, Ruby Purple and Deep 
Blue Green. This is a most useful combination either in 
flesh painting, flowers or drapery. First take the Silver Yel- 
low upon the palette, then put in the Ruby Purple and 



enough Deep Blue Green to make a perfect grey. This com- 
bination will not lose strength in the fire, and is most useful 
to have always upon the palette. 

After drawing the design carefully upon the china, outline 
the flesh with the faintest possible line of Deep Red Brown 
(there will be no outline after firing), then wash the general 
flesh tone on, making it smooth with the stipler. Then wash 
the shadows in, with the general shadow tone, or shadow color 
as Prof. Maene calls it. There should be extra depth of Deep 
Red Brown on cheeks, lips, elbows and knees. For the first 
firing, in painting the hair, use a thin wash of silver yellow and 
shadow color, with the shadows used in masses (Yellow Brown 
and shadow color). Do not attempt the details of the hair 
until the second firing. Generally on the forehead and about 
the nose there is a blue (or cold) shadow, but there can be no 
set rules, so much depends upon the background or environ- 
ments. The faces of cupids should be rosy and extremely 
youthful ; so avoid hard lines which would naturally age the 
features. Preserve all the curves and dimpled roundness of 
the figure, for therein lies the beauty of cupids. Be careful to 
keep the drawing correct and do not add to the 
myriads of distorted, middle-aged cupids that are so 
frequently seen floating upon impossible clouds or in 
attitudes that to the human frame would also be a 
physical impossibility. In the second fire, emphasize 
the shadows by more minute detail, using the warm or 
cold tones when it is necessary over the shadow color 
that has been fired once. 

In the accompanying study, the drapery is pink, 
which may be laid in delicately with Carmine 3, and 
shaded in the second fire with Carmine 3 and Ruby Purple, 
half and half. The leaves are in rather flat and decorative 
washes of Pale Green, with only enough shading to preserve 
the character. The butterflies may be varied in color, deli- 
cately painted. The flowers are white daisies and, of course, 
the wheat is yellow, Silver Yellow, shaded with a little 
Yellow Brown and shadow color. 

This treatment is entirely decorative, and not meant for 
the more difficult miniature treatment, which we do not 
advise one to attempt without study and preparation. 

TREATMENT OF TEA POT DESIGN IN VIOLETS 

ON the palette it will be necessary to have the following 
colors: Deep Violet of Gold, Light Violet of Gold, 
Deep Blue Green, Mixing Yellow, Deep Blue Brown, Brown 
Green, Moss Green V, Apple Green, Yellow Brown and Dark 
Blue. These are the Lacroix colors; by consulting our chart: 
of colors, the corresponding colors of other firms can be used- 
Violet of Gold when used by itself is rather too pink for 
the general tone of violets, so it is better to use a little Deep 
Blue Green (which is a transparent blue). The darker tones 
of the blossom may be obtained by using with the Violet a 
touch of Dark Blue and very little Ruby Purple (German). 

For the leaves use Apple Green and Mixing Yellow, 
shaded with Brown Green, (for the first fire). These leaves 
are afterwards darkened with Brown Green, a little Moss 
Green V, and Emerald Stone Green. Use Brown Green and 
Moss Green V for the stems. 

The upper part of the tea pot, the lid. handle and part of 
the spout, should be in Gold. The lower part in Copenhagen 
Blue (tint). An outline of Ruby Purple and a litte Black will 
give the violets a conventional character, as there are no 
shadows given. 



126 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




PLATE DESIGN— LIDA S. MULFORD 



AFTER drawing the design, the flowers may be washed in 
with Violet No. I. The leaves require Moss, Brown 
and Shading Green. 

SECOND FIRING: Shade violets with Violet No. 2. Re- 
touch leaves with colors employed in first firing. For darker 
shadows use Royal and Brown Greens. Outline entire design 



with Ruby Purple and Violet No. 2. The outer portion of 
plate, and the heart shape, forming background for the leaves, 
are of Gold. 

The plate is improved by shading the background from 
the outer gold design toward the flowers. For shading use 
Violet No. I and 2. 



KERAMC STUDIO 



127 




INDIAN PIPE TREATMENT 



THIS design was made from a fungus growth which was 
found at Larchmont on Long Island Sound. It had 
sprung up under some dead leaves, and while it is plentiful in 
that section of the country it is not confined to that location, 
as we hear of it in other places, but at that time it was new 
to the writer. 

Its graceful curves immediately suggest a design which 
would be appropriate for a decoration. 

The ''Indian Pipe" is entirely of white, stem and blossom. 
There may be found a faint tinge of pink occasionally in the 
blossom, but the little scales and the bowl have a most de- 
cided outline of very dark'green, almost black. The centre 
of the blossom is yellow with outline of dark green or brown, 
which does not show in the design. The design is quite cor- 
rect as a copy from nature, every curve is exactly as it was 
found and it is only the arrangement that gives it the con- 
ventional character. 



A tobacco jar, of a dark brown tint, with this band in 
gold, holding the white blossoms and stems, which should be 
outlined in black or dark green, would make a very attractive 
and unique piece of china, either for a gift or for sale. 

Then again the band could be dark Brown, with the 
Indian pipe modelled in White Enamel or raised Paste. The 
jar itself being Bronze or an Ivory tint. Any combination of 
color will be attractive and something different from the ordi- 
nal')' decoration. By all means try to have something differ- 
ent from the ordinary run of work that one sees in every 
studio. We are giving suggestions that if followed will relieve 
the monotony. 

This design is merely for a band of decoration, the rest 
of the design can be carefully studied and worked out. 

If any one can utilize the possibilities of this growth and 
make other designs, we will be very glad to publish them. It 
can be used in various ways. 




TEA POT DESIGN IN VIOLETS 



For Treatment see page 125 



128 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



AMERICAN WORK IN POTTERY 



i the New York Tit 




ALKING to the members of the New York- 
Society of Keramic Arts, Mrs. Horace C. 
Wait, a clever water-color artist, a member of 
Sorosis and a woman who has taken much in- 
terest in pottery for the last few years, said: 
"We Americans are snobbish about our pur- 
chases. We won't buy things that are American, because 
they are American, though they may be more meritorious 
than similar things that come from abroad. I have been in- 
terested in old china, and through it I have come to take a 
great interest in modern work and the people who are doing 
it. But they will never succeed in America in giving us good 
pottery, at reasonable prices, until people become interested 
and buy it I have had a practical illustration of the snobbery 
which refuses to buy home products given me by a man who 
has done some beautiful art work in pottery. He was in 
France studying when he made his first contributions to 
America's stores, and everything he sent over sold well. It 
sold so well that when he came back here to start a pottery 
he had no idea that he would not be entirely successful. But 
the moment that his work was done on American soil, al. 
though its character was unchanged, he found there was no 
demand for it. People would not buy it because it was 
American. 

"I find that people do not know anything about what is 
done in America. I tell a woman who is interested in china 
of work that is being done within a stone's throw of her own 
home, but she has never heard of it. I am taking pains now, 
when I have occasion to send presents abroad, to send as far 
as possible American work. It is particularly appreciated 
there, for we are not entirely alone in a liking for work that 
comes from another country, though in the countries abroad 
they support their home work. 

"Women have had much to do with the production of 
the good pottery we have in America and they must create 
the demand which will make its manufacture a possibility. I 
went into a big department store in New York the other day 
and asked for American pottery. They showed me a number 
of things in simple household articles, but when I asked for 
something in art pottery they acknowledged that they had 
not a piece in the establishment. That was a representative 
store. We are getting a deluge of cheap French and German 
pottery. The Rookwood pottery grew out of woman's art 
club work in Cincinnati. It is original work and only artists 
are employed and the results are beautiful. They are now 
branching out and doing something in imitation of the Royal 
Copenhagen or Iris ware in soft paste with great success, but 
they do not believe generally in imitation. It has been the 
mistake of American potters that they have imitated and not 
originated. The Rookwood ware pottery is beautiful, and it 
would be thought that it might compete with anything, but 
you would find if you should go into a shop where it is sold 
that they excluded all other American pottery to concentrate 
their efforts upon the Rookwood. There is a pottery in 
Zanesville, Ohio, where they are doing work along the lines 
of the Rookwood and have had excellent success. 

"Mrs. Pauline Jacobus of Edgerton, Wis., started a pot- 
tery some time in the eighties and brought out some beauti- 
ful art ware and some household utensils as pot boilers. She 
used the Wisconsin cream-colored clay, which produced beau- 
tiful tones. She did some beautiful underglaze work. But it 



was too much of an art work to be a financial success, and was 
given up. Now a lawyer has undertaken to continue it, as an 
artist would, for the beauty of the results, and not as a money- 
making scheme, and with success. Miss Mears, the clever 
woman artist, has made some designs for him. They have 
done some things that might be called terra cotta work, and 
some beautiful designs in bas relief. 

"Volkmar, who started a pottery on Long Island, strives 
for color and form, but it is difficult for him to make people 
understand that some decoration is not needed. His work is 
exhibited as an art work in one of the art stores in New York, 
where beautiful things in other lines of art are to be found 
from time to time. The Grueby ware of Boston is beautiful; 
there are some wonderful greens to be found in it. Then 
there is an inexpensive ware made in New Milford, Ct., by a 
man who is trying for good and original effects, and his pot- 
tery is sold in one of the New York shops at very reasonable 
prices. 

"In doing work, the best materials should be used, and I 
would not advise using poor paste for decorating because it is 
American. The best paste comes from England and good 
decorative work can not be done with poor paste any more than 
a good gown can be made from poor silk. 1 have some En. 
glish china with a simple border and a monogram in the cen- 
ter that is a continual delight to me, because of the warm 
ivory tint of the white. It is beautiful. I have some Cope- 
land and Cauldon ware that is so hard that it can not be 
nicked, though it goes into the oven. But I want people to 
become interested in the American potteries. 

"As for the old blue ware in this country and in England, 
I have found that there is not much of it here, but that a 
great deal of it is still in existence in the out-of-the-way places 
in England, though that has been denied. I have made cyc- 
ling tours with my husband in both countries, along roads 
little visited by the tourist. I think everything in New Eng- 
land has been very well bought up. I have a house in Maine, 
fifteen miles from a railroad station, and I have made tours 
from there, finding almost nothing. And the people are piti- 
fully poor. I found one old woman with hardly clothes 
enough to hold together, but an old Colonial mirror that she 
would not part with. People will keep anything they can see 
themselves in, and that possibly had some sentiment con- 
nected with it. I bought some things that I did not want ' 
and for what people thought were fabulous prices, because 
they needed the money so much. Seeing an old sugar bowl 
in the window, with broken handles, making it too ugly for 
the table but good enough for a flowerpot in a window, I 
would stop to ask if there was any other old china. 

"The old blue ware with historic scenes that we have in 
this country was made in Staffordshire at the beginning of 
this century, though people always say it is over a hundred 
years old. Then followed light blues and browns and pinks 
that were interesting rather than beautiful. Our New Eng- 
land ancestors showed their severe rugged traits of character 
in their tableware. 

"Near Concord, Mass., I found an old Irish farmer who 
had collected a good deal of china in his barn, but he had no 
idea of the relative value of things. He had some Killarney 
plates for which lie asked an enormous price, but some beau- 
tiful lustre ware that stood beside them I bought for very 
little. I found a Lafayette platter in one place that I visited, 
and bought it for two or three dollars, but there were no 
plates to match it. Those had gone in service to pot roasts. 

"There are some perfectly delightful things to be found at 



KERAMC STUDIO 



129 



King's Lynn, in England. We found people there who had 
old curiosity shops and things in which they were so much 
interested that they did not care to sell. One man went 
down to Cambridge, but there was no demand for the things 
he had, he said, for the people did not care for his old blue 
representing English events, as our people have not cared so 
much for American scenes." 

POTTERY IN ROOM DECORATION 

A MOST valuable adjunct to the furnishing of any room is 
what is variously termed a plate rail or moulding rack. 
It is more generally used in a dining-room to run around and 
finish the dado line, at the height of the ordinary chair rail ; 
but there is no reason, no breach of the proprieties to furnish 
any room with such a rack, with a ledge sufficiently wide to 
rest bric-a-brac upon it. People who collect bric-a-brac want 
to show it. It is not the gratifying of their pride so much as 
the gratifying of their pleasure in being able upon all sides 
and at a glance to see their treasures which they value as a 
lover of books values the beauty of the bindings. Cabinets are 



very good, but there is no cabinet outside of a showcase that 
gives a full view of its contents to the casual observer. Hall- 
ways, libraries, dining-rooms and studies can be improved very 
materially by a rack wide enough to hold bric-a-brac. We 
have in mind a hall finished with a deep green dado with an 
old oak plate rack and bric-a-brac ledge and the side-wall of 
orange softened at the frieze line by a grey and green pattern. 
This side-wall of orange made an excellent background for 
framed etchings and its special value was the setting which it 
gave to the dark pottery of the Rookwood colors and oxide 
finishes which rested upon the ledge, going entirely around 
the room. People who have bric-a-brac, old plates and pottery 
would recognize in a moment the advantages of this ledge. — 
China, Glass and Pottery Review. 

The most brilliant effect in a dinner service is seen in a 
combination of rich red, gold and enamels. Use best English 
maroon, but be careful not to use the color gaudily. Just a 
plain rich band of the maroon, with one-half inch gold band 
on the edge, which may be ornamented with an oriental 
design, or something more simple in raised paste and enamels. 




-^Zj-a^Lu <AU*ff- 6^6^^J. — ^ 



<^S<^ 



THISTLE CUP AND SAUCER 



r I "'HIS simple little design can be treated in natural colors, 

1 mineral or lustres, with touches of white enamel on 

thistles. Deep Violet of gold makes a good color for the 

flowers, or Violet in the lustres. The design can be outlined 



with good effect if desired. The edge of cup and saucer can 
either be left white or tinted pearl grey or celedon, or a gold 
edge could be used. The little jewel effects can be put in 
white or any desired color. 



130 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS 



tvered by this department 1 
the month preceding is. 



< hy the 10th Oi 



Mrs. W. L. S. writes : " In the article entitled ' Pyrus Japonica Treat- 
ment' of the August number, in speaking of the lines of the sketch, it is stated 
that by changing the direction of the lines slightly, one has all th.it is neces- 
sary for a vase decorated on Japanese lines. Will you kindly explain in your 
next number, the decoration of a vase on Japanese lines, so that one may get 
the idea or principle on which the method is based, and oblige a subscriber." 
We suggested a change in the direction of lines to decorate a vase. This 
would be necessary in order to conform the design to the shape of the vase and 
to more evenly distribute the spot of color so that the entire decoration 
would not be on one side. The Japanese are the lovers and the best inter- 
preters of nature, but their decorations are most simple. They decorate in flat 
washes and have no shadows or shadowy blossoms, as is now the prevailing 
custom among decorators who prefer the pictorial. Their backgrounds are 
single colors. To quote Renan in "Artistic Japan" : "The formulas laid down 
. by the old masters have been carried on unchanged to modern times, namely, 
simple designs, simple forms, a studied absence of light and shade, employ- 
ment of water colors, and lightness of execution." Then again he says: 
" The Japanese brush has the full strokes and the thin, which have their 
meaning, and it is often a more manageable instrument than the pencil. 
Truly it paints without color, it accentuates, it caresses, it bullies, it glides, it 
runs, it gallops." What is always so remarkable in the Japanese decoration 
is their wonderful portrayal of nature. For instance, in the Pyrus Japonica 
they would sweep in the stem of blossoms on the vase, giving it a proper 
balance, making it decorate, conforming to all rules, yet never losing the char- 
acter of the growth of the plant. They utilize every characteristic of stem, 
blossom and bud. 

L. H. — We conscientiously recommend all the lustres that are advertised, 
as we have tested them. Write to the dealers for catalogues, or names of 
their lustre colors. Our articles on lustre will help you. 

C— Buy the platinum in powder form, mix with it a few drops of Dres- 
den thick oil and lavender. It will require an amount of grinding and rubbing. 
It is a good plan first to put a very thin wash of gold, and after tiring, apply 
the wash of platinum. This will give an extra body. 

M. E. L.— It is difficult to state what is the trouble with your enamels 
without knowing how the work was done or on what china. Enamels come 
out better on a soft glaze, and possibly the plate on which you copied Mrs. 
Cherry's design was a very hard glaze. Use about one-eighth flux with your 
enamel, if you find it chips, and you may have a better result. 

Jeannette — We hope before the year is out to publish some cupids and 
studies for medallion heads in color, but can not say just when. 

We would suggest for a handsome dinner service, to have a different 
design for each course, keeping the center white and the decorations in con- 
ventional borders with the monogram or crest on the rim, if desired, and the 
color scheme the same throughout. For the oyster plates, simple gold deco- 
ration is best, as the shape of the dish is not suitable for elaborate designing. 
For the soup, a gold etched rim with monogram or crest. For fish, a dainty 
conventionalized sea weed and fish net design in color and flat gold. For 



game, a conventional border in gold and bronze medallions, introducing game 
birds, either naturally or conventionally treated. For salad, a conventional- 
ized design of the dandelion, chicory, lettuce, nasturtium or some flower or 
leaf used in salads. This could be treated effectively in lustres, with either 
gold or color outlines. For the main course, a narrow rim of dusted color with 
a dainty gold design. The coffee cups should match the desert plates. On 
these you can expend all your best energies, reserving for these your enamel 
and raised gold work. We would suggest either an Oriental design in 
enamels and gold or a design in dainty Dresden garlands, combined with 
enamel jewel effects. 

In regard to the advertisements you mention, you will have to dommuni- 
cate with the business manager and he will send you the rates of advertising. 
Nothing of the kind is allowed on anything but the regular advertising pages. 

G. O.— Through the kindness of Favor, Ruhl & Co., any yearly sub- 
scriber can have a colored chart of La Croix colors on application to this office. 

C. A. H.— We have had the experience of color scaling off only in dusted 
backgrounds where the color was put on entirely too thick. We can quote 
Mrs. Fry, who considers your color was not put on just right— too heavy. 

Miss Montfort gives her opinion, saying that if the first fire is too slow 
and the color is not sufficiently glazed, by retouching and firing the second 
time it will scale. Perhaps the party selected the better pieces for the art 
store and kept the poorer ones for her china closet. 

It is the editor's opinion that the pinks used were mixed with iron colors 
(which can be done when color is thin), and that they were used improperly 
and that the firing was bad. If there is a perfect union between color and 
glaze, it is impossible to have the results you mention. 







Oouo- Oft. Saved. y»R6£MT AeJ- &UIES BLue'-ASUR.E 













MOQSL Or RjipRESisnrr/WG. H^MDlC COLORS >N BUCK. 




vl^ NOV. MDCCCXCIX Price 35c. Yearly Subscription $3.50 £ 



CONTRIBUTORS 

MR. MARSHAL FRY * * * * * 

MISS GENEVIEVE LEONARD j» j* j» 

MRS. ANNA B. LEONARD j* * j» > 

MISS LIDA S. MULFORD j* ^ ^ ^ 

MR. A. G. MARSHALL ^ j» .* * j» 

MRS. RHODA HOLMES NICHOLLS * 

MRS. WORTH OSGOOD,* ^ .* J- * 

MRS. L. VANCE PHILLIPS * J> * j* 

MRS. ADELAIDE ALSOP-ROBINEAU * 

MISS MARY G. SHEERER ^ * * * 

MISS HELEN M. TOPPING^ j. j j, 

MISS SARA B. VILAS > j* > ^ ^ 



(S 



»€EZINE: 

FOR: ^THE: ^p 

DEgIQIER:P§!niR:BE€§EaTOR :fI2ER: 

Copyrighted 1899 by the Keramie Studis Publishing- Co.. Syracuse and New York. Entered at the Post Office at Syracuse, N. Y.. as Seeond Class Matter, Au« 2, 1899. 



[ The entire contents of this Magazine are cohered by the general copyright, and the articles mast not be reprinted Without special permission. ] 

CONTENTS FOR NOVEMBER, 1899 







PAGE 


Editorial Notes, .... 


• «•••. 


131 


National League of Mineral Painters, 


cM.rs. Worth Osgood, 


131 


Tea Tile in China or Burnt Wood, 


Lida S. cMulford, 


132 


Treatment for Study of Hops, 


SMarsbat Fry, 


133 


The Study of Hops in Water Colors, 


. ^hoda. Holmes EHicholls, 


133 


Historic Ornament — Persian, 


(Adelaide Alsop-Robineau, 


134-136 


Persian Plate Design, .... 


. Sara <B. Vitas, 


137 


For Beginners — Pyrography, 


. 


137 


Japanese Anemones, .... 


Genevieve Leonard, 


138 


Decoration for Pitcher, . 


c/lnna B. Leonard, 


139 


League Notes — In the Studios, 


. 


140 


Club News — In the Shops, 


. 


141 


Design for Placque or Table Top, 


(Anna B. Leonard, 


142-143 


Treatment of Figure Study, 


L. Vance Phillips, 


144-146 


Chafing Dish Bowl, .... 


Helen M. Topping, 


146-147 


Poppies Conventionally Treated, 


(Adelaide Alsop-Robineau, 


148-149 


Artistic Japan, .... 


. 


148-149 


The Application of Ornament — Second Paper, 


(A. G. Marshall, 


150 


Newcomb Pottery, .... 


Mary G, Sheerer, 


151-152 


Answers to Correspondents, 


. 


152 


Supplement — " Study of Hops," 


Marshal Fry. 






SYRACUSE, N. Y. 



Vol I, No. 7 



NEW YORK AND SYRACUSE 



November 1899 




E expect from now on to open two new 
departments in the Keramic Studio 
and would be glad of contributions from 
any interested subscribers. One depart- 
ment is in the interest of collectors of old 
and valuable china. It will be called " The Collector." The 
second is for the study of pyrography or burnt wood and 
leather etching, in which art great strides have been taken 
in the last year. Many china painters are taking up this 
fascinating art in connection with their own work, and find it 
both interesting and paying. 

The border design about the article on Hops would make a 
simple but effective design for a stein, with the thyrsus on 
either side of the handle and the ivy vine and ribbons form- 
ing the border. The reeling figures after Boutet de Monvel 
would also make a fine decoration for a stein or whisky jug, 
making above and below the band a conventional design of 
grapes or corn or hops or rye, as the case might be. These 
designs would also be useful for burnt wood, as would be also 
the Poppies, the Anemones or any of the conventional designs. 
The figures by De Monvel will appear in the December issue. 

We have received a letter from Miss Ann Shaw, who is 
traveling abroad, and an article on Cut Leather, which is the 
second of a series of interesting and instructive articles from 
her pen. We consider ourselves greatly favored to be able to 
publish them for our readers. Below is an extract from her 
letter, promising us much entertainment and instruction to 
come : 

I have but just returned from an extended trip through 
Switzerland, the Austrian Tyrol, and to Vienna. While in 
Vienna I wrote a letter which I will send and if you care to 
use it in another of your issues you can, and I have a great 
deal more information concerning book designing and leather 
work, and can follow this line with several articles that might 
be both instructive and interesting. 

I have been studying leather work quite a little and find 
the interest is growing rapidly here (Paris) and also in Vienna. 
I looked into enameling and designing for jewelry and metal 
while in Geneva, and I found such attractive things and 
wonderfully artistic handling of the wax from which are 
modeled the heads and figures before they are cast in gold 
and silver. 

Some new ideas are being brought forth in china in the 
factories, but I am delighted to say our work in that line is 
surpassing any work attempted by individuals here. The 
factories enjoy the monopoly of all that work in Europe. 

•f -p 
To the Council and Menibets of the National League of Mineral Painters: 

It has often seemed to me as if a vast amount of talking 
or explanations to our members must have one bad effect, in 
leaving upon their minds a vague impression that the National 
League to which their thoughts are so continually urged, is a 
complicated thing that it should take such a multitude of 
definitions to make it clear. And so there is always present, 



as I begin a message to you, the fear that these multiplied 
letters will give you the uncomfortable feeling that our organ- 
ized work is a thing of many rules, hard to understand, and 
needing a great deal of commentary. I should be very glad 
to show you how simple the rules are that govern the League, 
how very broad and plain its principles are, and how easy its 
work might be for those who are equipped for it and love it. 
It is part of the debt I owe to those who but recently enrolled 
with us, to make clear these simple rules and plain principles, 
and in again venturing to address you through the columns 
of this magazine, I hope to briefly suggest some thoughts 
which will help to an understanding of them, without deliber- 
ately stating them anew. 

I have to thank you for the many encouraging replies to 
the September letter. As many of them contained apologies 
for referring some matter or request for information to the 
President, I am led to say a few words on the duties of this 
office. The central idea of the office is to faithfully execute 
the laws governing the League. The President carries into 
effect the rules or laws passed in accordance with the constitu- 
tion — not her will but the will of those chosen to direct and 
supervise the affairs of the League, the Advisory Board and 
Council — and it is the duty of the President to see that every 
law so passed is executed, and no discretionary powers except 
the means to be employed are left to her. As laws do not 
execute themselves, some one must look after them. 

There is a large number of things to look after, and the pro- 
vision of nine executive officers is none too great for an organ- 
ization as far-reaching as ours. As the President is responsible 
for executive action, she is consulted in all important matters. 
To secure time to properly study these questions as they are 
presented, is often a difficult problem, the more so as her time 
is largely occupied with remunerative, and, therefore, more 
pressing duties. The term of office is three years, and no 
officer is eligible for consecutive re-election. One needs but a 
few months experience to be convinced of the wisdom of 
those who fixed this limit. 

To assist in keeping the work before the federated clubs, 
to take advantage of all openings for advancing the aims of 
the League, and to make it of the highest value to members, 
is the earnest purpose of all the executive officers. 

Answers to questions relative to the conduct of business, 
information of all rules and regulations, in short, anything 
that you may require of the League, will be most cheerfully 
furnished, not only by the President, but by every member of 
the executive. In this way we gain your intelligent help, the 
inspiration of numbers, and the larger test of our work. It is 
not safe to judge of the effect of our work by one or two 
members ; but when the League pronounces on it by the tes- 
timony of its evidently changed condition, we may be assured 
it is never wrong, The mass of correspondence last year 
bears witness to the fairness and considerateness of our feder- 
ation. League insight is very true, and her conscience on the 
whole is very right. 

These are only my impressions, and if the tone is rather 
complacent or congratulatory than otherwise, it is from no 
wish to commend our Own stewardship, but attribute all favor- 
able results to the opportunities of the times in which we live. 
Mrs. Worth Osgood, President. 



I}2 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




T 



TEA TILE IN CHINA OR BURNT WOOD— LIDA S. MULFORD 

HIS desinge of Pyrus Japonica for tea tile, executed by (German) and Carmine No. 3 mixed. The leaves and stems 
Miss Lida Mulford, received the prize in the Jersey should be painted with Apple Green and Mixing Yellow, 

shaded with Brown Green (Lacroix). This design of blos- 
soms, leaves and stems is outlined with Ruby Purple 
(German). 

A sable rigger No. o should be used for outlining, and 
the line must be fine but strong — not thick in some places 



City Keramic Art Club competition. This club follows 
closely the League Course of Study and medals or prizes are 
given every month for best design and execution. 

The outer rim is dark green, the background of the centre 
being gold. Paint the blossoms with Carmine No. 3 (Lacroix) 
very delicately, shading in the second fire with Ruby Purple and thin in others. 




WOPS.— MARSHAL FRY. 



SUPPLEMENT TO KERAMIC STUDIO, NOVEMBER, 
COPYRIGHT, 1899. 



KERAMIC STUDIO PUB. CO. 



KERAM1C STUDIO 



*33 



:•' y 



C.U«*.liL 



TREATMENT FOR STUDY OF HOPS 

Marshal Fry 

THIS design is most suitable for a beer stein, tankard, or any 
object which will admit of a dark color scheme. The 
colors needed are Moss, Royal, Brown, Russian and Shading 
Greens, Copenhagen Blue, Violet No. 2, Yellow Brown, Albert 
Yellow, and Pompadour. 

The first painting should be simple and crisp, using Moss 
and Royal Greens, and Albert Yellow for the lightest hops, 
and Shading and Brown Greens and Copenhagen Blue for the 
otheis. Get the background going, for good effects can be 
obtained by painting into the wet tint, and also by wiping out 
lights with a moist brush. Copenhagen Blue, Brown, Shading 
and Russian Greens are used in the background. 

About the same colors are used in the second paint- 
ing, possibly warmer colors than before, more Albert 
Yellow, Yellow Brown and Pompadour. The prominent 
hops should be brought out by crisp accents of Royal 
and Brown Greens, and washes of Moss Green and Albert 
Yellow. The less prominent and suggested ones should 
be washed over with the background colors, some of them 
to be almost lost in it. If Belleek ware is used, substitute a 
mixture of Apple Green and Albert Yellow for the Moss 
Green, as the latter is apt to fire brown on that ware. 

Q Q Q 

THE STUDY OF HOPS IN WATER COLOR 

Rhoda Holmes Nicholls 

THE shape of the accompanying study of hops will hardly 
meet the wants of those who are seeking for a conven- 
tional flower study, but with a little clever rearranging or selec- 
tion they may find hints for decorating something they wish to 
beautify. The color scheme is beautifully simple, and yet rev- 
elling in different tones of green, the cool shades balancing 
the warm and the proportions of dark and light making a pleas- 
ant contrast. The student is strongly recommended to soak 
the paper before placing it on a piece of wet blotting paper or 
oil cloth over a drawing board. The original study is so full 
of quality that unless the water color is all kept wet it would 
hardly give the result desired. The colors to use are : Hooker's 
Green Nos. I and 2, Antwerp Blue, Raw Sienna, Aligarin 
Crimson, Lemon Yellow, Burnt Sienna and Indigo. Paint in 
the general scheme of the background, massing the light and 
the dark and breaking the warm colors in the centre ; sponge 
out the lights where the brightest hops are and do not work 
into them with sharp crisp touches until the paper begins to 
dry a little. Although the study is full of mystery the touches 
throughout are sharp and direct. Observe the make of the 
leaf and the stems. There is nothing woolly in the handling. 
If necessary a little Chinese White may be used with the color 
towards the last, but very little. 




134 



KERAMC STUDIO 




The designs best suited to the duller scheme of coloring 
are Nos. 4, 6, 7 and to, in fact, almost all designs where those 
curious conventionalized flower forms are found. 




HISTORIC ORNAMENT— PERSIAN 

N Persian art, floral ornament is used in a manner 
midway between Arab conventionalism and Indian 
quasi-naturalism. The Persians also make use of 
fantastic animals and, more rarely, the human 
figure. It is always difficult to distinguish between 
the Indian and Persian designs. All Oriental 
decoration follows the general rules. There is no rounding off 
of figures, the drawing is done in silhouette, the geometrical 
outlines are relieved by conventional coloring on a dominant 
and generating ground. Attention to this produces brilliancy 
and repose. 

The Persians had great manual skill. Their dishes, vases 
and enameled bricks are still models in taste. Varied scales 
of color rise from a ground either black, white slightly tinted, 
blue, red, yellow or flesh color, with flat tints and striking out- 
lines of every shade from black to white according to circum- 
stances. The Persians were especially skillful in this method 
of decoration, and from them can be drawn the best lessons 
in decorative coloring. 

They have two distinct color treatments: one of dull 
colors, usually with a white ground ; the other of bright colors 
and gold. For the first treatment they use dull blue, green, 
white, black, grey, violet brown, occasionally yellow brown or 
yellow and olive. For the second treatment, black, white, gold, 
blue, red, green, rose, red brown, yellow brown, orange, yellow, 
flesh and olive. Persian coloring rarely includes turquoise 
or delicate pink, but rarely omits bright green, the favorite 
color of Mahommed. 



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PLATE DESIGN BY MISS VILAS 

This is a simple adaptation of the border 
design No. 5, illustrating the variety of effect 
which can be obtained by simply varying the 
color on the same design. This can be treated 
in either of the two color schemes mentioned, but is rather 
more suited to the richer combinations of color. For those 
who do not understand the use of flat enamels, it will be 



Application to 
Modern 
Design 



found that very rich effects can be obtained by simply using 
ordinary colors painted on and combined with gold. 

COFFEE POT 

This design is a combination of No. 3, No. 9 and No. 1 1. 
The light ground should be of a buff tint, and the design of 
colored enamels on a gold and bronze ground. Use white, 
black, green and dark blue in the design, with a touch of red 
on flowers and center of design. Outline everything with 
gold. 




12— SECTION OF PERSIAN BOWL 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



i37 




PERSIAN PLATE DESIGN 



FOR BEGINNERS 

WHILE some of our designs may seem complicated, they 
really are not after a little study of them. If they 
appear formidable, you may use tracing paper, which facili- 
tates matters considerably (but do not become too dependent 
upon tracing paper), then go over the design after it is trans- 
ferred very delicately in India ink, which if a mistake is made 
will still adhere to the china even after rubbing off the color 
with turpentine. Try some of those beautiful Arabian 
designs in the October number, that teapot for instance, and 
you will be surprised how quickly the design goes, and delighted 
with the elegant results. This will make such a charming 
Christmas present, and it will be so different in design from 
any thing that you can buy in the stores. 

It is delightful, carried out in flat colors with the flat gold 
outline. If more ambitious, use the enamels and raised gold. 
It is quite simple after all, yet rich in effect. You will not 
tire of it, nor even be ashamed to show it in after years, for 
a conventional design like that is never out of date. 

Before you begin to paint, get your materials all in 
order, see that every thing you need is before you, and that 
your palette is properly arranged and that your colors are 
generously supplied and in good condition. It is a mistake 
to starve your brush, and certainly a poor palette kills all 
inspiration, when one sits down to paint. (This is always 
trying to teachers to go to a pupil, who has a poor, miserably 
prepared palette ; if you wish her to help you, be wise and 
have an alluring palette, plenty of clean, soft color, and she 
will hate to leave you). 

If you are using lustre colors, be careful not to use the 
paint rag for anything but wiping the brushes — unconsciously 
you may wipe the china with it, and to your surprise after the 
firing there will be streaks of color fired in. It is better to 
have a separate brush for each lustre, unless you wash the 
one brush (after each color) with alcohol, and then dry perfectly. 



PYROGRAPHY 




PLAQUE IN BURNT WOOD 

By courtesy ofE. M. Gubsch & Co., New York. 

THE art of Pyrography has received a great impetus this 
last year and bids fair to rank as high as any artistic 
decorative work. That even the most subtle shading can be 
done with this medium will be seen in the accompanying 
illustration. The materials are inexpensive and few lessons 
are needed if one knows how to draw. The effects are artistic 
and easily gained. 



1*8 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




I 



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5! 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



i*9 



JAPANESE ANEMONES 

Genevieve Leonard 

THE Japanese Anemone seems best adapted to something 
tall and slender. I would suggest a background of grey, 
made of equal parts of warm and tender Grey. The flowers 
being white should be left out and afterwards shaded with 
light grey, with a little Aufsetzweis (or relief white), on the 
high lights. The center of the flower is a light green and 
the stamens are a bright yellow ; the stems and leaves are 
quite a dark bluish green, the buds a lighter and more yellow- 
ish green. 



LUSTRES 

Steel BLUE, used alone, is one of the most striking colors 
we have. Painted on with a large square shader full of 
lustre and allowed to run thick and thin as it will, it gives a 
beautiful iridescent effect, being peacock blue and green 
where it is thick and ruby where thin. Padded, it is a steel 
blue grey with pinkish lights, and makes a good background 
for decorative flowers. This is still more effective as a back- 
ground when it has light or dark green painted over it for the 
second fire. With yellow over it for the second fire, it has 
the effect of oxydized silver. 




^%^w^ /c/.cy^ <&^ ^?^ 



DECORATION FOR PITCHER 



THIS is a very quaint shape and may be decorated in various 
ways. We give the decoration in the French style, 
which will be found very dainty and graceful. The two 
stripes are raised in the china, so we adapt the design to 
what is given. 

Draw the lines on either side of the raised stripes, and 
then the oblong figures running down the center of them- 
These are to be Turquoise Blue enamel, surrounded by 
fine paste dots (beading). The darkest part of the stripe 
is Gold. Turquoise enamel dots, surrounded by raised Gold 



beading, ornament the bottom, top and handles. Directions 
for the little roses have been given. 

For this same shape you may also use some of those 
beautiful Chinese bands which we gave in the August and 
September numbers, and instead of the garlands of roses use 
the stiff Chinese ornament, — you will then have a most attrac- 
tive pitcher. This same design may be carried out in different 
colors in the stripes, or you may have the entire design in 
raised gold. It will also be charming in green lustre, with the 
garlands all in colored enamels. 



140 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



J^EAGUE The Advisory Board of the National League 

NOTES ° f Mineral Painters held an all-day session, 
September 15th, at the studio of Mrs. Leon- 
ard. There were present Miss Fairbanks of Boston, Mrs. 
Doremus of Bridgeport, Conn., Mrs. Baisely of Brooklyn, Miss 
Montfort, Miss Horlocker and Mrs. Leonard of New York. Mrs. 
Mary Alley Neal sent herproxy. Mrs. Worth Osgood, the Presi- 
dent, occupied the chair, and under her guidance much busi- 
ness was put through, especially that referring to the Paris 
Exposition. The advisability of accepting the invitation from 
the Federation of Clubs to exhibit in Milwaukee in the spring 
was discussed, and it was decided that the officers of the 
League could not undertake the responsibility of another ex- 
hibition, but that individual clubs could exhibit if they so 
desired, as many might like to send their china there, when 
they could not send it to Paris. 

The information obtained during the summer relative to 
the League's exhibit at Paris was laid before the Board by the 
President. The Council were represented by letters of advice 
to the Board of Managers. These letters showed a deep in- 
terest, and were a source of encouragement as well as help, 
in formulating plans for starting the earnest work to be accom- 
plished in the near future. The contracts of members for space 
not having been returned at this early date, no estimate could 
be formed of the number of exhibitors. A crude calculation, 
based on rough estimates given by Director M. H. Hulbert, 
was brought in, to show the approximate cost of the League's 
international exhibit, and measures for raising the amount 
thought necessary to place in bank for installing and caring 
for our exhibit were adopted. Correct information of these 
measures may be had from Miss Leta Horlocker, Corresponding 
Secretary of the League. 

The acceptance of Mrs. M. L. Wagner of Detroit, Mich, 
as chairman of exhibition, has called forth the greatest satis- 
faction from all sides. Mrs. Wagner is now carefully study- 
ing the space allotted to us with a view to making an equitable 
division and an artistic display as a whole. Upon application 
to Mrs. Worth Osgood, a good working drawing of League 
space will be promptly forwarded to any member wishing to 
submit a plan for the arrangement of our exhibit. 

The invitation of the Art Committee of the Milwaukee 
Biennial Conference has not received the full attention of affili- 
ated clubs. At present the work of the Advisory Board is neces- 
sarily all-absorbing, and finding that sufficient time could not 
be given to the correspondence necessary to successfully carry 
forward this plan of an exhibit in America, the Board sum- 
moned the aid of the Council, requesting each enrolled club 
to correspond with Mrs. S. L. Frackelton, Chairman of the 
Art Committee, 695 Cass street, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Course of Study for November — Spanish-American War 
Subjects, November Sunlight. 

Individual application forms for League membership may 
be obtained from the executive, also forms for club enrollment. 

Corrected lists of the League's exhibit at Omaha have 
been forwarded to Director Key for the returning of the china. 

A meeting of the Advisory Board will be held November 
17th at the studio of Mrs. Worth Osgood, 402 Madison street, 
Brooklyn. The meeting will be called to order at 3 o'clock. 
The Council are invited to assist in person or by letter. Ap- 
plications for membership will be submitted to the Board for 
approval ; the rights and privileges of members considered and 
defined for the benefit of the Board in administering League 



affairs ; and all present information summed up for the use of 
the enrolled clubs. 

The Ceramic Club of Washington have elected the fol- 
lowing officers: President, Mrs. Victorine B.Jenkins, 1636 
Sixteenth street, N. W\; vice-president, Mr. F. L. Grunewald, 
1 1 13 Eleventh street, N. W.; secretary, Miss Mary Stone, 326 
Pennsylvania avenue, S. E.; treasurer, Miss Annie Schoenbotn, 
1359 Harvard street, N. W. 

November schedule for the League's circular letter : 

New York receives Indianapolis October letter from Providence. 

Detroit receives Washington October letter from Columbus. 

Bridgeport receives Wisconsin September letter from Detroit. 

Brooklyn receives Chicago September letter from Duquesne. 

Wisconsin receives Bridgeport September letter from Denver. 

Providence receives Columbus September letter from Washington. 

Columbus receives San Francisco letter from Brooklyn. 

Jersey City receives reply from Chicago. 

Duquesne replies to Chicago. 

Indianapolis receives New York October letter from Boston. 

Chicago replies to Jersey City. 

Denver receives Jersey City October letter from Chicago. 

Boston receives Denver October letter from Bridgeport. 

San Francisco receives Boston September letter from New York. 

Washington receives Detroit October letter from Wisconsin. 

Clubs not having received the annual report for the year 
1898-99 will please notify Miss Ida A. Johnson, 193 St. James 
Place, Brooklyn, stating number of copies required. 



*" ** 



F 



THE Mrs. Adelaide Alsop-Robineau has returned 

STUDIOS t0 NeW ^ orl< and nas °P ened her new studio 
at 1 14 East Twenty-third street, and is now 
receiving pupils in miniature painting on porcelain and ivory, 
besides her decorative work in lustres, raised gold and enamels. 

Mr. E. Aulich has returned from Germany and will resume 
classes in the Hartford Building. 

Mrs. Mary Alley Neal is at home now and is receiving 
pupils at her studio. She will give an exhibition in November. 

Mrs. Clara Taylor, one of Mrs. Leonard's former assist- 
ants, has opened a studio in St. Louis. The KERAMIC STUDIO 
wishes her all success. 

Miss Fairbanks of Boston was present at the all-day 
session of the Advisory Board of the League in New York on 
September 15. 

Mrs. Culp of San Francisco is now at home after her busy 
season of teaching at Chautauqua. 

Marshall Fry has resumed his classes. 

Mrs. L. Vance Phillips, after a year's absence, in which 
time she has had classes in the principal cities from Maine to 
California, is now forming her classes at the Fry studio. 

Mrs. Elizabeth A. Caldwell of Montreal has been in town 
and will take back with her some studio decorations as well as 
new china, painted with Mr. Fry and Mrs. Leonard. 

Mrs. Caroline Swift of Boston is resuming her classes. 

Mrs. F. G. Howser has opened a studio at 1263 Madison 
street, Chicago. This studio is in the heart of the "china 
decorating district," and is one of the most attractive in that 
city. Mrs. Howser gave a studio reception, September 30th. 

Miss Annabelle Mather Hutchinson has moved her studio 
to 45 East Twentieth street, New York. Miss Hutchinson 
studied in Paris at the Julian School and at the Sevres manu- 
factory. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



141 



C LUB 



NEWS 



At the invitation of the Portland (Maine) 
Club, Mrs. Vance Phillips and Miss Laura B. 
Overly gave a series of lessons, the studio 
being furnished by the club. This club is very progressive. 

The first meeting of the Jersey City K. A. C. was held at 
the home of Mrs. Gliick, one of the members. The club no 
longer holds its meeting at the Hasbrouck Institute, but is 
entertained each month by one of its members. Mrs. Worth 
Osgood was present at the last meeting and talked of the 
proper way to send china to the Paris Exposition and upon 
the exhibit in general. There were a number of water colors 
for competition. 

The Atlan Club of Chicago is preparing for the Paris 
Exposition and also for their own exhibit, which opens the 
latter part of November in the Art Institute. 

The Chicago Ceramic Association held its regular meet- 
ing October 7th at 4 P. M. At the executive meeting held 
September 16th, it was voted to hold the Annual Sale 
and Exhibition at the Art Institute about the 12th or 
15th of November, and at the close of that to re-open the 
china at the club rooms for a Christmas Sale during the month 
of December, also to have each month a social, the first one in 
October. The attraction to the public will be a collection of 
old china, a paper by some member of the Central Associa- 
tion, and a cup of tea, the affair to be in the hands of a com- 
mittee appointed. 

A meeting of the Brooklyn Society of Mineral Painters 
was held at the residence of Mrs. Frank Baiseley, 100 Ross 
street, which was well attended. Much business was trans- 
acted, and contracts for the Paris Exposition were distributed. 
A great interest is shown in the Exposition, which promises 
well for the club's contribution to the League exhibit. The 
subject for the day was "Flowers from Our Summer Haunts." 
Many amusing experiences were related, as well as charming 
quotations given about flowers. 

The Mineral Art Club of Denver held its first meeting of 
the season at the home of Mrs. Case, October 2d, the mem- 
bers all seeming enthusiastic over the work planned by the 
League, as they will follow the course of study as nearly as 
possible, submitting the designs to unbiased judges for criti- 
cism. After each meeting the criticisms will be read. The 
club is getting down to serious work, and they are working in 
the right way. 

The New York Society of Keramic Arts held its October 
meeting at the Waldorf-Astoria. Plans were made for the 
fall exhibition which is to be held at the Waldorf-Astoria 
November 22-24. These exhibitions have become features of 
the season of art exhibitions. Many decorators and students 
will take that opportunity for visiting New York, combining 
business with pleasure and study. 

THE Some delightful bits of new Doulton are to 

SHOPS k e seen at O vni g ton ' s > New York. The colors 
are soft and seem to melt into the glaze. 
There is always such harmony of color in these bits, that it 
would pay one to study the effects. In no other medium 
would the same flowers or landscapes look well treated in this 
manner, but on porcelain the effect is most decorative. A 
piece of this ware would fit in anywhere. 

The coffee pot used with the Historic ornament of this 
issue is from the catalogue of L. B. King & Co. of Detroit. 
It is a fine shape and quite reasonable in price. 



F 



At Burley's, in Chicago, there are some choice new shapes 
of white china for decorating, one especial piece we will give 
in next number. 

Miss Wynne has some handsome white china in Dresden. 
A candelabra in figures, cupids and relief flowers was very 
attractive. 

The white china is very alluring. All the new plain 
shapes are especially adaptable to the designs given in the 
KERAMIC STUDIO. Much of the new glassware is decorated 
in conventional designs, with gold and enamels, similar to our 
designs given in the October number. One lemonade set was 
noticeable, it being dark green glass, with an Arabian design 
of gold and scarlet enamel. The figures of the design were 
bold and nearly covered the pitcher and glasses. 

Glass globes for lamps also have the conventional 
design in bold scrolls or arabesque or some all-over design. 
These globes look well on lamps decorated in a similar manner. 

There were a number of Dewey souvenir plates during 
the celebration in New York. Tiffany has plates with Dewey's 
picture in the center, with appropriate design on the rim. 
This is redeemed by being printed in a monochrome of blue, 
which is not bad. 

Keramists were a trifle shocked, however, to hear the 
venders cry, "Gitcher Dewey pie plates here, only five cents 
apiece." Was it because Dewey is a New Englander? (This 
plate, of course, was tin.) 

Then another plate had Dewey's colored portrait in the 
center (which, of course, was printed on) with the design on 
the rim in green — a sea weed design. Imagine the nation's 
pride, the conquering hero, painted on a plate, and treated as 
if he were the much abused, impossible fish, and framed in sea 
weeds ! ! Is it a wonder that keramic artists have difficulty in 
exhibiting in the Fine Arts building? 

DESIGN FOR PLACQUE OR TABLE TOP 

THE darker parts are tinted in a turquoise blue, which is 
composed of two parts Bright Green and one part Deep 
Blue Green. Add one-fourth flux to this mixture. This tint 
requires the hardest possible fire (in a portable kiln) and it is 
a better way to fire the china immediately after the tint has 
been put on, without adding further decoration. Wipe the 
edges of the design carefully and also remove the color from 
the circles. After firing paint the small roses and garlands. 
Then carry out the scroll design in raised parts, and make the 
small settings for the enamel dots. The enamel should be 
light pink, which can be obtained by using a very little 
Carmine, No. 3, to color it. 

The dark medallions may be gold or bronze with flowers 
in colored enamels, or merely flat color. 

This design can be used for a table top, by making the 
border a little wider. Do not try to finish a piece of work 
like this in a hurry, linger over it, and have every detail as 
perfect as possible. If one becomes tired making so many 
paste dots, it is better to put the work away and start some- 
thing else. It is a good plan any way to have several pieces 
on hand. If one does not feel in the mood for painting, try 
paste work. If that is tiresome, try a little designing, always 
keeping plenty of work on hand. 

In this way much more is accomplished. Full directions 
for paste, enamels, and garlands of roses have been given in 
previous numbers of the Keramic Studio. 




DESIGN FOR PLACQUE 

OR TABLE TOP 



For Treatment, see page Hi 



144 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




TREATMENT OF FIGURE STUDY 

L. Vance Phillips 

HIS study suggesting the stately minuet of 
Washington's day is especially beautiful 
and interesting as a study of drapery. 
The dress of this period presents, prob- 
ably, everything considered, the most 
picturesque style ever given us, including as it does a male 
costume in which beauty of color and fabric are happily com- 
bined with grace of line — all this without detracting in the 
least from the manly bearing of the wearer, on the contrary 
rather accenting the most admirable qualities. 

It is as a drapery study and general color scheme that 
treatment will be given. No details of the flesh painting will 
be considered, the subject being chosen for those already 
familiar with a flesh palette and so prepared to take up a com- 
position with several figures. Such students will understand 
that a general color scheme is necessary, one in which there is 
contrast sufficient to satisfy a love of color, yet with it such a 
general harmony in the half tones and dark shadows that the 
whole effect will be restful. 

The two principal figures at the left would make a simple 
and effective composition used alone and could be adapted as 
a vase decoration. The entire composition would be most 
effective on an oval or rectangular slab. This should not be 
chosen larger than the copy given unless the subject itself is 
enlarged to suit the porcelain and so preserve the proportion 
given. Increasing the surrounding space even in a miniature 
does -not increase the interest of the subject, but makes the 
obtaining of a good perspective much more difficult. This 
caution is a general one for the somewhat inexperienced 
worker who is often tempted to enlarge upon surroundings, 
believing it an advantage in effect and not understanding the 
difficulty of rendering correct perspective or the blemish a 
poorly represented perspective is to an otherwise good paint- 
ing. In using this composition on a slab for framing as a 
picture the male figure at the left may, if desired, be omitted 
without losing any of the general interest. The young 
woman in the background could be omitted, yet had best be 
retained as highly valuable in obtaining a good perspective. 
This figure should be painted with rather more grey than is 
shown in the half tone, making all the lights several tones 
lower than the high lights on the principal figures. 

Make a correct and delicate tracing, after which fix it 
with India ink. 

Set your palette as follows with Fry colors. Not having 
these refer to page 40, June issue of KERAMIC STUDIO for 
duplicates in La Croix, Dresden or any of the special manu- 
factures. 

Albert Yellow, Brown Green, Deep Blue Green, 

Yellow Brown, Apple Green, Dark Brown, 

Pompadour, Dark Green, Violet No. 2, 

Copenhagen Blue, Violet of Iron, 

Silver Grey, or its equivalent, La Croix, Apple Green and 
Carmine No. 1. 

Begin with the background as being the strongest note of 
color, working from upper left hand to the right. Complete 
same while color remains moist. Carry the background at the 
beginning only down to the narrow point of the uplifted 
drapery on the left, to the ornaments on the cabinet at the 
left center, and on the right half way down the outline of 
figure, working down last of all to the middle right that you 
may lay in softly the distant figure in greys that tone into the 
background. 



In laying the background use the color medium strong, 
not a tint but a good body of color, as you should aim in this 
composition to bring the figures out in strong relief in the first 
painting. In the second and third paintings the background 
will need only general washes for toning into harmony and 
giving accents to the drawing here and there. 

Use a large square shader, well charged with color and 
moistened with both an oil medium and turpentine. At the 
upper left begin with Apple Green and Copenhagen Blue. 
Pass into Copenhagen Blue and then into Copenhagen and 
Dark Green mixed, grading these colors at the top from left 
to right. As you pass down behind the figures add to these 
colors quite a little Violet of Iron to warm the deep shadows. 
Lay the color somewhat over the outline of the masses of hair 
that it may while still moist be softly wiped into the exact back- 
ground texture. 

The ornaments and divisions of the paneled wall may be 
shown by using yellow brown in the greys for the lights, and 
Yellow Brown and Violet of Iron in the deep shadows, pro- 
ducing a look of gold in shadow. Use same scheme for 
frame into which suggest a low, dull-toned landscape, so dark 
and indistinct as to attract no attention, but painted strong 
enough to be in right relation to the wall. You are now 
ready to lay in the indistinct figure. Use a touch of pompa- 
dour in the grey of the face, less in the general tone and more 
in the shadow portions. Tinge the grey of the dress with 
violet (Violet No. 2 and Deep Blue Green) with Violet of Iron 
added in the deep shadows. A clear grey for the lace with a 
little warmth in the deep shadows. Violet of Iron and 
Yellow Brown would be a satisfactory warmth touched into 
the general scheme. With this warm tone lay a half circle 
shadow for each pearl. Remove a high light with a wooden 
point while moist, or with a curved eraser when dry. This 
light if pure white may be reduced in a general wash in second 
painting. By treating the pearls in this way the local color is 
the color of the flesh and this will give the proper shadow 
quality, while the painting is the simplest possible. This hint 
of shadow management should be carried out in all similar 
effects of the distance. The hair may be finished with the 
brush, but if found lacking in texture or in the modeling, 
lights may be wiped out with a bit of cotton on a wooden 
point, or, when dry, texture and lightness may be given with 
the steel eraser, used softly, removing only part of the color. 
This choice of methods in the obtaining of a given effect is in 
deference to the condition of the color at the time of comple- 
tion, it being impossible to always have the same consistency 
as to oil. These differences must be met by a deft use of 
whatever tool will bring the desired effect. 

The soft, fluffy hair of the girl at the left should be 
secured, together with a general softly wiped outline of the 
three heads and figures against this ground. The painting of 
them may be taken up at once or wait for another sitting, but 
the soft outline should be secured in any event. 

Use that flesh palette with which you are familiar. As a 
general color scheme the young woman at the left may be 
fair with eyes of deep blue — which means grey with a hint of 
blue to give the effect of dark blue — eyebrows a dark brown, 
hair powdered as is the case with each of the figures. 

The young man may have a brunette complexion, dark 
eyelashes, and eyebrows, with white satin bow tying his hair. 
This latter that the line of head and hair may not be broken 
up by change of color, merely a change of texture. 

The tall beauty in the right foreground may also be 
brunette, but slightly more delicate in coloring. This will aid 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



'4? 





146 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



in bringing her forward in the composition. A point can be 
gained for this effect by choosing warm coloring for her gown 
and contrasting it with a cooler scheme for figures farther back. 

The first figure at the left will have a gown of delicate 
green blue with a white front. Lay shadows of the latter 
delicately with silver gray. The few deep shadows a delicate 
purple (Violet No. 2 and Deep Blue Green). For the lace 
effects use the same colors with Violet of Iron and Yellow 
Brown in a few of the darkest touches. The robe proper may 
be painted with local color (general lights) of Deep Blue 
Green and Apple Green or Fry's Russian Green. The half 
tone shadows Deep Blue Green and Violet No. 2, with about 
one-third Silver Gray, added to soften color and to supply 
glaze. The deepest shadows Violet No. 2 and Violet of Iron 
with a touch of Deep Blue Green. Be careful to keep the 
silver gray out of the deep shadows, as in the fire this color 
will destroy the Violet of Iron. 

The young cavalier may have a white satin waistcoat, 
embroidered in gold, white shoes and hose, gray breeches, 
gray blue coat with gold embroidery, white satin cuffs, gold 
embroidered, and cream lace. 

Leave the china for white of the waistcoat, depending 
upon sharp lights and folds to give the effect of satin. Use 
blue for the half tone shadows, purple for the general dark 
shadows and a touch of Violet of Iron and Yellow Brown in a 
few of the very darkest accents. The cream lace may have a 
faint skim of yellow brown fluxed with gray, purple halftones 
and reddish yellow shadows. This constant repetition of the 
warm dark shadows gives harmony just as a repetition of gray 
half tones helps to give atmosphere. 

The coat could be beautifully painted with La Croix's 
Rouen Blue or a dull old Delft Blue. The former fires with dif- 
ferent shades when it is used in different degrees of strength, 
giving charming variety without using any other color, ex- 
cept perhaps some touches of warmth in the darkest shadows. 

The breeches may be painted with silver gray lights, cool 
shadow for flesh in the medium tones and the same reddish 
yellow touched into a few of the darkest accents. 

The figure on the right may have a pink crape gown with 
pale yellow front and old cream lace. Use for high lights of 
pink a mere skim of pompadour with one-half flux added. 
The half tones Silver Gray with a little " Rose" or Carmine 
added, and the deep shadows pure Violet of Iron. A thin 
wash of Albert Yellow over the front, silver gray shadows 
with a few warm accents, (Violet of Iron and Yellow Brown), 
in this case letting the Yellow Brown predominate to give a 
better effect for yellow drapery, on the same principle that the 
yellow brown was omitted in the deep shadows of the pink 
drapery. The feather in'the hair may be pink or yellow, pale 
in either case. 

Paint broadly for the first fire, but have every important 
shadow and line absolutely correct as the large, general masses 
and lines follow the figure. Think little of the fold and line 
itself, but think much of the form that gives these masses and 
lines. Read carefully and understand the above sentence. 
In it is the most important direction for the study of drapery. 
The subtleties of color and texture are as naught if this is not 
considered always of primary importance. 

The ornaments on the cabinet may have a repetition of 
all the colors used, or of only part. Brown Green would 
furnish some new contrasts without disturbing the harmony. 
Use plenty of the wall colors to subdue and put them back. 
In painting the cabinet use sufficient Violet of Iron and Dark 
Brown with the grays to represent mahogany, and these colors 



with a little Dark Green in the deep shadow under the 
cabinet. The polished floor should be a general scheme of 
yellowish grays, repeating and reflecting wall color as well as 
a slight reflection of the pinks, blues and whites of the 
draperies. Carefully join the lower background to the upper 
that it may show as little as possible. In the succeeding 
painting make your joining at another point. 

Take greatest care to have all your lights cleared out for 
the first fire. Have the lace, hair, and high lights of the 
fabrics all lighter than you need them. By this careful atten- 
tion it will not be necessary to force any of the high lights 
with enamel. This also leaves pleasant opportunity to model 
and work out detail in the later paintings. 

For the second and third fires still paint broadly, accent- 
ing the shadows and getting the relation or value of shadows 
to each other. If a given place seems too green wash it with 
violet. If too red with blue grays or dull greens, (Dark 
Green or Brown Green). In places not properly glazed use a 
wash of Apple Green or of Silver Gray, or a thin wash of the 
previously used color, this time highly fluxed. 

Plan for three fires. The first one should be very hard to 
establish a glaze, and if this is established at first the succeed- 
ing fires need not be quite as strong. If a fourth fire is 
needed it should be only that there may be a touch or wash 
of color here and there to accent a shadow or tone some color 
into harmony with the general scheme. Also some touches 
may be needed to perfect the expression or coloring of the 
faces. In fact the paintings that succeed the first careful one 
are not only to hold lights and deepen shadows that strength 
may be given to the composition, but it gives the opportunity 
to study glaze and harmony. All these points can have 
thoughtful attention and together be brought forward to a 
perfect finish. 

TREATMENT FOR CHAFING-DISH BOWL 

Helen M. Topping. 

THIS design was made especially for a chafing-dish bowl, 
although it can be adapted to other pieces. The bowl 
rather shallow, with flange or shoulder, which the border just 
fits. After sketching your design, outline the entire design 
with Dark Blue, using a touch of Black to tone, and mixing 
with turpentine only. The flowers are painted in Dark Blue 
enamel, and should be laid on broadly, giving a darker tone to 
the petals in background. For flowers use Dark Blue, touch 
of Brunswick Black and one-eighth Aufset/.weis (in tube). 
Mix with turpentine only. They should be raised slightly 
and in color a rich dark blue, as in fact should be all 
the blue used. For leaves use Apple Green, Mixing Yel- 
low, touch of Deep Chrome Green 3 B, one-eighth Aufset- 
zweis, mixing as before. The centers of flowers should be a 
pale yellow. The alternate figure is made of the Blue Enamel, 
except the terminals, which are of the Green Enamel. The 
central design is alternate blue and green, the trefoil figure 
being blue with a point of green through the center. The 
outer border is of the green enamel, the inner one of blue 
enamel, the line between being dark blue on the white ground, 
this being the only place where the white of the china is left. 
The center of the bowl is tinted all over with a soft grey tone 
(use Yellow Ochre, Brunswick Black and Dark Blue, mixing 
with Balsam of Copaiva and one part Oil of Lavender). Be 
careful that your background is not harsh in color, as much of 
the beauty of the bowl depends on the tone. If you prefer, 
you can use Marsching's Yellow Lustre for this background, 
instead of the grey. This design is suggested by the Chinese, 
and like most conventional designs, needs the colors to show 
the effect. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



1 47 




"^Ax^e^^__ (o tva^u2_^f£ 



7 MEMK 



CHAFING DISH BOWL— HELEN M. TOPPING 



148 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




POPPIES CONVENTIONALLY TREATED 

FEW realize what beautiful effects can be obtained by treat- 
ing flowers in a conventional manner. Look at a cloi- 
sonne vase for instance, decorated with Fleur-de-lis. The 
body of the vase will be a solid color, a green grey or a blue 
grey, or may be white or fawn color. The flower grows up 
from the base in a perfectly natural manner, but treated in flat 
tones with shading in simple masses, perhaps only one flower 
and bud and a few leaves on one side of the vase, the rest just 
a simple, beautiful color. There is nothing more restful and 
satisfying. Now here are two ways of seeing Poppies. The 
simple, natural drawing of the single flower by M. Verneuil, 
and the fantastic but graceful double Poppy of Habert Dys. 
M. Verneuil's drawing adapts itself perfectly to the Japanese 
treatment of a vase. Take a brown ground shading to fawn 
color, or a solid color if preferred, use two shades of green on 
leaves, stems, and buds, and for the Poppies, a pink, red or 
crimson, as preferred, or make your Poppy yellow or mahogany 
or blue if you want to. You do not have to confine yourself 
to nature entirely in a conventional treatment as long as you 
get a pleasing and not incongruous effect. You would not 
make a green flower, for as a rule green is confined to foliage, 
but if you are treating the design in monochrome you can use 
any color in the universe. In this manner of treatment you 
will need outlines. Gold will give a cloisonne effect, but 
black or any harmonizing color will be almost more interesting, 
especially if you treat the design in lustres instead of china 
colors. The Poppies by Habert Dys would make a fine border 
for a punch bowl by simply continuing the design and repeating 
it. If you wish to try them in lustres a most gorgeous effect 
can be obtained by painting the Poppies with Rose and Ruby 
for the first fire and going over them with Orange in the 
second. The Rose will then be mahogany and the Ruby 
scarlet. With these put in a few yellow and orange Poppies 
for variety and because the bit of different color rests the eye. 
Try a few different flowers in a conventional way, and we are 
sure you will be delighted with the result. 

"ARTISTIC JAPAN" 

Ph. Burty in " Artistic Japan. " 

THAT the Japanese have the true love of art, and are col- 
lectors and connoisseurs as well, is shown from a book 
describing ceremonies of the tcka-jins. These ceremonies are 
especially interesting in the volumes devoted to vases of Japa- 
nese earth, to designs of forty-seven tea-pots, to old and new 
porcelain, to Chinese cups of the tem-inoker epoch, to Sou-take 
porcelain, to iron kettles for the tclia-no-yu. 

It may be imagined of what an interest, historical, tech- 
nological, etc., a translation would be. In a partial transla- 
tion of the chapter of the forty-seven tea-pots, we read that 
the isoiin-nason (and many of them) belonged to His Majesty 
the Shogoun. A tsJioji-boro is preserved in the temples of 
Nara. The dimensions are given as well as the color and the 
thickness of the enamels. The smallest manufactures are 
indicated. 

A prince desires a piece so beautiful, so unique, that the 
dealer thinks he will keep it for his own collection. Two 
years go by; the prince returns, obtains it at the price of 
gold and sends it to a friend, etc. This partially shows to 
what an incredible degree the love of the curious prevailed 
with this aristocracy. 

Now about the tclia-no-yu itself. The primitive regula- 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



149 



tions borrowed from China under theShogounate of Yoshi- 
massa were changed. Later, Hideyoshi (better known as 
Taiko-Sama) promulgated a code of etiquette which served as 
a standard for the social observances of the high aristocracy. 
The articles had been drawn up by a favorite, Senno-Rikin, a 
great amateur of ancient pottery, who gave a direct impulse 
to Japanese keramic art. Authoritative and sensible, they 
have been, with slight exceptions, accepted by five or six 
sects down to the present day. Discussions were strictly lim- 
ited to art ; archaeology, politics, social questions and personal 
recriminations were vigorously excluded. An expert in the 
ceremonial was attached to the society, and the president ex- 
ercised a function much sought after and coveted. To judge 
from a wooden statuette, they united a modest demeanor 
with dignity, subtlety and wit. They were often poets, 
painters, keramic artists, lacquerers, sculptors, or those who 
were skilled in forging blades, or in chiselling the mountings 
of sabres. The meetings were held in a special locality sepa- 
rated from the rest of the house. Most frequently a quiet 
corner of the garden was selected, or a place in the country 
where there was a nice view, near a cascade, or where a cur- 
rent of water furnished an oxygenated stream. 

A tcha-seki comprised a room of about three yards, car- 
peted with tatamis matting, and absolutely without ornament 
other than a kakimono suspended on the wall and a bouquet 
of flowers and leaves. The guests were received in the ante- 
chamber. A cabinet {midsu-ya) contained vases for water and 
all the apparatus. The guests were not to exceed six in 
number. In the same way Brillat-Savarin imposed the rule 
for diners who respected themselves and would talk — "more 
than the Graces, less in number than the nine." Salutations 
exchanged, and the places indicated on the tatamis, entrance 
was made by a very low door, that the salutations might be 
without affectation, low. The host passed in last, and came 
out again in order to take from the midsu-ya the utensils in 
the prescribed order in a basket, pieces of charcoal of pre- 
scribed dimensions, a brush to insure scrupulous cleanliness, a 
fan of three feathers to quicken the fire, pincers, movable 
rings to lift the kettle, a box of perfumes, and a great box 
containing inkstands and papers; and, to conclude, a special 
bowl, with cinders still alive, and a stalk of metal to stimulate 
the perfumes, which covered the smell of the charcoal. 

Then the guests asked permission to examine the box of 
perfumes, verifying its age, beauty, rarity, etc. In summer it 
has to be of faience, in winter of lacquer. Tea is steeped with 
a spoon of bamboo in an earthern vase with an 
ivory cover, enclosed in a pocket of precious mate- 
rials, generally made of portions of ancient and his- 
toric fabric. An earthen pot containing pure 
water is placed on the table, also the tcha-van in 
earth or in porcelain, remarkable for its antiquity, 
and often worth a considerable sum. The emulsion 
of the powder in the boiling water is effected in the 
tcha-van by means of a small rod cut from the bam- 
boo. The bowl is carried with deference by a boy 
to the chief personage of the company, who passes 
it to the second, who returns it. It is washed and wiped with 
a fabric of silk, etc. The party separates. At the ceremony 
of tea in the leaf every guest drinks out of his own bowl. 

4? j? 




Many laws of ornament have unavoidable exceptions, due 
to the creative faculty in the mind of the artist. — Racinet. 



I ? 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




THE APPLICATION OF ORNAMENT 

A. G. Marshall 
SECOND PArER. 
) NDER the general designation of ornament, 

two great classes of design are included. 

The most primitive in idea and use is the 

geometric or purely inventive ornament. 

This form is also the structural basis or 
groundwork of all repeating patterns of the later and more 
highly developed class, where motives are natural forms more 
or less conventionalized. A third class, the purely naturalistic, 
is sometimes included as ornament, signifying statuary pictures 
and imitative carvings when designed to occupy special places 
in architectural, cabinet work or landscape gardening schemes. 
But this stretching of the term is quite apart from our present 
subject which is applied ornament, the decoration existing for 
the sake of the thing decorated instead of being the chief 
consideration, like the sacred statue in the temple or the picture 
in the gallery built to receive it. 

Good inventive ornament is based upon geometrical laws 
and proportions, and it is a brilliant illustration of the survival 
of fine things and types that even its most primitive designs 
have never been and never will be out of vogue. We may 
consider them commonplace because familiar, yet they are 
always satisfying and in good taste. The reason for this is 
simply that such designs follow the lines of the most funda- 
mental laws of our being as naturally as we build the floors of 
our houses flat and the walls upright. Fig. i shows some 



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typical primitive ornaments invented by savage and barbarian 
decorators and transmitted to succeeding races. The curved 
forms seem to have been developed latest. There is, however, 
a very definite limit to geometric or purely inventive orna- 
ment which is soon reached by fertile designers. We can 
quickly exhaust all the positions in which two straight lines 
can be placed with respect to each other, as in Fig. 2. Now 

H+TLVriyvVVVW 



while the combinations of all possible lines and angles and 
curves are probably infinite, yet the arrangements which are 
effective for ornament can be in time quite worked out, and 
perhaps were so exhausted by the Arabian and Moorish 
designers, in their wonderful textiles, carvings and mosaic 
patterns, their religion forbidding the representation of any 
natural form, even conventionalized, and confining their art to 



geometrical figures. Other peoples, not so hindered by reli- 
gious scruples, early adopted hints from nature and developed 
the conventional idea. It is an interesting speculation to the 
decorator to-day whether natural leaves and flowers first sup- 
plied the motives, the original conventionalization being an 
imperfect attempt at the imitation of sacred plants, trees, 
etc., or whether, as is far more likely, the early artist, struck 
with the suggestion in such inventive forms as the waved line 
with added branches in Fig. 1, made with a hired point, and 
the so-called primitive lotus as in Fig. 3, made with a brush, 
referred to the natural vine and flower and developed the 
" acanthus" and " lotus" ornaments from which have descended 
an inexhaustible line of decorative enrichment. Mr. Frank 
G. Jackson in his lessons on decorative design, quite con- 
vincingly illustrates this probable origin of conventional 
designs from the inventive type. 






Conventionalization is a veiy bioad lei in, including at its 
extremes such rigid, almost geometric forms as the olive 
branch, Fig. 4, from an early Greek vase, and the close 
approach to realistic treatment shown in the same motive, 




Fig. 5, as handled in a late Roman carving. In the early 
example the type can barely be recognized ; in the other it 
comes dangerously near the exact imitation of nature. Figs. 
6 and 7, from modern designs, illustrate better conventional- 




ization, Fig. 6 being as naturalistic as is often desirable, and 
Fig. 7 as conventional as may be without risk of losing the 
natural motive. The Japanese, with much more freedom of 
treatment, still keep their decorative suggestions far from the 
imitation of nature. 




rig. r. 

[TO BE CONTINUED,] 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



»*' 




NEWCOMB POTTERY 

Mary G. Sheerer 

OUR years ago there was started in New Orleans 
a little pottery, which, from the nature of its 
hopes and fears, is rendered interesting not 
alone to the lovers of beautiful things, but to 
those who are watching carefully the growth 
of true art in this country. This pottery was the outgrowth 
of a desiie of the president of Newcomb College of New 
Orleans and of the director of the art school connected with 
the college, to establish a pottery under the support and 
guidance of the college, for the purpose of furnishing a means 
by which the students of the art school could continue their 
work after completing the course of study there. In other 
words, it was hoped that it should become a real means of 
support for the advanced student, but only so far as it could 
be done without sacrifice to its educational side. 

The fact of its being under the support of the college 
would make it possible to aim for only the truest and best, and 
so it would not be forced to consider too closely the tastes of 
the public, but to follow honestly and sincerely its own prin- 
ciples. To this end it was decided that the decorator should 
be given full rein to his fancy — provided he did not overstep 
the boundaries of pottery decoration — and that no special 
style should be followed, but rather that each should follow 
his own style, making the decoration in this way more spon- 
taneous — less conventional — it was hoped. 

Also, for fear the decoration should become mechanical 
by repetition, it was decreed that no two pieces should be 
alike, but that each should be fresh-inspired by the form and 
demands of that special vase or cup. 



The whole thing was to be a southern product, made of 
southern clays, by southern artists, decorated with southern 
subjects ! There were possibilities in it. And so with these 
hopes and fears the Newcomb Pottery was given birth. 




The qualities and limitations of the southern clays were 
to be studied and used, if possible, and in addition southern 
flora and fauna were hoped to become the main spring of the 
decorations. For, parenthetically, is it not the most simple 
and unaffected thing to do to look about one for things beau- 
tiful, and not to consider it necessary to go abroad to find them ? 











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It was started with a mere handful of workers, in a 
picturesque old building in the center of the college grounds. 
One of the kilns poked its head above the roof and so was 
announced to the city that a new work was commenced. 
Other kilns were erected, and a potter who had drifted to New 
Orleans from the Golf Juan Pottery, France, was installed, 
together with an instructor, and all necessary appurtenances. 

From this modest beginning it has grown slowly but very 
surely to a well established pottery, meeting with encourage- 
ment in its sales from the people of its own city and from 
visitors from New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, etc. 
It has also been much gratified by receiving letters of con- 
gratulation from several of the important museums of the 
country. 

Prof. Morse of Boston, who is so high an authority, after 
seeing some of it at the Boston Museum, wrote the following : 

" I must express my admiration for the very beautiful 
essays of your oven. It always seems strange to me that in a 
nation of 70,000,000 of people, there were so few potteries 
worthy of recognition. With the exception of that queer 
genius, formerly of Chelsea, we have had to look to the West 
for any expression of art in pottery, and the noble attitude 
taken by the Rookwood of Cincinnati, the remarkable work 
being done by the Grueby pottery of Boston, and the artistic 
work of the Edgarton, Wis., pottery must have put to shame 
much of the pottery turned out by the eastern ovens. 

Now the south enters the lists, and in your work we have 
forms and glazes which must appeal to the critical eye even 
of the old potters of Japan. 

I congratulate you most heartily on your success and 
wish you all prosperity in your enterprise." 

Very truly yours, 

E-D.w. S. Morse. 

The Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia gave the first 
impetus to the desire for making artistic pottery in the United 
States. It was from the exhibits there of the many art 



IJT2 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



potteries from different parts of Europe, specially that of the 
Limoges pottery, that the founders of the Rookwood were 
first inspired to try their fortunes with the kiln, and since 
then the few that Prof. Morse mentions have been launched 
and many others of somewhat different nature, showing this 
oldest of the arts still lives and appeals to the hearts of people. 

There is no art more fascinating than that of the potter's- 
wheel — to see a mere lump of clay, such as one might pick up 
in the street, suddenly, as if by magic, transformed into a vase 
of beautiful form and proportion, must ever continue to delight 
the soul of man. 

From the beginning, when it is yet fresh from the potter's 
hands, bearing often the marks of his fingers, through the 
period of its decoration, through the glazing, through the fire 
tests, it is a continual source of pleasure and surprise. 

There are many mishaps in this most treacherous of 
instruments — the kiln — but there are as many more delightful 
surprises in store. The opaque metallic glazes are very uncer- 
tain in their results, but even if they are not what was 
expected they are apt to be something even finer. For 
example, put two or three vases covered with a copper glaze 
in the kiln and at one time they will come out a fine greenish 
blue, at another time other vases covered with the same glaze 
will burn to a deep red if the degree of heat should be slightly 
different. The chances involved are exciting. 

The process of underglaze painting is simple and requires 
simple, big designs and firm drawing, all of which is closely 
observed in the decoration of this pottery. But I shall not 
touch upon this side of the pottery — that speaks for itself. 




ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS 

Any questions to be answered by this department must be sent in by the 10th of 
the month preceding issue. 

H. E. B.— Could you not take a few lessons from some good Chicago 
teacher of water color and drawing? It is hard to explain just what one 
means without being able to demonstrate practically the points in question. 
Look in our teachers' directory. Never paint what you do not see, even if 
you have been pleased with the effect some one else has gotten. If you want 
a rich brown effect, put a bit of brown drapery back of your study, you will 
find it almost blue in the light and warm and rich in the shade. Where you 
want a red and warm effect use a redder background. Do not be afraid to 
have your painting of fruits or flowers melt a little into the background. 
You must not let your edges get hard. The reflected light on the fruit depends 
entirely on the color of the background. If it looked blue like the high light 
on the plums, just lift off a little color with your brush, putting in yellow 
would of course make green. In regard to the study of grapes, we are glad 
to see you taking the work seriously and drawing what you see, not what 
you know. Study your grapes more closely, they look too much like bullets. 
You will find the high lights more square and not on the edge. The grapes in 
shadow might have diagonal lines across to throw them back. The high 
spot of light on the grape usually has a dark spot below or on one side. 
Study the pen and ink work in the best magazines, or buy some reproductions 
of Fortuny's drawings or Gibson's. Thai will teach you something about 
technique, or best of all, find a good teacher for a few lessons. Any one can 
become a member of the National League who is interested in the work. 
Write personally to Mrs. Worth Osgood, I he President. You will find her 
address in the Directory. 

H. R.— The recipe for gold in the last number is a tried and reliable one. 
All possible particulars were given in that article. 

L. M. L.— The Ceramic Publishing Co. of Indianapolis advertise a deep 
rich blue such as you wish. You might write to them or to any of our adver- 
tisers. A good color can be obtained by dusting on the powder color. Use 
3 parts Victoria blue to one part purple 2. If the gold rubs off, it is under- 
fired. The bottom of the kiln is much hotter than the top, so that in the same 
firing the pieces below might be well fired and those above underfired and the 
gold rub off. Gold is more difficult to work with when old, as the oil hardens 
and also is liable to be full of dust. 

Mrs. J. H. H. — A good color scheme for the third tall jar on the back of 
the September number is as follows: Ground light brown with an all over 
net work of gold, flowers pink, painted naturalistically with green leaves and 
outlined in gold, the smaller flowers blue. The border about the neck has 
yellow chrysanthemums on a darker brown ground with green scroll work 
all outlined with gold. The base is a Chinese teak wood stand. 

E. McL. — We will put a candlestick design in the next number, also the 
simple cup and saucer designs requested. 

A. M. R.— When you wish to fire pinks three times it is best to paint in 
with Pompadour the first time, and touch up for the last fire with Carmine 3 
or Rose. Do not use greys except in large flowers, where they can be 
painted in with the Pompadour. 

Mrs. M. F. L.— We would hardly dare promise that lustre could be 
successfully used over spoiled Delft Green on a Belleek vase. If the color is 
not heavy you might experiment with Steel Blue or Iridescent Rose. They 
are opaque and might cover the defective tinting. Put on your gold again 
and give a light fire. It would be better perhaps to dust on a dark color, 
such as Black or Dark Brown, and then work out a design in white enamel, 
giving a cameo effect. Or why not shade your top with Browns, giving the 
effect of being intended, then cover with fine pale green enamel dots. This 
has been tried with good effect to remedy a spoiled Royal Green on Belleek. 
I would not run the lustre over the flowers if you try the first experiment. 

H. B.— There is no turquoise blue in lustre, the nearest color is Blue 
Grey. A dark green such as used on the Napoleon china is put up by Mrs. 
Leonard. It is called Empire Green. If this is darker than you wish, there 
is Fry's Poyal Green, a little lighter. Miss Mason also puts up an Empire 
Green. If none of these is the shade you wish, there are the lighter 
such as Coalport and Sevres Greens. You will find information in regard to 
the use of lavender with paste and enamels by reading the article on glass 
decoration in the August number. A little lavender can be used with gold for 
large surfaces, but is not good for fine lines, as it spreads. A miniature paint- 
ing on ivory brings usually a much higher price than on porcelain, because it is 
the fad, also because many prefer the ivory flesh texture. It needs more 
skill and work, but the porcelain has the advantage of being more durable 
and there is no reason why the flesh painting should not be fully as pleasing. 
We will criticize in the magazine any designs sent by subscribers, and return 
the studies if stamps are enclosed. 

Mrs. J. J. B.— A horn palette knife is best for gold, gold colors such as 
Carmines and Purples, for paste and enamels. The steel palette knife can 
be used with any of these materials, but is liable to darken or discolor them. 
The steel knife will also affect blues by making them colder in tone. 



CHRISTMAS NUMBER 




MDCCCXCIX Price 35c. Yearly Subscription $3.50 



f 



CONTRIBUTORS 

MISS IDA C FAILING * * + * ^ 

MRS. ANNA B. LEONARD .* ^ j» j» 

MR. A. G. MARSHALL j» ^ ^ j* j* 

MRS. MARY ALLEY NEAL.* j> j* * 

MISS MARY CHASE PERRY ^ j* ^ 

MRS. ADELAIDE ALSOP-ROBINEAU ^ 

MISS JEANNE M.STEWART j» o» j» 

MRS. CLARA S. TAYLOR ^ ^* ^ ^ 

MISS ANNA M. THOMAS # * * * 

MR. O. A. VAN DER LEEDEN ^ ^ ^ 

MISS SARA B. VILAS ^ j» ^ .*» ^ 
MISS HENRIETTA BARCLAY WRIGHT 



MGBZINE: 

THE: 






Copyrighted 18B9 by the Keramic Studio Publishing Co., Syracuse and New York. Entered at the Post Office at Syracuse, N. Y.. as Second Class Matter, Aug 2, 1899. 



[ The entire contents of this Magazine are cohered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted Without special permission. ] 

CONTENTS FOR DECEMBER, 1899 



Editorial Notes, ..... 




PAGE 

153 


A Few Ideas about Values, 


Mary Chase Perry 


154 


Holly and Mistletoe ( Supplement), 


Adelaide Alsop-Robineau 


155 


Plate Design— Arabian ( Supplement), 


Anna B. Leonard 


155 


Historic Ornament — Indo-Persian, 


Adelaide Alsop-Robineau 


156-158 


Indo-Persian Persian Plate Design, 


Sara B. Vilas 


159 


Cup and Saucer, ..... 


Ida C. Failing 


159 


The Application of Ornament — Second Paper cont'd, 


A. G. Marshall 


160 


The Holy Family, by Knaus, 


..... 


161 


League Notes — In the Studios, 


.... 


162 


Club News — In the Shops, 


. 


163 


Berry Bowl, ..... 


Jeanne M. Stewart 


164, 165, 167 


Persian Vase, ..... 


Clara S. Taylor 


166 


Dresden Porcelain, .... 


Anna M. Thomas 


166-167 


Blackberries in Water Colors, 


Mary Alley Neal 


167 


Design of Oak Leaves and Acorns for Tray, 


Henrietta Barclay Wright 


168-169 


For Beginners, ..... 


. 


169 


Plate Design, ..... 


Adelaide Alsop-Robineau 


169 


The Collector — Fortunes in China, 




170 


Holly Decoration for Salad Plate, 


Anna B. Leonard 


171 


Art of Pyrography or Burnt Wood Etching 


O. A. Van der Leeden 


J 72-173 


Answers to Correspondents, 


. 


174 




SYRACUSE, N. Y. 




HE STUDY of keramics, also the application of 
design, together with glazes and firing, is 
becoming more serious and far-reaching 
every year, consequently we are anticipating 
the coming exhibitions and sales with 
much interest and pleasure, expecting, of 
course, to mark this year's improvement upon'each of these lines. 

The New York Society of Keramic Arts will hold its 
annual exhibition and sale at the Waldorf-Astoria, just as this 
number comes out, and our next number will contain a 
description of it. The last exhibition was extremely beautiful 
and dignified, and it was a fair representation of what is being 
done by American decorators. 

The great need now is a market for this work: to make 
the public understand our aims and to be interested in them. 
By the public, we mean the buying public. Dealers who have 
tried to handle work done by American decorators, say that 
it is uneven and often carelessly done, that there is a woeful 
lack of originality. What an amateur would pass over lightly 
as a slight defect, a factory would not tolerate, (and sometimes 
vice versa.) Until some of our decorators study these points 
more seriously, their work will still be looked upon as ama- 
teurish — and it is from carelessness that this beautiful art suffers. 

Yet there are many decorators whose work compares with 
the finest from the other side, and it is this standard of excel- 
lence that should be seen and appreciated by the public. 
There should be some permanent place where work could be 
seen and obtained, where orders could be left and where our 
best decorators could feel the substantial encouragement of 
the people who can afford to buy good things. 

At present the studios and the club exhibitions furnish 
the only opportunities for displaying this work, and there are 
many who decorate well who have no studios. 

It is the aim of the KERAMIC STUDIO to establish just 
such salesrooms where china will be received and sold. We 
are not quite prepared to undertake it now, but the plan is 
being studied, and we hope to bring prominently before the 
buying public, work of the highest standard. There are hun- 
dreds of gentlewomen in this country supporting themselves 
by teaching and decorating, and the Keramic Studio hopes 
to be the means of finding a permanent place of sale and ex- 
hibition. 

It was with great delight that we heard a woman, who has 
very beautiful china, say, that she is making a collection of 
plates decorated by our leading artists. It is to be hoped 
that the same idea may be followed by others. 



Any of our readers, who are interested in collecting old 
and valuable china, are invited to contribute to our depart- 
ment for the "Collector," photographs and articles on any rare 
or interesting pieces they may own or be familiar with. In 
this way they may rouse a reciprocal interest that may prove 
of great value to them. 



The Reeling Figures, after Boutet de Monvel, in this 
number, are especially adapted to treatment in lustres, or they 
may be treated as black silhouettes on a colored ground, the 
drawing in the figures being carried out in the color of the 
ground. 

Everywhere is seen copying and misapplying of the re- 
ceived forms of beauty, of every by-gone style of art, with 
rarely an attempt to produce an art in harmony with our 
present needs and tastes. Can we not work into a thoroughly 
American, and at the same time, thoroughly artistic style of 
decoration ? In studying Historic Ornament, it occurs to us 
that almost every other country has a decorative style of its 
own, and, as a rule, the more barbaric, the more artistic. The 
commonplace, conventional world has a way of saying that 
artists and things artistic are, in a way, heathenish and bar- 
baric. Can we not demonstrate that we can be good citizens 
of the highest form of government and civilization, have good 
consciences, good morals and the highest refinement, and still 
have a decorative art of the highest type, at the same time 
thoroughly characteristic and American in character? We 
have myriad types of nature about us, easily adaptable- 
When we have made a thorough search over the field of 
Historic Ornament, and gathered all the honey of color and 
form and the principles that govern their combinations, then 
we can gather our own native fruits, flowers and animal life 
and form from them a decorative art, beautiful and individual 
and lasting. 

<& 

The octagon-shaped plate in the supplement was designed 
after the Arabian designs in the October number. 

In our New Year's number we will present our readers 
with another extra supplement, 1. e., a plate divider by Miss 
S. M. Wightman ; by this, one can easily and correctly divide 
any circle into 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, and 16 parts. 
We feel confident that our subscribers will consider this one 
of the most useful helps we have yet offered. 

Miss Ida Johnson writes : "Will you allow me to make a 
correction? You speak of the Indian pipe as a fungus, which 
it is not. It belongs to the Heath family, and its botanical 
name is Monotropa Uniflora. We have quantities of the most 
beautiful ones around our cottage in the mountains, and I 
keep great bunches of them growing in jardinieres with ferns 
and vines. Often they are the most exquisite shade of pink. 
It is a regularly constructed flower." 

A Japanese merchant once told me that if such potteries 
as the Rookwood were located in Europe instead of Ohio, 
American millionaires would fight for their ware and pay 
fabulous prices. This gentleman told me furthermore that 
he had orders from Japanese collectors for this Rookwood 
pottery which was regarded as something remarkable by the 
best posted men in Japan. — China, Glass and Pottery Review. 



'?4 



KERAMC STUDIO 





jV\..ft.t>i-l\Ai>r)i>tL 

A FEW IDEAS ABOUT VALUES 

Mary Chase Perry 

GREAT many questions are asked about the 
meaning of the term "values" as constantly- 
held before the student. And frequently 
the latter strives to attain results without 
sufficient theory to sustain him. A few 
suggestions are applicable to floral arrangements, either in 
mineral or water colors, but particularly in the primary studies 
made in the latter medium, to be applied later to porcelain. 
Decorations of a conventional order are a different matter and 
are free from certain of these rules, or, rather, are bound by 
certain other ones. 

In massing a composition of flowers, first try to have the 
principal points well settled in your mind. Let a good deal 
of mental effort precede the hand work, and it will seem that 
you are working out a study which you have already seen 
painted and so know just where to focus your point of interest. 
Centralize this, and make all the rest subservient to it. Let 
nothing detract from it, but, on the contrary, make all lead 
up to it. Sometimes a great temptation comes to work up 
some minor portion of the design which is not essential, but 
by yielding, the harmony of the whole is lost. Let the mo- 
tive itself be foremost in expression, so that it will hold its 
own and speak out against everything else. You will retaim 
more of truth, and a stronger quality, by keeping all but your 
principal idea back — back. 

If, in making your primary study from nature, there are 
flowers, for instance, or masses of foliage, which are uncertain 
or hard to determine, so that you hardly know what impor- 
tance to attach to them, either in drawing or tone, do not 
make the mistake of trying to puzzle them out — to give them 
form where you do not see it, or try to discern the color which 
you think it should have. On the contrary, if they seem 
subtle to you, make them subtle in your study — keep up the 
mystery — it is the essence of something too rare to define. 
Put in half a dozen colors if necessary, but keep it nondescript 
or let it melt away altogether. 

Also, if there chances to be a mass of leaves or flowers 
which are merely accessory to the main thought, in expressing 
them, do not allow them to be thrust forward. An excellent 
way is to allow the background to come right down over the 
edges, obliterating the outlines, and in this manner causing 
the masses to become a part of the background itself. Many 



hard edges make a study "papery," and a little touch here and 
there will give it solidity and pull it together. So when one 
portion joins another, or when the arrangement seems to melt 
into the background, do not think you have to clear them out 
and separate them in order to do conscientious work. We 
will gain and retain more softness in this studied carelessness, 
than by any amount of direct striving. So cherish all the 
"happenings," and if you have sufficient control over your 
materials, a certain amount of "playing" with the brush and 
color will lead to results which could not be sought with 
deliberate intention. 

Train the eye to see similarity ; to find relations which 
go from one part of the composition to another. It is not 
always necessary to use many colors, but similar colors 
repeated again and again. In this way when a strong, clear 
color is used for a purpose, it will appear as a surprise. 

In the background, put in many of the same tones which 
were used in the study proper. First find the local color and 
approximate it. Do not make it positive, but rather less than 
over positive, if you are in doubt, because clear color comes 
forward and mixed tones go back. You will find that a clear 
color introduced in a background will take the strength from 
your main theme and render it lifeless — dull. Yet if there 
chances to be much of a single color in your study be sure to 
repeat it in the background — force it, even if you do not see 
it at once. Know that it must be there just the same. If 
there is a mass of yellow in the arrangement, introduce yellow 
into the background, even if you have to smother it with other 
colors. 

Study the greens well. Know that there is little pure 
green, and if you use it so, it will jump out at you. It will 
also take the color out of everything. The writer recently 
had an experience in having a green tone put on the walls of 
her studio, and had much difficulty in deciding upon just the 
depth and quality of tone. At first a green which was fresh 
yet restful to the eye proved to be one which forced the using 
of strong colors in all the work done in the room, so that when 
the studies were taken elsewhere and away from the influence 
of the green tone, they literally screamed at one. At last 
the walls were changed to a green which appears just as full 
of color but which is in fact full of a vibrating grey and which 
does not infringe upon the color work done in the room, but 
rather supplements it than otherwise. So it is safe to keep to 
greys— yellow greys — blue greys— purple greys — especially 
the last, If you wish a brilliant result and make the brightest 



KERAMC STUDIO 



'ft 



yellow or flaming red flowers, a clear green will deaden them, 
while a grey green will keep the other colors bright and fresh. 

One is apt to get an idea that a high light to be strong 
and powerful must be a dead glare of white. On the contrary, 
a neutral tone over part of it — very lightly— will give the rest 
a sparkle which no amount of opaque white in water color or 
enamel on china would do. 

Some of these points were exemplified more radically in 
a study of a mass of violets in a green bowl. The upper mass 
of flowers and those in strong light were painted in clear Blue 
Purple— and that alone. The lower tones in the flowers them- 
selves and deeper masses underneath were more green than 
anything else, with deep brown and deep red, yet the effect 
was the purplest of purples. The bowl— that beautiful light 
green bowl — was painted with anything except green, yet it 
was the greenest thing we ever saw. In the background were 
repeated again and again a mixture of the tones in the flowers 
and the tones of the bowl, so that the clear blue purple in the 
flowers stood out and held its own with every value of its 
strength. It was because it did not have to fight against any 
other strong or positive color in the composition. It was not 
vitiated nor impaired by being used again elsewhere in clear 
tones. Every thing was kept subservient to the one strong 
centralized point, so that the mass fairly gleamed and shone 
out and was radiantly full of color as it seemed. Yet in analy- 
sis, the effect was not at all obtained by the use of a luxuri- 
ance of color-body, but rather a proper holding in check and 
restraining of lesser values, so that they would not encroach 
upon the one more important. 

So in making a mental synopsis of a study which you are 
about to undertake, decide fully upon your center of interest, 
and guard it with a jealous care. Then work with an action 
and spring and without touches of hesitation, for your 
"values" will be preserved. 

OUR SUPPLEMENTS 



HOLLY AND MrSTLETOE 

A dclaidc A Isop-Robiiicau 

THIS is a chilly season for nude figures. As one of our 
friends suggests, " It reminds us more of gladsome 
Spring when folk like to go into the rain and walk on the 
grass and get wet." However, as mistletoe grows in the 
south and comes out fresh in the Spring, we do not feel 
under the necessity of dressing our " Mistletoe " in furs, and 
surrounding her with snow, but represent her as the pale 
leaves and berries always suggest, — nude, — coming out from 
the rich, dark holly, under the warm influence of the Indian 
Summer. The figure will decorate but one side of the vase, 
the background being blended into a soft shaded color on the 
reverse. 

After the figure is painted in natural flesh tones, the tree 
in browns, the holly and mistletoe in natural colors, the vase 
should be fired. Then lay grounding oil over all but the de- 
sign, dust on Celadon halfway down, then Royal Green the 
balance of the way, blending one into the other. Clean off 
the figure and fire. Blend the green farther up on the celadon 
for the third fire, so that one color will seem to melt into the 
other, deepening the celadon if necessary. If you are careful 
you can work up the figure at the same time, giving as finished 
an appearance as possible, all over the vase. For the last fire, 
work up the figure carefully, giving it, if you choose, a wash 
of pale Apple Green in the reflected lights. Then dust Fin- 



ishing Brown on the base, blending it softly into the celadon. 
An extra fire could be used to advantage to retouch every- 
thing. The entire effect should be a harmony of rich browns 
and greens, fading into the pale celadon tints of the mistletoe. 
o o o 
PLATE DESIGN TREATMENT 

Anna B. Leonard 

THE design for this plate was suggested by the beautiful 
Arabian designs in the October number and will show 
how they may be adapted for practical use. The combina- 
tions and variations of these designs are innumerable and 
perfectly fascinating to the natural born decorator. 

This plate was purchased from M. T. Wynne's, and has 
always appealed to the writer as particularly well adapted to 
an oriental style of decoration, or else to something extremely 
simple and quaint. Being octagonal in shape, there are four 
panels in gold and four in very dark blue, each having a design 
laid into the background with color, raised gold and enamels. 

The design is first carefully and delicately drawn in India 
ink, then the raised paste is the next step, the design being 
followed in wire-like lines, or small dots in some of the figures. 
The ornament in the center of the blue panels is gold, having 
a ruby spot in the center (German Ruby Purple, and Lacroix 
Rose Pompadour, half and half), and a light green spot of 
color on the upper part of the gold ornament. The gold or- 
nament is then surrounded by turquoise blue enamel dots. 

The dark blue panel is made in three firings, using the 
Lacroix Dark Blue, a touch of Deep Blue Green, and enough 
German Ruby Purple to make it a little darker and richer in 
tone. The center of the ornament in the gold panel is of 
green gold (add a little silver to your ordinary gold), which is 
outlined by a figure in the very dark blue color. The spot of 
color within the green gold center is the German Ruby, and 
forms the pear shape ornament, which is surrounded by a 
design in white enamel. On the gold panel is a delicate 
design in black lines, made of the German outlining black. 

The narrow border just* within the rim, or the flange, is 
composed of dark green, dark blue and ruby, white enamel 
and gold. Fill in the crescent shapes with German Ruby 
Purple, and the ovals crossing the crescents with the dark blue 
mixture. The background of this band is a dark green ob- 
tained by Emerald Stone Green (Lacroix) and Dark Green 
No. 7 (Lacroix). The spots of enamel are white. 

If it is difficult to procure the octagon plate, this design 
can be made to fit a round plate. While the colors are rich 
and glowing, the plate is exceedingly quiet in its general tone, 
but of course is very elegant in effect and suitable only for a 
perfectly appointed table as a retaining plate, or in a cabinet 
*• -f 

The oldest piece of dated glass known is an Egyptian 
amulet now in the British Museum, the date being 3064 B. C. 
Crystal glass was made and sculptured by the Persians, and 
glass-mosaic was employed by them as early as 530 B. C. 
They also invented a transparent glass varnish which they 
laid over sculptured rocks to prevent them from weathering. 
This silicious coating has lasted to our own day, while the 
rocks beneath are honeycombed by age. Long before the 
Christian era Rome had her factories established where glass 
was blown, cast, wrought, embossed and cut, and millefiori 
glass of all kinds and colors was made. Vessels, bottles, bowls, 
window-panes, mosaics, water clocks, dice, and ornaments of 
all kinds. In Murano, A. D. 1524, crackled glass was invented. 
The enamel system of glass painting was discovered in 1550. 



1 56 



KERAMC STUDIO 





HISTORIC ORNAMENT— INDO-PERSIAN 

E have here another closely allied form of 
oriental decoration, a combination of the 
Arabian and Persian, with the feeling of 
the native Indian for nature over all. 
From their highest work of art to the sim- 
plest child's toy, you will find always the 
same guiding principles, i. <?., care for general form, absence of 
excrescences, or superfluous ornament, nothing added without 
a purpose, nothing which could be removed without disadvan- 
tage. There is the same divison and subdivision of lines as 
in Arabian decoration, the difference is not of principle but of 
expression. The general repose of the decoration is never 
lost. The ornament is invariably in perfect scale with 
the position it occupies. For instance, on the narrow 
neck of a hookha, you will find small pendent flowers 
on the swelling form of the bowl a larger pattern, on 
the lower edge ornaments with ttpward tendency, at 
the same time forming a continuous line, preventing 
the eye from running out of the design. Wherever 
narrow flowing borders are used, they are contrasted 
by others, running in the opposite direction. The 
general repose of the decoration is never lost. In 
general you will find equal distribution of the surface 
ornament over the ground, the perfection of marvellous 
drawing, the exact balance of gold, color and form. 

General Rules : When gold ornament is used on a colored 
ground, where gold is in large masses, the color is darker; 
where lightly used, the color is lighter. When a gold orna- 
ment alone is used on color, the color is carried into it by 
ornaments or hatching of the ground color. When an orna- 
ment of one color is used on a ground of another color, it is 
separated from the ground by an edging of a lighter color or 
gold, to prevent harshness of contrast. Ornaments in color 
on a gold ground have a dark edging to prevent the gold over- 
powering the ornament. Large ornaments in gold on a 



colored ground have an edging of color darker than ground 
to prevent gold overpowering the ground. 

The Indo-Persian coloring, as a rule, is very similar to the 
Arabian and Persian. They use, however, more secondary 
and tertiary colors, such as mauve, olive and maize. They 
use a greater variety of colors on colored grounds, with out- 
lines of gold, silver, white or yellow separating the ornament 
from the ground and giving it a general tone. Sometimes 
they use black in low-toned combinations. Often the most 
glaring intensities of color are neutralized into harmony by a 
gold line, which unites and warms the design, blending the 
whole together like a transparent veil of gold. In this way 
they illustrate the rule that colored objects at a distance 
should present a neutralized bloom. 

There is always proportion in the leading lines of a pat- 
tern, skillful distribution of flowers over the surface, and not- 
withstanding the intricacy of the decoration, there is a perfect 
continuity of design. This fills with a plenitude of decoration 
the entire surface with profuse ornament either alike or of 
similar design, being in general a simple repetition of the same 
subject. The color of the ground, always warm and harmon- 
ious, occasionally light, more often dark, unites the design 
and is the principal agent in the general effect. This method 
of distribution, with admirable feeling for color, gives richness 
and calm, an indefinable feeling of repose, the only fault being 
the possible monotony of this powerful unity. Nearly all 
designs are taken from the floral world, conventionally treated, 
a generalized type prevails over species. The Indians are 
closer to nature than most Orientals, sometimes introducing 
animals and even human forms into a decoration otherwise 
conventional. The so-called Indian palm is frequently used 
(Fig. i) conventionally, introduced into floral designs. Some- 




KERAMIC STUDIO 



i*7 




j&UJlc^ *^£~ Pf**~f—> 



.$ 



KERAMC STUDIO 




times the various forms are treated flat, like the Egyptian 
but more often modelled slighty and rounded like modern 
western decoration. 

PLATE BY MISS VILAS 

Application This is adapted from the design No. 2. 

to Modern ^ n tne OI "ig ma l the entire surface background 

p as well as scroll is covered with a fine tracery 

** of flowers similar to Fig. 3, the dark part of 

the design being green, the medium shade brown, and the 

light part bright yellow. The entire design is outlined in flat 

gold. 

VASE BY MRS. ROBIN EAU. 

This is a simple adaptation of the design used as a head- 
ing to the article on Historical Ornament. The color scheme 
is carried out to suit your own taste, the design outlined in 
flat or raised gold as desired, the enamels colored or white to 
harmonize with your color scheme. We would suggest bright 
yellow, olive, mauve and green, with the enamels in white. 
The colors are given in order from light to dark as represented 
in the design. 




Women's ingenuity and artistic skill have scored another 
victory, this time in Boston. A young woman in that 
city has during the past year laid the foundation for a fortune 
by repairing valuable pieces of glassware, china, porcelain and 
statuary. She repaired $300,000 worth of goods in twelve 
months, and secured 10 per cent of the value of the articles 
as payment for her work. 

The young woman began by getting from a large depart- 
ment store the privilege of repairing all their broken china, 
etc., and to take orders from customers of the store. Her 
field of work broadened very quickly, and the Art Museum 
made a contract with her to repair its many pieces of shat- 
tered pottery. The lot included many rare vases and other 
articles unearthed in Europe and which often reached the 
Museum in almost a thousand pieces. Weeks are sometimes 
spent on a single article, and the utmost care and skill are 
necessary in accomplishing the work. One of the last pieces 
repaired by this young woman was a glass urn from the Nile 
Valley, which is of almost priceless value. When it came to 
the Museum it was in over 600 fragments, and great difficulty 
was found in handling some of the minute particles. It is 
now apparently flawless, and its wonderful beauty and shape 
seem never to have been marred by a single crack. Scarcely 
a trace of the mending is to be seen. 

The young woman is, of course, an artist, but she has also 
much mechanical skill and inventive genius— two necessary 
factors in such work. She uses a particularly fine cement, 
made from the albumen of eggs and mixed with evaporated 
whey. This cement resists heat and moisture, and maintains 
its strength for all time. And for her ability in this direction 
her income each year exceeds that of the Mayor of her city 
or the Governor of the State. — China, Glass and Pottery. 




M^- ^^— — -, 



HOLLY AND MISTLETOE— ADELAIDE <ALSOP-%OBWEAU 

KERAMIC STUDIO PUBLISHING CO. 



SUPPLEMENT TO KERAMIC STUDIO 
DECEMBER 1899 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



r ?9 




INDO-PERSIAN PLATE DESIGN 




CUP AND SAUCER 

Ida C. Failing 

FIRST FIRE.— Draw in design with Light Red water color 
(which does not fire out), being careful to erase every 
mark which is not wanted. Tint center of saucer and lower 
part of cup with Apple Green, to which a little Jonquil Yellow 
has been added. As a background for roses use Yellow Ochre 
padded on lightly. Paint in roses with Ruby Purple, leaves 
of Moss Green J, Brown Green, Dark Green, Yellow Brown, 
and touches of Ruby. Put golden bands on handle, and bor- 
der inside of cup. For the ruby jewels below roses, put a dot 
of paste ; when this is set, cover it with Aufsetzweis, colored 
with Ruby Purple. Then fire. 

Second FIRE.— The dark portion of saucer and cup is 



Maroon dusted on. Finish roses a deep red with Ruby Pur 
pie. Put on paste. Cover with gold. Put more Ruby enamel 
over the first and when dry, paint it on the surface with 
Maroon. Dots edging maroon are green made with Aufsetz- 
weis, Jonquil Yellow and Apple Green. Fire moderately hard 
both times. 




i6o 



KERAMC STUDIO 



THE APPLICATION OF ORNAMENT 

A. G. Marshall 
SECOND PAPER — CONTINUED. 

THERE are certain fundamental laws which must be observed 
in all conventional designing in the interest of grace 
and harmony as well as of truth to natural characteristics. A 
conventional vine must not grow in violation of nature's laws. 
Such arrangements as shown in Figs. 8 and 9 are wholly bad. 




All curving outgrowth should follow tangential lines instead of 
departing from the parent stem at cutting angles. Good 





forms would be as in Figs. 10 and 11. Fig. 12, although rigid 
and primitive, is still consistent and harmonious and well 
adapted to decorate materials or places where curves would be 
difficult to make. 




In the application of ornament there is never any ques- 
tion as to the good taste of geometric designs, provided they 
suit the space to be decorated. The eye and mind, however, 
would tire of such designs in time. Primitive designs are felt 
to be thin and cold and all geometric designs, however rich 
with color are entirely lacking in the poetic suggestiveness 
that comes with even a distant hint of nature. With all the 
wealth of invention and revelry of color that the Moorish 
designers lavished upon the Alhambra, the aesthetic sense at 
last wearies of the labyrinthine mazes of line and curve and 
longs for a breath of organic life. This after all is the essential 
charm of the highest class of design, that it suggests (but does 
not imitate) life. 

With conventionalized natural forms the question of the 
adaptability of a design to a special purpose becomes more 
complicated, and the factor of sentiment enters the problem 
in proportion to the closeness of the approach to nature in the 
motives of the proposed ornament. It would clearly be in 
bad taste to paint skulls, however conventional, around a 
drinking cup, or to embroider them upon a bride's robe 
(Fig.' 13). Yet the same 
outline with a different 
arrangement of the detail, 
conveying another sug- 
gestion, might be quite 






pleasing (Fig. 14). So the 
question of appropriate- 
ness of the natural form 
suggested must be first 
considered. Fortunately No. 1+. 

the whole field of floral and foliate ornament is not incon- 
sistent in some grade of conventionalization with most 
decorative purposes. Animal and human motives require 
much more careful adaptation, and no amount of suppression 
of nature can make hints of dogs and birds and horses and 
monkeys quite the things to wipe feet or noses upon, or to 
wear for clothing. And it is at least questionable whether 
the sum of human happiness is enhanced by the discovery of 
even conventional beasts and insects in dishes from which we 
are expected to eat and drink. When the life suggested is 
sufficiently high in grade, approaching or reaching our own 
plane, we have to behave in a measure as we would towards 
the reality. The bird and insect may be adapted for example 
to wall or ceiling decoration, the beast to chair and table sup- 
ports and the human form to situation not inconsistent with 
respect for its grace and dignity, while grotesque figures have 
their legitimate use, which, however, should never be in con- 
junction with finely formed objects or in apartments of state 
and ceremony. So again where one never need question the 
appropriateness of a geometrical design, if otherwise suitable, 
merely because it is abstract form, the idea of sentiment must 
be reckoned with in the application of all designs based upon 
or suggesting natural forms. And whatever the style, it 
should be evident that the destined use of the object, the 
place where, and the persons by whom, it is to be used, 
all have a bearing upon the appropriateness of a deco- 
ration. 

What would be ample as the ornament of a kitchen water- 
pail would hardly suffice to decorate the dining room ice 
pitcher ; the sumptuous enrichment required for an opera house 
ceiling would rest rather heavily over a nursery ; and the homely 
beautiful mug with quaint conventional figures so fitting for a 
child's use is hardly the thing to set before the Governor at a 
state banquet. The amount of labor bestowed, as well as the 
style of design should always be in proportion to the value of 
the article and dignity and importance of its use. And even 
if the labor involved in applying a design much broken into 
detail be not great still the appearance of much elaboration 
should be avoided with articles of trivial value or menial use. 
And in all cases it is better to err, if at all, on the side of sim- 
plicity of design. It may be held as a general rule that the 
value of the decoration of a fine or important object should at 
least equal the cost of the article before decorating, and with 
more commonplace objects should not exceed it. 

In adapting painting designs to curved surfaces it is 
important to see that distortion does not result. This is 
especially to be guarded against when the motives are human 
or animal forms. The old Greek vase painters did not always 
realize this, as may be seen in some examples of their work, 
where it is almost impossible to get the figures at any angle 
free from deformity. This trouble is most likely to be met 
with in adapting designs to the necks and shoulders of vases 
and all places where the curvature is abrupt. At such points 
either purely inventive (geometric) or thoroughly conventional 
floral motives should be employed as a rule, it being obvious 
that the higher animal and human forms cannot be so treated 
without becoming grotesque. Serpents, lizards, dragons and 
such animals as naturally adapt themselves to sinuous postures 
may be excepted. 




PLATE, ARABIAN DESIGN— cANNA <B. LEONARD 

KERAMIC STUDIO PUBLISHING CO. 



SUPPLEMENT TO KERAMIC STUDIO 
"DECEMBER 1899 



KERAMC STUDIO 



161 





■ 


*j 


lift i 


1 

1 


W- !Hf 



THE HOLY FAMILY BY KNAUS 



THIS study can be used altogether or in part. The little 
"cherubs" are very nice used alone. For flesh treatment 
refer to the June number of the Keramic Studio. If the 
entire study is used, dust the background with Pearl Grey, to 
which about one-eighth Blue Green has been added. In sec- 
ond fire blend Finishing Brown over it, leaving it lighter 
where the clouds are lighter, and in the third fire go over all 
with Finishing Brown, dusted on thin. Work out the fore- 
ground in greens and browns, and for the last fire go over all 
with Finishing Brown. 

For the drapery of central figure, shade kerchief and all 



white draperies with Pearl Grey, adding a touch of Violet in 
the deepest shadows. In second fire, wash a little yellow over 
high lights to take off the hard white. For the waist, make 
the drapery yellow with violet shadows; for the skirt, paint 
in violet for first fire, deepen shadows with purple for second 
fire, and finish with finishing brown in last fire. Paint some- 
what lighter than picture. 

The figure of Joseph, and the donkey, should be painted 
in browns, the flesh being painted with the brunette or dark 
effect. The whole should be a harmony in browns, the flesh 
only being in relief. 



162 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




T EAGUE There is a most interesting annual report 

NOTES ° f the Advisory Board now printed, ready for 
the members. Upon receipt of ten cents, the 
Secretary or President will mail one. This small charge is 
simply to defray the printer's bill. The report is twenty-four 
pages, and is most interesting, and is nicely gotten up. Each 
member should have one. 

There will be a meeting of the Advisory Board of the 
League held at Mrs. Osgood's residence, 402 Madison street, 
Brooklyn, November 17th. 

Schedule for circulating letters for December, carried out 
by clubs of the National League of Mineral Painters: 

New York writes to Columbus. 
Detroit receives letter from Boston. 
Bridgeport writes to Indianapolis. 
Brooklyn writes to Denver. 
Wisconsin writes to Jersey City. 
Providence receives letter from Chicago. 
Columbus receives letter from New York. 
Jersey City receives letter from Wisconsin. 
Duquesne receives letter from National League. 
Indianapolis receives letter from Bridgeport. 
Chicago writes to Providence. 
Denver receives letter from Brooklyn. 
Boston writes to Detroit. 
San Francisco writes to Washington. 
Washington receives letter from San Francisco. 

Miss Leta Horlocker and Miss Eugenie Gangloff are 
going to take a party of ladies and gentlemen to Europe. 
Three weeks will be spent in Paris. This is Miss Gangloff' s 
fourteenth trip to Europe with parties. For particulars and 
itineraire apply to Miss Horlocker, 28 East 23d street, New 
York. 

TN THE Miss Jeanne M. Stewart, who has made 

^TTTDTn^ so man y fi ne stu dies for us, has returned from 
her summer in California with about forty 
new designs of the frui' and flowers of that generous State. 
She has resumed her classes in the Marshall Field Building, 
Chicago. 

Miss Louisa M. Powe of Wells College has returned from 
her summer trip abroad. She writes that she was disap 
pointed in not seeing more in the keramic line. She repeats 
Miss Shaw's observation that good amateur or professional 
work on china is not to be seen abroad except in the factories. 
We quote a few passages from her letter which may be of 
interest to our readers: "We spent half a day at Sevres where 
the fine collection of large and important pieces, with their 
bold forms and colors, harmonized by perfect taste and long 
experience, was somewhat a surprise to one who had been 
accustomed to associate the name of Sevres with a high key 
in color ; and the admirable room where were shown many 



specimens of antique wares, carefully selected and arranged, 
afforded keenest gratification. * * * At Interlachen I 
found a great deal of the majolica made at Thun, at the other 
end of one of the lakes, between which the town stands. It 
is a coarse glazed ware, chiefly colored with a dull but agree- 
able blue, or a dull warm red, suggesting mahogany. The 
edelweiss motif is used in white raised decoration, with in- 
cised outline filled with black. This motif is found on every 
piece I noticed, always gracefully conventionalized and com- 
bined with geometric border designs. The shapes of pitchers 
and vases were extremely pleasing." 

Classes in Plastic Design have jurt been opened under the 
auspices of the Y. W. C. A., 7 East Fifteenth street, New 
York, for self-supporting women, or women intending to be 
self-supporting. The cost of tuition is merely nominal: $15 
and $10 for the entire year. Any one interested in making 
her own unique designs for underglaze would do well to look 
into this work. The teaching is along the lines of "New 
Methods in Education," by Prof. Tadd. The leading educa- 
tional society of Germany says, "One generation of American 
youth brought up under the universal application of these 
methods of education will produce the artist-artisan and your 
exports will then excel in finish, beauty and art attributes, as 
they now do in quantity and bulk." 

Miss Harriette R. Strafer has opened a studio in the 
Monroe Building, 9-13 East 59th street, and is prepared to 
receive orders in miniatures on ivory. Miss Strafer has 
studied and exhibited in Paris. She has also done very clever 
work at the Rookwood pottery, with which she was connected 
for seven years. The KERAMIC Studio wishes success to 
this versatile and talented artist. 

Miss M. Helen E. Montfort gave a studio exhibition and 
sale of her work, November 4th. Miss Pierce, who is one of 
her assistants, is doing very good work in the conventional 
designs of flowers, paste and enamels. 

Mrs. Rhoda Holmes Nichols is receiving pupils now in 
water colors. Her work at the New York Water Color Club 
exhibition is delightfully refreshing. Mrs. Mary Alley Neal 
has also a charming bit of New England scenery on the line 
at this exhibition. 

The leading keramists are all busy now in their studios, 
preparing for exhibitions and Christmas orders. 

Miss A. S. Tukey has invited friends to her studio to 
hear a " Heraldic Reading of ye Olden Time." Miss Tukey 
is making a specialty of heraldry. 

Mrs. Clara Taylor, who has just opened a studio in St. 
Louis, is returning to New York unexpectedly, and will con- 
tinue her work there until her return to St. Louis in December. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



t6 3 



(TUB One of the members of the Indianapolis 

kjtay to Club writes : "You would be delighted if you 
could see what a wonderful influence your 
KERAMIC STUDIO is having on the decorators here. We are 
in hopes of forming a small club within the club, of members 
who enjoy working seriously upon these lines, like the Atlan 
Club of Chicago." 

The Providence Keramic Club began its regular monthly 
meetings the second Monday in October. Little else was done 
at that meeting than to dispose of business matters, the 
accumulation of the summer months. The regular meetings 
are held the second Monday in each month, and are to be in 
charge of one of its members, to furnish instructive entertain- 
ment. The studio of the Secretary is open Monday after- 
noons for the members to come and work, at which time they 
criticise each other's work, thus passing a pleasant and profit- 
able afternoon. Judging by the attendance and enthusiasm 
on these occasions, the success of the plan is assured. The 
club enjoys greatly the letter exchange among the clubs of the 
League. 

The Jersey City Keramic Art Club met November 8th at 
the home of Miss Florence White, one of the members. There 
was a good attendance of members, besides several visitors. 
After the usual business, Miss Foster read a paper upon de- 
signing and water colors. Then Mrs. Rowell read an article 
descriptive of some very interesting and valuable china she 
had seen. This was followed by criticisms of the club china, 
by Miss Leta Horlocker, who awarded the first prize to Miss 
Lida Mulford, and for best water color design to Miss Post. 
This club follows the Course of Study mapped out by the 
National League of Mineral Painters. Interesting letters 
were read from Chicago and Bridgeport. 

The Brooklyn Society of Mineral Painters held its monthly 
meeting November 1st. Some time was devoted to business 
connected with the coming exhibition which occurs at the 
Pouch mansion, December 5th and 6th. The subject of the 
afternoon being '"Woman Illustrators," a paper was read by 
Miss Anderson, the first part of which was devoted to Harriet 
Hosmer and Madame Le Brun, and the second to artist pot- 
ters. The following potteries and potters were mentioned: 
Rookwood, Zanesville, Pauline Jacobus, Low Grueby, Volk- 
mar, Homer Laughlin, Knowles, Taylor & Knowles, and the 
Newcomb pottery. 

The Colonna Art Society has entered upon its third year 
of existence, and after the election and entire change of per- 
sonnel, with the exception of President, the club has settled 
down to serious work. Miss I. Frances continues to occupy 
the president's chair, while the vice-presidents each represent 
a department of art work: Mrs. A. A. Calhoun, oil painting; 
Mrs. W. O. Laughna, keramics; Miss Gertrude Bradley, water 
colors; Miss Elizabeth Piatt, miniatures; Miss Anna Segee, 
embroidery; Miss Harriet Eames, miscellaneous. Mrs. Wm. 
Richardson was elected treasurer; Mrs. Herbert Smythe, 
corresponding secretary. Mrs. C. P. Van Alstyne was re- 
tained as recording secretary. The department of keramics 
will receive especial attention. The Colonna Art Society is 
incorporated in the Federation of Woman's Clubs. 

The New York Society of Keramic Arts holds its annual 
exhibition and sale at the Waldorf-Astoria, November 22-24. 
An account will be given in the December number. 

The Chicago Ceramic Association exhibits at the Art 
Institute of Chicago, November 10-19. 1 ne Atlan Club of 
Chicago exhibits in the same building, November 21st to De- 
cember 3d, inclusive. 



F 



THE We found a delightful shop on Forty- 

etj/~wDc second street, called "The China Closet," 
oriU.ro , . . , ,. , .. r 

where there were some interesting bits of 

American pottery, and a dealer who is proud to have enough 
to so label it in large letters. The greater part of the collec- 
tion was Wannopee pottery from New Milford, Conn. The 
glazes are good, but the colors at first appear dark, but there 
was a good deal of life to them after all. We saw some of 
Mr. Volkmar's pottery there also. There were some interesting 
pitchers, good old shapes, and varying in prices from twenty- 
five cents up. There were pitchers, quaint in shape, decor- 
ated in blue and white, on which were Boston views and 
scenes. There were unique plates, and a plaque that could 
be used for a platter, which suggested a melon set. On these 
was an all-over bold design of a very red flower and very 
green leaves, so that the spots of color balanced quite evenly. 
The idea occurred, how tempting melons and ice could laok 
on this platter and how much better they would taste on these 
plates. They would be particularly appropriate for a country 
house — or a studio. These plates were from a Mettlach 
pottery (Germany), where so many wonderfully interesting 
steins are made. 

We saw some remarkably fine specimens of Nancy glass 
at Starr's, especially the pieces decorated by Galli. It would 
be advantageous to study his decorations, to note the simplic- 
ity and the adaptability of design to the shape. Our decora- 
tors use too many flowers and leaves all on one piece. In this 
instance you see, perhaps, one or two blossoms, a long sweep 
of the stem, and just enough of the leaf to preserve the 
character of the plant, all coming up from the bottom. In 
this same place we noticed a collection of Grueby pottery, 
made in Boston, distinguished for its peculiar glazes and 
forms. The color and form appeal to artists and interior 
decorators. We will give a further description in our next 
number. 

At Hert's there was an interesting old chandelier made 
in Dresden, very large and a triumph of the potter's art, the 
decorations all being in very high relief. There was also an 
ormulu table containing a portrait painted at Sevres of Louis 
XVI and his court beauties. (One of Prof. Maene's pupils 
painted similar portraits last winter and had them mounted in 
just this way.) 

In undecorated china we observed, as usual, a fine line of 
vases at Wynne's, and many novelties for the holidays. 

It will pay our subscribers to write to our advertisers for 
catalogues. 

At Bedell's there were many delightful designs in decor- 
ated dinner plates. The Coalport "namel was a bright scarlet 
on gold, whole cups and saucers being dotted with it, like 
their famous turquoise enamel. 

Burley & Co. are showing some fine shapes in vases, one 
which we shall illustrate soon, is especially fine. Burley also 
keeps several sizes of the vase illustrated in the Mistletoe 
Supplement, the original of which, however, came from Miss 
Wynne's. 

The vase illustrated this month in Historic Ornament is 
from the catalogue of Endeman & Churchill. It is especially 
adapted to oriental decoration, as the shape is thoroughly 
typical. The name of the shape is "Oriental," and the vase 
itself is easy to decorate as the neck of the vase is modelled, 
and the design is not so complicated as it appears, the divi- 
sions being marked in the china. 




For Treatment see page 167 



BERRY BOWL— JEANNE M. STEWART 



1 66 



KERAMC STUDIO 





PERSIAN VASE 
Designed and Decorated by Claka S. Taylor. 

*" •f 

DRESDEN PORCELAIN 

Anna M. Thomas 

N the 13th century the Portuguese were possibly the 
first to introduce porcelain into Europe, though in 
very small quantities, only enabling the wealthy to 
to possess it. Wood and pewter were used on 
the table by the majority. From this time many 
experiments were made to manufacture it, but with no 
success until Bottcher, a young chemist, accidently discovered 
the secret. John Frederick Bottcher was born at Schleiz, 
where his father was master of the mint. He was apprenticed 
to an apothecary, but becoming an enthusiast for the philoso- 
pher's stone — the great desideratum of the alchemists, — he 
neglected his duties to such an extent that he incurred the ill 
will of his employers, which compelled him to flee in order to 
escape persecution. At the Court of Saxony, he found pro- 
tection and patrons who supplied him with money to continue 
his studies in alchemy. Meeting with many disappointments, 
he was requested to reveal his secret in writing, which he did, 
but in so mysterious a paper that it met with the King's dis- 
satisfaction. The Count of Tschirnhausen, an experienced 
chemist in the King's employ, had such faith in Bottcher's 
abilities that he solicited the King's permission to avail him- 
self of the young chemist's knowledge, with a view to experi- 
menting in clay for the production of porcelain. 

Together they made experiments in the old castle of 
Konigstein, about twelve miles from Dresden on the Elbe, 
using clay found near there. Bottcher succeeded in produc- 
ing a hard pottery which he called red porcelain ; it was not 
porcelain, however, but a fine stoneware, having the grain and 
toughness of pottery. This Bottcher ware, as it was known, 
was produced in great quantities and variety of shapes ; it was 
reddish brown, unglazed ware, decorated by polishing and en- 
graving on a lapidary's wheel or by varnishing with lacquer. 
Later productions had a good glaze, chiefly with oriental decor- 
ation in gold and silver. 

Recognizingthe value of the discovery, the King, Augustus 
II, Elector of Saxony, encouraged him to continue his experi- 
ments for true porcelain. In 1700, shortly after Tschirnhau- 
sen's death, Bottcher accidently discovered the necessary in. 
gredient. 

As the story goes, a rich iron master by the name of John 
Schnorr, while riding through Aue, near Schneeberg, noticed 
that the hoofs of his hor^e were covered with a clay of peculiar 



whiteness. Knowing the richness of the surrounding mineral 
district, it occurred to him that this clay might prove to be of 
some commercial value, and accordingly had some examined, 
only to ascertain that he could put it to no better use than as 
a hair powder, which was so abundantly used at that time. 
It was made principally from wheat flour, which cost more 
than the new found material, commercially known, later, as 
Schnorrische Weisse Erde. It happened that Bottcher used 
some of the new powder and his attention was attracted to it 
by its heaviness. After making inquiry, he learned that it 
was a finely powdered clay, and procured more to use in one 
of his mixtures— the one which resulted so successfully. In 
analyzing it, he found the identical proportions of the kaolin. 
This Schnorrische Weisse Erde became the foundation of 
Meissen porcelain. Most rigid precautions were taken by the 
King to preserve secrecy regarding the precious clay. It was 
packed and sealed in casks by dumb persons and sent to the 
old castle at Meissen, which was used for a factory. The 
workmen were practically imprisoned. Each one was made 
to take the oath of secrecy, never to reveal it. On the walls, 
in every place, were the words "Secrecy to the grave." These 
strict measures were imposed upon every one connected with 
the factory, until Napoleon sent Brongniart, the savant and 
director at Sevres, to inspect the Meissen factory. Even then 
it was necessary to release the director from the obligation of 
his oath, so that he could explain the process. However, 
before this, despite the rigid precautions taken to preserve 
secrecy, one of the workmen escaped, and in this way factories 
were established at various places in Germany under royal 
patronage. 

Bottcher was appointed director of the factory and re. 
mained so until his death in 1 7 19, when Horoldt filled his 
place. The first color used at Meissen was the blue from 
Cobalt. Pieces were decorated in the blue and white oriental 
style but the artists soon used all colors in their decorations. 

Rapid strides were made during Horoldt's management, 
both in form and decoration. Much superior work in gilding 
was done and flowers were introduced. In 1 73 1 , the King 
himself became director and continued so until his death in 
1733, when Count Bruhl was appointed and remained mana- 
ger until the breaking up of the factory during the seven 
year's war, when Frederick the Great, in 1745, took Dresden 
and seized the royal factory, which was the properly of the 
crown, taking with him workmen, models and even some of 
the Aue clay. It is from this time that the Berlin factory 
dates the origin of its success. 

Under Bruhl's management the painting of flowers in 
miniature achieved success, also the well known May blossoms 
modelled in high relief, colored and gilded. Some of the 
best pieces were produced from [731-56. At this time, 
Kundler, a sculptor, superintended the modelling of groups, 
animals, roses, wreaths, et cetera, and Lindiner, one of the 
most celebrated artists of these times, painted birds and in- 
sects. Others made copies from Flemish artists. This is said, 
by many, to have been the palmy time of the factory, though 
fine specimens were produced during Count Marcolini's man- 
agement, which commenced in 1774. After this time the 
designs are said to have been more classical in outline and 
shape. 

Specimens of early pieces of white porcelain were reserved 
for the King and are rare. Good pieces of the work of Baron 
Busche, Canon of Hildesheim, who possessed the secret of en- 
graving or etching on white porcelain with a diamond, are also 
rare. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



167 




MARKS. 

There are three classes of marks that one sees on pottery 
and porcelain. I. Factory marks. 
2. Artist's marks. 3. Dates. These 
are either painted or scratched in the 
paste. Some marks are used only 
by the workmen to identify the work 
for payment by the piece, and are 
unimportant of course. The same 
factory used different marks at dif- 
erent periods. So a piece may often 
have several marks, including the fac- 
tory, gilders and artists. 

The Dresden factory (Dresden, 
Meissen and Saxon apply to the 
same factory) is divided into three 
periods. 1. The King's period, be- 
ginning in 1 73 1 and ending 1756. 

2. The Marcolini period ending 1 8 14. 

3. The modern period. The King in 
person, superintended the factory 
from '31 to '33, but usually this 
period is extended until the break- 
ing up of the factory by the war in 
'56, and some extend it to Marco- 
lini's time. 

The Dresden factory marks are 
usually in blue, under the glaze, and 
vary because of the rapidity of the 
workmen. The earliest mark is the 
monogram, A. R. (Augustus Rex), 
used from 1709 to 1712, on all pieces 
for royal use. The crowned mono- 
gram is found in gold. The wand 
of yEsculapius, or mark of the cadu- 
ceus of Mercury, alluded to the first 
profession of Bottcher. The mark 
was used only on pieces for sale, 
from 1 71 2-1 720, and is found on 
pieces decorated in oriental style. 

In 1712, the crossed swords, 
taken from the arms of Saxony, 
were adopted, with a dot or a circle 
between the handles to indicate the 
king's period. During the Marcolini 
period, a star was substituted. The 
modern mark is the crossed swords, 
sometimes with letters or numbers. 
The "B" between the handles was 
sometimes used during Bruhl's man- 
agement, also the letters " M. P. M." 
(Meissenu Porzellan Manufactur). 
The letters " K. P. M." (Koniglicher 
Porzellan Manufactur), are found on 
early specimens, but are rare. 

All pieces of white Dresden por- 
celain sent from the royal manufac- 
tory are marked with a cut above 
or through the swords. This ena- 
bles one to detect specimens decor- 
ated elsewhere. Imperfect pieces 
are also marked with one, two 
three cuts across the swords, accor 
ing to the degree of imperfecti 








TREATMENT OF BERRY BOWL IN BLACKBERRIES 

Jeanne M. Steivart 

LAY in berries in masses of light and shade, paying special 
attention to modeling in light tones, wiping out high 
lights with small pointed shader. Use Banding Blue and Ruby 
Purple in light tone ; same with a little Brunswick Black added 
in dark ; shadow berries in flat wash. 

Wash in a background around blossoms with Ivory Yel- 
low and Grey for flowers, wiping out the white petals, touch- 
ing in centers with Albert Yellow, Yellow Brown and Brown 
Green. In shadow leaves use Grey for flowers, Blue Green 
light. Yellow, Blue, Olive, Shading and Brown Greens, Al- 
bert Yellow, Yellow Brown, Chestnut brown and Pompadour 
are used in the leaves. 

Finish tips of leaves with Yellow and Red Brown tones ; 
stems in Yellow Green shaded with Ruby Purple. Some of 
the smaller leaves and berries may be painted with Chestnut 
Brown and Pompadour. 

In background around prominent berries use Ivory Yel- 
low, blending into Yellow Brown shading to Brown Green, 
Pompadour and Chestnut Brown on base of bowl. 

Delicate flushings on lighter side of bowl may be painted 
in Pompadour and Ivory Yellow with possibly a dash of Tur- 
quoise Green and Ivory in clouded effect. Inside of bowl 
may be painted in Ivory and Pompadour or finished in deli- 
cate shadow design of berries. In second painting strengthen 
dark tones with same colors, adding detail, keeping base of 
bowl very dark. 

BLACKBERRIES IN WATER COLORS 

Mary Alley Real 

THE centre branch of berries being of most interest must be 
the strongest in color and drawing, making the rest sub- 
ordinate to it. For the berries in this branch use New Blue, 
Aligarin Crimson, Payne's Grey and burnt Carmine, making 
some parts redder than others and keep the dark side in full 
rich tones of bluish Purple. Model each berry at first as a 
whole but be careful of the drawing, leaving out the high 
lights. When a little dry, put in crisp dark touches to form 
the tiny divisions. When entirely dry use a thin wash of 
Chinese White for the bloom of the berry. Have the leaves 
near the berries rich and dark; for this use Hooker's Green 
2, New Blue and a touch of permanent Violet. For the light- 
est tones use Lemon Yellow and Emerald Green ; use these 
colors also for stems and calyx of berries. The blossoms are 
creamy white, shaded with a grey made of Cobalt Blue, 
Lemon Yellow and Rose Madder ; also some touches of 
Lemon Yellow and Payne's Grey ; the centres of Light Green 
made of Lemon Yellow and Emerald Green; stamens of 
Lemon Yellow, Raw Sienna and dark touches of Payne's 
Grey. For the woody steins and heavy thorns use Payne's 
Grey and burnt Carmine, in some places the burnt Carmine 
alone. In the subordinate branch make some of the berries 
unripe, using Vermillion and Emerald Green. For all shadow 
berries, stems and blossoms, use Payne's Grey, burnt Car- 
mine, and sometimes a touch of Hooker's Green 2, making 
redder and bluer as needed. Lay in your background while 
the berries are still moist, so as .not to have hard edges. Dark 
bluish green mars the berries. Shade off to light blue, green 
and yellow, running the background over some of the leaves 
and berries to give proper perspective. Background colors, 
Payne's Grey, Burnt Carmine, Hooker's Green 2, Cobalt and 
Lemon Yellow. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 







I 



g 

1 



o 

g 

5S 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



169 



T 



DESIGN OF OAK LEAVES AND ACORNS FOR TRAY 

Miss Henrietta Barclay Wright 

HIS design may also be adapted to a smoking set. Use 
the following colors : 

Yellow Ochre ] Blood Red ) Bischoff Qr 

Yellow Brown I Dresden White Rose j J 

Sepia Brown Brown Green ) Lacroix 

Dark Brown J Moss Green j 
Purple Brown, Bischoff 

FOR BEGINNERS 

WE published a chart of corresponding colors of different 
makes, in our June number, which will be of the 
greatest assistance when following out the treatments of the 
various designs given by the numerous artists. Each decora- 
tor has a pet set of color?, and while they are practically the 
same thing, the names are different and cause some confusion. 

If there is any trouble with your enamel "crawling" or 
separating, go over it again, filling in the cracks and crevices 
until a smooth surface is obtained, and you will have perfect 
success when it is refired. 

If your gold rubs off after firing do not continue the bur- 
nishing, but fire it again, and fire harder. 

If your gold refuses to mix with turpentine, use lavender 
oil. 



German Yellow Green No. 8, in powder form, makes a 
delightful tint for a salad plate. It fires with a beautiful 
glaze and seems to have great depth of tone. 

Paste and enamel are good just as long as the material 
keeps free from dust. It is better to clean off your palette 
after using, putting the paste or the enamel in a small covered 
jar. Ground glass should be used for enamel and paste, and 
a horn knife is safer, although more awkward until one is 
accustomed to it. 

UPON looking over the field it is surprising to note the 
wonderful strides the art of china decoration has taken 
in this last few years in the country; its devotees are multi- 
plying from Maine to California, and from Washington to 
Florida. It is still more surprising to learn of the activity of 
the work in some of our newly acquired possessions in the 
Pacific, as evidenced by the large orders for materials received 
by manufacturers and dealers in this country. Probably the 
largest order for colors for china painting ever filled by an 
American firm was recently received by the Fry Art Co., from 
an important firm in Honolulu, being the second order from 
the same firm within three weeks. Other dealers report a de- 
mand from the same source, which goes to show that our 
wards are now looking to us to provide for their wants in this 
as in other lines, instead of relying as heretofore upon Eng- 
land, Germany and France. 




PLATE DESIGN— ADELAIDE ALSOP-ROBINEAU 



TREAT this simple little design in White enamel and Gold, 
with an edge of Light Green or Grey lustre. Paint the 
stems, leaves and centers of flowers and put a touch of Light 
Green enamel on leaves, and Yellow enamel on centers. 
Shade the centers with Yellow Brown. 



Use Aufsetzweis in tubes, adding an eighth of flux. 
Apple Green and Orange Yellow will make the desired 
tints for the enamels. 

Mix the Aufsetzweis with Lavender oil and if it seems 
oily, breathe on it a little and it will model beautifully. 



170 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



THE COLLECTOR 



FORTUNES IN CHINA 

The Rothschilds, the Queen and Lord Dudley own 
between them most of the finest Sevres ware in England. 

The most famous of Lord Dudley's Sevres is a garniture 
de cheminee for which he gave $50,000, and it is said that a 
housemaid broke one of the pieces the day after its arrival at 
Dudley house. Lord Dudley a few years ago had a sale of 
some of his porcelains. 

The collection of Pompadour and Dubarry Sevres, as it is 
sometimes styled, in the possession of Queen Victoiia has 
been valued by experts at much over a quarter of a million 
dollars. And yet there are only a small number of pieces; 
these are displayed at Windsor Castle in the long gallery, 
where her Majesty usually receives her guests before dinner. 
One and one-half million dollars is said to be the value of the 
Queen's porcelain. 

The value of old Sevres porcelain is enhanced by the 
fact that ever since the foundation of the factory an exact 
register has been kept of all sales. Probably the most exten- 
sive sale ever made was that in 1778, to the Empress Catharine 
of Russia, who paid for a service of 754 pieces a sum of $80,000, 
which is equivalent to about $200,000 at the present day. 
One hundred and sixty pieces of this service were stolen during 
a conflagration of the palace and found their way to England, 
where they were purchased by the famous collector Beckford. 
But with few exceptions they were repurchased by the Em- 
peror Nicholas and conveyed back to Russia just before the 
outbreak of the Crimean war. 

Prices that appear absolutely preposterous are given for 
Sevres china of the "Pompadour period," which dates from 
1753 to 1763 ; for that of the " Louis XV. period," which dates 
from 1763 to 1786, and for that of the Louis XVI. epoch," 
dating from 1786 to 1790. 

It is nothing — $500 or $1,000 apiece for a Sevres cup and 
saucer, or a small pail, or a plate — that is, nothing to a Roths- 
child or to royalty. 

The finest collection of Sevres in America belonged to 
Gov. Lyon of Idaho; it was sold at his death, and one vase 
was purchased by Mrs. Ayres of New York, for $5,000. 

A New York woman, Mrs. Arthur M. Dodge, has some 
Sevres plates similar to the famous Chateau plates at Fon- 
tainebleau. She has, also some delightful examples of the old 
English ware Spode, which was only made at first for royal 
and ducal families, and was a great luxury. Cabbage roses is 
a favorite pattern of the Spode ware, or some "set" pattern 
of deep blue. Mrs. Dodge has a tete-a-tete tea service of 
Spode decorated with the cabbage roses. She has some Nyon 
cups and saucers — this ware is marked with a fish, because the 
factory is situated on Lake Geneva. 

Mrs. Alfred Duane Pell is a collector of fine china, and 
several specimens of St. Petersburg ware are treasured by her. 
This is the only European factory which never sells a piece of 
china, as everything manufactured is reserved by the Czar and 
Czarina for royal presents. It was founded by the Empress 
Catharine. Some of Mrs. Pell's Russian porcelain is of a late 
date, notably a plate made in 188 1. Other treasures are 
copies of the Prince of Wales's Minton service, in use on his 
royal yacht Osborne. They bear naval designs and the three 
feathers and motto. Mrs. Pell also has copies in Minton of 
Queen Victoria's Buckingham Palace service The decorations 
are the rose, shamrock and thistle; a crown and the initials 



V. R. within a wreath of roses. Many multi-millionares prize 
Minton ware to the extent of paying $2,729 apiece for plates. 
A plate of plain gold costs just about as much. For $136.50 
one can buy a Crown Derby plate which will answer every day 
purposes. 

Mrs, Bradley Martin eats her Monday dinners from plates 
costing somewhere about $175 each; of course she has better 
porcelain than this; indeed, she possesses a large cabinet of 
china of great historical value. 

Mrs. Pierpont Morgan's choice is for Chinese porcelains, 
which are not to be compared with any others, so beautiful arc 
they, so their admirers claim. They are as thin as paper, as 
brilliant as a mirror and as sonorous as metal. Mrs. Morgan 
has many examples of that most popular of patterns — the one 
we can all talk glibly about — the willow pattern. This is on 
what is called Turner's Caughley porcelain. The romantic 
story is always a favorite, of the cruel father who lived in a 
pagoda; the armed knight, the maiden fair, an elopement, a 
stern parent in pursuit, and finally peace, plenty and happy 
days under a blue tree on the other side of the plate. 

" Royal " was bestowed upon the Worcester porcelains 
when Queen Charlotte, on her visit to the factory with George 
III, ordered a service; the pattern, by the way, for this par- 
ticular service was a lily. Mrs. William Astor's favorite por- 
celain is Worcester ware. 

Apropos of the terms porcelain and china: The latter is 
only "shopping" English, and when you become a collector 
and can talk intelligently on the subject, you forswear china 
and say porcelain altogether and all the time. It is more 
artistic and aesthetic. 

Of Dresden ware, Mrs. Joseph Drexel has a fine collec- 
tion, including many specimens of the Marcolini period — 
about 1796. Chocolate pots of different shapes are among 
the choice bits of the collection. 

Mrs. Levi P. Morton is said to have one of the most ex- 
pensive dinner services of Dresden in this country. 

Roses and forget-me-nots are the usual Dresden patterns. 
The mark is two crossed swords in blue. 

There are but four places in the world where one can be 
perfectly safe from deception in buying Dresden porcelain; 
these are: the salesroom connected with the factory, the royal 
porcelain depots in Leipsic and in Dresden, and a small shop, 
also in Dresden, which is permitted to keep defective pieces 
for sale. Once a year there is an auction somewhere in Sax- 
ony where defective specimens — "schnitz" — can be procured. 
In all, five places, where you are sure of what you are pur- 
chasing. 

In regard to the White House china; that ordered by 
Mrs. Hayes in 1879 was tne m ost elaborate and expensive, 
costing $15,000, which was paid by the Government. A few 
duplicate sets were made of this china. During Lincoln's 
time two sets of china were made for the White House. 
Sixty-one pieces of one service now belong to Mrs. Dickins. 
Pieces of both sets have been scattered among public and pri. 
vate collectors throughout this country and Europe. — Chicago 
Record. 




KERAMIC STUDIO 



171 




HOLLY DECORATION FOR SALAD PLATE— ANNA B. LEONARD 



THIS is a very simple design and may be treated in various 
ways. The dark band is intended to be of gold, with 
the effect of the holly leaves and berries being inlaid (or the 
berries may be in red enamel.) Draw the design in India ink 
then dust on the wide band, using the German Yellow Green 
No. 8 (which can be purchased in powder form). After 
wiping the edges very clean, keeping the band in a correct 
circle, paint the holly leaves with the Lacroix Greens — 
Emerald Stone Green, Moss Green V, Dark Green No. 7 and 
Brown Green No. 6. (All of the Lacroix colors can be pur- 
chased in powder form.) 

Paint the berries in Lacroix Capucine Red, with touches 
of Deep Red Brown and Violet of Iron. Make a fine line of 
paste dots (or beading) between the band of color and the 
band of gold, then make the settings for the enamel also in 
paste dots. After finishing the paste work, paint on a thin 
background of gold coming up to the leaves and berries. 
Take out the Yellow Green which will come under the single 
jewels (enamel dots). There is a flat line of gold in the inner 
rim of the Yellow Green, then large dots in raised paste, 
then another line. The inner leaves are all in flat lines of 
gold. 



For the second fire, the leaves and berries may be shaded, 
and after putting on another thin background of gold, and 
covering the paste neatly, the leaves and berries must be out- 
lined carefully in Deep Red Brown (Lacroix) or the Pompa- 
dour Red (German). This outline must be strong and even, 
not thick in one place and thin in another. The character of 
the leaf depends upon this outline. The red will fire over the 
gold all right, so let the little thorny edges of the leaves run 
out in sharp touches over the gold. 

For the jewels use a red enamel, which can be obtained 
from our advertisers; it fires a brilliant scarlet. A darker 
shade of green may be used for the band, an Empire Green, 
or Royal Green. Instead of having the leaves painted green, 
they may be a dark green bronze, veined with gold, then the 
berries and jewels in red enamel, or the design may be carried 
out in raised gold, or the leaves may be in green enamels. 

The beauty of the conventional designs is that so many 
suggestions may be followed, and they are useful in that re- 
spect for class work, when one does not want two thing alike. 
Our subscribers will find the back numbers always useful for 
reference, as the suggestions and combinations from the 
" Historic Ornaments" are inexhaustible. 



172 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




ART OF PYROGRAPHY OR BURNT WOOD ETCHING 

O. A. Van der Leeden 
HE discovery of many odd and quaint 
specimens, ornamented with dots, lines, 
etc.,— the first rude efforts of a half- 
civilized people, far removed from the 
refining influences of art,— leads us to 
think that their implements must have been of a very primi- 
tive order. Their work, probably done by applying burning 
pieces of wood, or heated metals, in various positions, to the 
articles of decoration,— many examples of which may be 
found in the Ethnographical Gallery of the British Museum- 
shows little resemblance to the conceptions of Pyrography in 
the present. 

In times of early history, also, when art and conviviality 
were linked closely together, and the old European taverns 
were the places of gathering on cold winter evenings, the 
maidens seated in picturesque groups around their spinning 
wheels, weaving tales of beauty and romance to the music of 
their wheels, the weary travellers gathered around the glow- 
ing fires, enjoying their pipes and entertaining each other with 
marvelous tales of adventure, it was the wont of each to leave 
as a memento of the festive time, sketches created by their 
fancy or the tales they had discussed. 

Perchance it happened that among this large and oddly- 
assorted group, there may have been a few who, in the com. 
pany, were yet not a part of it. These, lost in dreams, -for- 
getful of the company, the place, or the fast-fleeting time, 
upon being roused, lit their pipes, by the aid of a hot poker, 
and afterward, idly toying with the instrument, traced with it 
upon the woodwork of the fireplace. In such a manner did 
the idea of sketching by fire first originate in European 
countries. The owner of a country house in England has had 
" The Legend of Sleepy Hollow " done in tin's manner with a 
hot poker, on the woodwork of a fireplace, the rich sepia tints 
being calculated to bring out the best in this beautiful tale. 

Pokers, varying in size and shape, and said to be espec- 
ially fitted for producing different effects, were sold in sets, 
but the rudeness of the implements and the difficulties attend- 
ant upon their use, owing to the inability of obtaining con- 
tinuous heat, prevented the art from becoming well known. 
Through the invention of the platinum point, this industry 
has been revolutionized, and has now attained to such a degree 
of perfection as to be classed with the arts of painting, etch- 
ing, etc. 

After becoming thoroughly familiar with the uses of the 
point, the most beautiful effects may be produced, varying 




and mural decorations, an illustration of the latter being given 
in this issue of the KERAMIC Studio. 

The implements now in general use are the point, a metal 
handle covered with cork, wood, or anything that does not 
conduct heat, a loose length of tubing, a small bottle for ben- 
zine and one for alcohol, a rubber bellows with tubing attached, 
and a forked metal stopper to which the tubings are fastened. 
Many different and much more complicated outfits are now 
made, but I would suggest that the student use the simple 
apparatus mentioned above, and shown in accompanying 
illustration. 

For decorating wood — if the student intends to do much 
work — about three points are necessary. The chief point, 
and the one with which I do nearly all my work, is a medium 
point, slightly curved (Fig. i). By holding this point in 
different positions, various lines are produced. The second 





from the rough and dark lines, to the soft fine touches of an 
etching. Of subjects for decoration, there is almost no limit, 
although the work is especially adapted to furniture, interior 



Fig ^ 

point needed is the scorching or hot air point, open at the 
end, and used chiefly for shading (Fig. 2). The third point 
a flat point, is generally used for heavy outlining and plain 
backgrounds ( Fig. 3). For leather work, I would suggest the 
use of a separate point, round pointed at the end, as shown in 
Fig. 4. 

Platinum, of which the point is composed, is a perfect 
metal, very valuable, and is the only metal suitable for pyro- 
graphic purposes, because it has the property of absorbing 
the vapor emitted from the benzine, thus keeping the required 
amount of heat in the point. The interior arrangement of 
the point is quite complicated, being composed of a very fine 
coiled platinum wire, partially protected by a platinum sheath, 
which in its turn is covered by another sheath. Amateurs 
should not attempt to discover the internal mechanism of the 
point, for it will probably prove a disastrous undertaking. 

[TO BE CONTINUED.] 

LUSTRES 

Ruby needs an extra hard fire, otherwise it will rub off. 
It is a beautiful rich color painted on twice. Used for flower 
work it is simply gorgeons, ruby alone being very effective ; 
with orange over it, the result is a deep scarlet; with green 
over it, it has a greenish opalescent effect. Ruby over silver 
makes a very rich combination, also over copper. Used thin 
or padded, this makes a prettier pink than Rose. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



i73 




PYROGRAPHIC PANEL FOR MURAL DECORATION— O. A VAN DER LEEDEN 



i 7 4 



KERAMC STUDIO 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS 



swered by this department must be s 
the month preceding issue. 



• by the 10th i 



F- L.— Your communication should have been received two weeks earlier 
in order to be answered properly in the December number, as per request. 
We rather object to the use of "fad" in connection with china painting. 
About twenty-five years ago the work was done by a few amateurs in this 
country, and we recall a conversation with Mrs. H. D. Leonard, one of the 
pioneers in this beautiful art, who says that at that time she sent abroad for 
colors, and has paid as high as a dollar a tube for colors. She was also one of 
the original members of the old Cincinnati Pottery Club, when the club had its 
meetings at the Rookwood Pottery. Just about that time Miss McLaughlin 
was making wonderful discoveries in glazes, and it was through her discov- 
eries that the Rookwood has reached its wonderful success. Then we have 
heard Mrs. R. E. Goodell of Colorado tell of her earlier experiences in keramics 
in this country, after several years study and work in Germany. 

There have been a number of kilns made by amateurs, but we believe 
that Mrs. Fitch had the first ones for sale. It might help make your paper 
interesting to write to our advertisers of kilns. It is too late to look this up 
more carefully, for this number. 

Better throw away your tray than to try to use the acid for removing the 
design. We have known a number of decorators who have nearly lost their 
fingers. It is a bad thing to have around. Your enamel dots can be removed 
by the same process, but the acid mnst be used again and again. It will 
destroy anything excepting rubber. But at the same time it removes the 
design, it destroys the glaze. The acid is sometimes convenient to remove 
small blemishes, but it is too dangerous to have about a studio. 

Monograms — We have received several requests for monograms and have 
a sheet in preparation for the January issue. Unfortunately in moving our 
office the requests were mislaid, so we would be obliged to those who wrote 
for monograms to send the initials again. 

Miss E. Mel.— We have noted your request for designs and will try and 
give them in the January issue. We are giving some simple cup and saucer 
designs in this and the next issue. You did not mention the shape of your 
salt cellars, but we would suggest a narrow tinted edge of apple green with 
ferns forming a dainty line below. 

Student— The ivory glaze, in powder form, is sometimes rubbed into the 
half dry painting before firing. It is also used freely, mixed with medium, 
in the painting itself, dipping the brush into the glaze before dipping into the 
color to be used. Copenhagen blue is like no other blue. It is a fine color to 
be used in backgrounds, but would not take the place of LaCroix azure, as it 
is too grey. It can be used for grey blue eyes, but for bright blue eyes a 
touch of blue green must be added. 

J. C— As far as our experience goes, white lustre is of no value what- 
ever, but we will experiment farther, and if we obtain any good results, will 
publish them in the magazine. We have given information in regard to ivory 
glaze in another answer. 

Mrs. A. D. W. — Lustres are padded only when a perfectly even tint is 
required. In that case, to obtain depth of color, the process must be repeated 
until the desired color is produced, otherwise they are painted on with a full 
brush, using the largest square shader, and spreading it as far as possible, 
avoiding going over the color when once on, as that will cause the brush marks 
to show. 

H. E. L. — You can modify the intensity of your Coalport green by cover- 
ing the color with tiny dots of Dresden aufsetzweis. This has been done with 
a very dainty and satisfactory effect. It would be best to make a test on a 
broken bit of china before putting a tracery of liquid bright gold over the 
green. If not too heavy a color, it would be all right, but the unfluxed or hard 
gold would be better. 

A. H. S. D. — Mr. Fry, though a valued contributor, is not one of the 
editors of the KERAMIC STUDIO. The editors' names are on the first page 
of the magazine. The Ceramic Supply Co. of Indianapolis, Ind., advertise a 
fine blue for an underglaze effect. It is in powder form, to be dusted on in 
two coats. A very rich underglaze effect can also be obtained by dusting on 
Purple 3, of the La Croix colors, and for second fire dust the Victoria blue 
over it. The La Croix colors can be obtained in powder form of Favor, Ruhl 
& Co. In painting the color on, it is rather difficult to get an even tint, but a 
mixture of La Croix tube Purple 2, one part, to three of Victoria Blue, will 
make the desired shade. In this case, put out your color on your ground glass 
slab in the proper proportions, add one-third flux, mix and add as much fat 
oil as color and flux combined, thin with lavender till it will flow on evenly 
from your large brush, with a large stippler touch lightly the uneven places 
In the second fire another coat of paint will make your color more even. Give 
the color a hard tire. 

Mrs. M. C. A.— We hope at the end of the first year to have two port- 
folios for the magazine: one in board covers and one in leather. We will 
give the prices later. 



1. We do not use the Delft blue to which you refer, but should think any 
blue of that description would work all right if properly prepared. Grind 
your color carefully on a ground glass slab, until it no longer looks grainy, 
using as a medium a mixture of six drops of copaiba to one of clove oil, then 
use spirits of turpentine in your brush for painting. We find Fry's Copen- 
hagen blue a fine color for Delft effect. 

2. If by "grounding" you mean powder colors, they can all be used for 
painting by rubbing down with the medium given above and used with tur- 
pentine. The "grounding" colors, so called, are prepared especially for 
grounds and are not always satisfactory for painting, though occasionally 
they are used successfully. Certainly a powder color can be re-applied in 
another fire if not satisfactory, always understanding that the second applica- 
tion will darken the color. If the powder color looks spotty after tiring, it is 
either because it was not evenly applied, or there was dust in it. 

3. Ruby Purple and Pompadour :— If it was spotty and of different 
hues and scaled off in places, it was unevenly applied and not well mixed. 
The best way to obtain the desired effect is to use the powder color. Dust 
on pompadour for the first fire, and rubv purple over it for the second 
fire. To dust on a deep rich color: With a large flat brush cover the surface 
to be dusted with a coat of English grounding oil, make a pad of surgeon's 
wool covered with an old piece of soft white silk, and go lightly over the sur- 
face until the oil is even and sounds "tacky." Put your powder color on a 
plate and spread a good sized piece of paper under it to catch the powder. 
With your palette knife lift all the powder and drop it on the oily surface, then 
take a large brush and brush it along until all the oil is covered. If the color 
gives out, take up what has fallen off and use again. Keep the color between 
the brush and the china, otherwise it will get sticky and spoil the tint. When 
all the surface is covered, take the remaining powder and brush it over once 
more, so that the surface is dry and dusty looking. Then brush off any- 
superfluous color, clean off the china around it, and fire. It is best to get all 
dusting done before putting on the design, as you might get the powder into 
the painting or other decoration. 

4. Your lustre was too thick if it showed the brush marks, unless you 
went over it again when dry or partly dry. If too thick, thin with oil of lav- 
ender and rely on repeated fires to make it deep enough. We should hardly 
advise padding lustre on handles. Lustre can be dried artificially, if you are 
careful not to dry so hard that it turns dark and rubs off. Powder grounds 
can be dried safely in this manner. You can safely use turpentine in gold or 
paste or painting over thoroughly dried lustre. As nearly as we can judge 
from your description, the shining or sheen of the fine gold outlines on the 
peacock feathers gave an iridescent effect to the vase. It is what is called 
a "neutralizing bloom holding the entire design together in a transparent veil 
of gold." 

C. D. E.— If rose color is underfired it should be retired at a higher tem- 
perature, whether color is added or not, as rose is a test color, and if it does not 
develop properly, everything else is underfired. French china requires the 
hardest fire, German next, English china and BtJeek need the lightest fire 
and pottery about the same. The fact that a ware has a high glaze does not 
necessarily mean that it needs a hard or light fire. 

Miss L.— The acorn design in this issue by Miss Wright could be easily 
adapted to a biscuit jar. In the January number we will give several flower 
designs which can be used as you wish. 

H. R.— The pure ribbon gold or gold leaf is the same as used by dentists. 
Ask yours where you can obtain it. The same recipe applies to coin gold, in 
which case the alloy is not removed. 

Miss A. M. E. -For dark red roses in La Croix colors, use ruby purple 
with a light wash of blue over high lights and a touch of brown 4 or 17 in 
deep shadows. 




JAN. MDCCCC Price 35c. Yearly Subscription $3.50 



f 



CONTRIBUTORS 

MISS IDA C FAILING ^ j* j» j» * 

MRS. ANNA B. LEONARD * * o» * 

MR. A. G. MARSHALL .* j» .* j» '.* 

MRS. RHODA HOLMES NICHOLLS * 
MRS. WORTH OSGOOD .*>.*.* 

MISS MARY CHASE PERRY > o» > 

MRS. ADELAIDE ALSOP-ROBINEAU ^ 

MISS ANN SHAW ■ j» ^ j» ^ j» .* 

MISS JEANNE M. STEWART > > + 

MISS SARA B. VILAS ^ ^ ^ > j» 

MISS ISABEL MAY WIGHTMAN ^ j» 

MISS M. E. WEIGHELL ^ j» ^ ^ j* 



3 2WL0NTHLY: 

UO€IZIHE: 

THE: 






:FffiER: 



C*pjrri«-ht.4. 1»»8 by the K.ramic Ht»di« Pahli.hing Co.. Syr*ev,«e and New York. Entered at the Poit Office at SyracuK, N, Y.. a* Second Cla»» Matter, Aujc 2. 1889 



[ The entire contents of this Magazine are cohered by the general 


copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted Without special permission. ] 


CONTENTS FOR JANUARY, J 900 




Editorial Notes, 




PAGE 
J 75 


Design in Bow-Knots for Breakfast Plates, 


cAnna B. Leonard 


176 


Candlestick Decoration, 


cAnna. B. Leonard . 


176 


Key to Plate Divider (Supplement) 


Isabel May Wightman 


176 


Historic Ornament — -Japanese, , 


c/ldelaide Alsop-Robineau 


177-151 


Cut Leather, 


c/lnn Shalt) . 


182 


Paris Exhibit, . 


Mrs, Worth Osgood 


183 


Tea Cup and Saucer, 


Ida C. Failing 


183 


Birds After Leonce, 


Mary Chase Perry 


184 


Chicago Ceramic Association, 


. 


184-185 


Brooklyn Exhibition, 


. 


185 


Design of Grapes for Tankard (Treatment), 


Jeanne M. Stewart 


185 


Grapes in Water Color (Treatment), 


^hoda Holmes cHichols 


185 


Tankard — Grape Decoration, 


Jeanne M, Stewart 


186-187 


League Notes — In The Studios — Club News 


. 


188-189 


In The Shops 




189 


Plate Design — Japanese, 


Sara*B. Vilas 


190 


New York Exhibition (Illus.), 


. 


19J-192 


Design for Plate, 


ffl. E. Weighell . 


183 


The Collector, 


♦ 


194 


The Application of Ornament — Third Paper, 


c4. G. Marshall . 


194-195 


Answers to Correspondents, 


. 


196 


Color Supplement, Silver Pheasant, 


. 






SYRACUSE, N. Y. 



Vol. I, No. 9 



NEW YORK AND SYRACUSE 



January 1900 




HE PAST month has been the harvest time for 
exhibitions of keramics, and we wish that 
we could have accepted the many invita 
tions sent to us from all over the country. 
It is interesting to note the general ten- 
dency of each club in the different localities 
and to watch the development of the work- 
We have letters from small clubs and letters from large 
clubs, beseeching us to emphasize certain rules that should 
govern exhibitions, and to dwell upon and particularize a rule 
against exhibiting work that has been done with a teacher. 
This is something that we cannot for a moment imagine that 
any exhibitor would do, or that any club would allow. 

The New York Society of Keramic Arts has a by-law, 
that no work that has been done under instructions, nor that 
has been publicly exhibited before, can be shown at the 
society's annual exhibition ; this makes each exhibitor stand 
upon his or her own merit, and encourages originality. 

Keramic club exhibitions will never be recognized as art 
exhibitions until there are more improved rules for placing 
and lighting, until the room has less the effect of a bazaar and 
more the effect of a dignified exhibition, governed by rigid 
regulations. It should be managed, placed and catalogued as 
are other art exhibitions, with no frivolous accessories 



We were particularly delighted with the exhibition of the 
National Arts Club, of artistic pottery and fine porcelains. 
The -simplicity of it appealed to one's artistic sense. There 
were shelves on the sides of the room, broken by three square 
standing cases, then square tables below the shelves here and 
there. The corners were cut off by cupboards, upon which 
were hung framed tiles and plates; corner seats under these 
finished the appearance of a most artistic gallery. 

Work was shown by the following artist potters : Chas. 
Volkmar, New York ; Charles Ohr, Biloxi, Miss. ; Brou wer, East 
Hampton ; the Rookwood Pottery, Cincinnati ; Grueby 
Pottery, Boston ; Dedham Pottery, Mass.; some modern 
Mexican, Spanish and Hungarian pottery. There were also 
shown some wonderful lustre placques and vases by Messier, 
France, and some work from Mrs. Rowell and Mrs. A. B. 
Leonard of New York, Miss Adams and Miss Peck of the 
Atlan club, Chicago. 

A full description will be given in our next number. 



Speaking of the last exhibition of the N. Y. S. K. A. 
Town Topics says : For some inscrutable reason the art 
world has refused seriously to consider keramic decorations, 
and some haughty ones have even unkindly made the distinc- 
tion between "china painters" and "artists." 

It is probably owing to the fact that in the beginning of 
things the woman who could paint a pretty pin tray and the 
woman who could crochet a nice tidy were of about equal im- 



portance in the art world, but that is all ancient history now. 
******* jj ie art j sts w ] 10 have developed this 
society into a distinct and important factor in the art world 
should lay aside their timidity and realize their proper value. 
They should remember that the childhood of the society 
is past and that it is high time to put all childish things 
away." 

The earnest workers in the society have felt quite as 
keenly as Tozvn Topics that we have not done ourselves justice 
this year, and the disappointment is the keener because we 
were expecting such great things in view of the Paris expo- 
sition. It is right and interesting that we should show the 
work of all members at our club meetings so that the more 
advanced can mark and assist the growth of the beginners. 
But in our yearly exhibition, if we wish to demand from the 
art world the consideration and respect we desire and deserve, 
we should have a strict and impartial jury and every member 
should feel that sense of noblesse oblige, of self-respect as a 
unit of the society that he or she would desire to be prevented 
from exhibiting until her or his work was judged up to the 
necessary artistic standard. Then when members shall be 
allowed to exhibit the privilege will be an honor worth work- 
ing for. In this way there would be an incentive to better 
work. 

We are indignant that the distinction is made between 
china painters and artists. It is our own fault. As long as 
the artists among us are willing to place their work on 
exhibition side by side with work that would have graced 
the kindergarten days of china decorating, cheek by jowl with 
work copied from other keramic workers, so long they will 
receive the cold shoulder of artists and connoisseurs. 



The National Arts Club invited its members and guests 
to meet Mr. Charles Volkmar, the artist potter, on the even- 
ing of December the ninth. 

Mr. Charles de Kay made some remarks upon Mr. Volk- 
mar's interesting work and this unique reception, it being 
perhaps the first one ever given to an artist potter by a club 
of artists. He said he took great pleasure in introducing Mr. 
Volkmar whose work had helped beautify the club house. 

After this introduction Mr. Volkmar entertained the 
guests and members with a most interesting, inspiring and in- 
formal talk upon clays, glazes and lustres and the difficulties 
as well as delightful surprises of underglaze effects. 

There being a charming and important exhibition at the 
time, of art pottery in the gallery where his talk was given, 
and also an impromptu potter's wheel with an expert potter 
manipulating the clay into form, his remarks and illustrations 
so inspired the artists there that several were heard to say, 
" I should like to get to work at once." 

This club is doing a noble work in giving exhibitions of 
the arts and crafts and it is bringing patrons and artists to- 
gether. 



1 7 6 



KERAMC STUDIO 



DESIGN IN :BOWKNOTS FOR BREAKFAST PLATES 

THESE ribbons form a simple decoration that may be used 
by the beginner. The plate is particularly attractive on 
a breakfast or lunch table of polished mahogony, especially if 
one has blue and white china. 




The design may be used upon a round' plate also. The 
ribbons are first painted in either a dull blue, composed of 
Dark Blue (Lacroix) (not Deep Blue) and a touch of Ruby 
Purple (Dresden) to give it a certain richness. After the firing 
shade in sharp touches of the same, adding the small loops on 
the edge. 

KEY TO DIVIDER 

Isabel May Wightman 

THE haste which characterizes the American people is felt 
in our studios as well as elsewhere, though possibly it 
is not noticed by the casual observer. And the interest on a 
few minutes saved, amounts to a good deal in the course of a 
day. 

To some of us the old way of finding the quarters, thirds, 
etc., of our plates has seemed too slow, so we use the new 
divider which is issued as a supplement to this number of the 
Keramic Studio. 

For studio use we suggest that it be cut out on the outer 
circle and neatly mounted on bristol-board. If it is to be 
hung up, the nearby shoemaker could be induced to put a 
metal eyelet through it at the side where no lines would be 
cut. Exactly in the center a small hole should be cut just 
large enough to admit a small sized lead pencil, or better yet, 
a piece of sharpened lead. 

The china to be measured should be placed in the center 
of the divider (the circles serve as guides) and if it is to be 
quartered, the line numbered sixteen should be found. The 
most prominent lines are marked with arrowheads so one 
would have no difficulty in finding the four desired. Or if 



eight parts are desired, the lines between the first four should 
be marked, and for sixteen a mark should be made at every 
continuous line. 

The dotted, dashed, dot-and-dash, and continuous lines 
have, marked on them, the different numbers of the sections 
into which they divide. In all, a plate may be divided into 2, 
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, io, 12, 14, or 16 parts. 

To find the center of a plate, it should be placed as before 
and divided and all turned upside-down. While it is firmly 
held the pencil or lead should be pushed through the hole in 
the center and the china marked. (Having been rubbed with 
the turpentine and dried). Great care should be taken to hold 
the pencil exactly vertical. 

Perhaps the first impression of this divider is confusing, 
but a little practice soon enables one to handle it deftly and 
so save much time. 




CANDLESTICK DECORATION 

THIS design may be readily used by beginners and may be 
treated in various ways. It will look very well in a 
violet bed room if the small daisies are carried out in the 
violet shades, with stems and leaves in the greens. Or one 
could use the flowers in color (little English daises with pink- 
tips could be used also) and the stems and leaves in paste. 

Or the entire candlestick could be tinted a certain color, 
with the design in white, or colored enamels, or raised gold. 



KERAMC STUDIO 



177 





HISTORIC ORNAMENT— JAPANESE 

HE art of ornamentation in Japan was formed under the influence of the Chinese 
so that it is as difficult to distinguish the work of the Japanese from that of 
the Chinese in the older objects of art. This is especially noticeable in the 
Satsuma faience and the Cloisonne enamel work, both of which are executed 
by Chinese and Japanese alike, only the connoisseur being able to distinguish 
by knowledge of the characteristics of the two peoples. For instance, the 
Chinese use one form of dragon, the Japanese another. Of late years, how- 
ever, there has grown up in Japan a wonderful, individual, and truly artistic 
feeling for decoration, so that no people on the face of the earth have pro- 
duced so suggestive, so true, so satisfying an art. The secret of this success 
is the simplicity and suggestiveness of their decoration, the delicacy and 
breadth of their technique and their fidelity to nature while avoiding belittling details. It is difficult 
to understand how such powerful effects can be produced by means so simple. We should carefully 
study the bold use of color and drawing, which, directed by Asiatic taste, produces such marvellous 
results. The Japanese are thoroughly in love with movement and life, and make their decorations 
fairly vibrate with the intensity of this feeling. They exert themselves to observe all the phenomena 
of creation, and produce optical effects which give the illusion of action, both design and color lending to 
this effect. This needs an extended knowledge and interest in nature, and ingenuousness backed 
by positive and scientific information. In this way the artist sees much that the average person 
passes by in ignorance. Herein lies the province and the success of the artist. His power is shown 
by his ability to recall to the eyes and heart of the world, the truths of nature which seeing, they have 
not seen, but which their souls recognize with a thrill of delight as something familiar long since, but 
eluding their grasp. The advantage of suggestive rather than positive decoration lies in this, that each 
one, for himself, discovers the meaning, rather than has it forced upon him, and to the delight of 
familiar recognition adds the prouder joy of original creation. The mind is exhilirated and stimulated 
to further growth while with a positive representation it feels that there is the end— there is no beyond. 
" The divers arts are simple fragments of the universal poem of nature." And he is the great artist 
who can gently lead us away from the prose of artificial life into the rhyme and rythm of nature 
without our knowing that we are led, for we all like the feeling of leading ourselves. 

The Japanese seem to see beauty in every form of life but the human, which is always drawn 
grotesque or mimicing some emotion. The truth is we are all too much at home with human nature 
and its attendant discords and sorrows, and the Jap recognizes that the duty of art is to lead us away 
from ourselves into green pastures where refreshment awaits us, and so he puts . before us only the 
beautiful or the amusing. 

Many of the geometric or conventional forms used in decoration are simple expressions of nature, 
we can not always interpret them because we are blind, comparatively speaking. Take the whirling 
ornament (No. 1). This movement is found in all growths on the surface of the water, the zig-zags 
(No. 2) suggest the pebbles in the current or in this case the widening circles about ducks in 
a pond. The flowing lines so often found, suggest running water. And what movement in the 
flying birds ! You can feel the wind in their feathers. Everything suggests a lightness of hand, a 















178 



KERAMIC STUDIO 





SILVER PHEASANT AND AZALEAS 

AFTER WATER-COLOUR BY PROF. STURM. 
KERAMIC STUDIO PUB. CO. 



PRINTED IN GERMANY 

SUPPLEMENT TO KERAMIC STUDIO 
JANUARY 1900 ■' 



KERAM1C STUDIO 



179 



facility of expression, a grace of manner, taste and refinement harmonious. The outlines of the cartouches are never sug- 
of color and drawing. gestive of the design enclosed, outlines of bird, fan, butterfly 

or any object are used at will. 





The coloring of Japanese decorations is something not to 
be described, there are numberless nameless shades and tones. 
When strong colors are used, they never seem glaring. The 
Japanese are particularly strong in their use of black with 
color, so as to intensify the whole, even the black seeming lumi- 
nous. In decorating a vase the Japanese follow closely the 
lines of nature — a flower that hangs from a vine in nature is 
pendant on the vase, the flower that grows up stiffly from the 
ground grows stiffly on the vase. There is never a confused 
mass of decorations, one or two flowers usually serving the 
purpose. Rarely is a background suggested, only a color that 
The older Japanese designs excel in a method of decora- suggests the background. Harmony and simplicity every- 

tion peculiar to this people. This effect is produced by geo- where. 

metric medallions (No. 3), cartouches (Nos. 4) birds or 




dragons twisted into medallions (No. 5), thrown, as it would 
seem, at hazard on a surface covered with inlaid diaper pat- 
terns, gold tracery or plain grounds, yet somehow the medal- 
lions seem to balance and the whole effect is restful and 




KERAMIC STUDIO 



PLATE BY MISS VILAS (PAGE 1 90) 
Application This is a simple adaptation of a vase 

to Modern design in modern cloisonne. The ground 
, is a soft violet grey, the birds in white and 
^ black outlined with gold. 

DRAGON VASE BY MRS. ROBINEAU 

This is a decoration in the older style. These Dragons 
make also an effective punch bowl or tankard design. Draw 
the large forms carefully in India ink, cover the top with Blue 
Grey lustre and shade the sky with the same, leaving 
the moon white ; beginning with the mountains, put on 
Light Green lustre, blending into dark green, into steel 
blue, padding lightly with a silk pad where the colors meet. 
Fire, then draw the design carefully; go over lustres again 
where necessary, put in stems of plum blossoms with Red 
Bronze, raising one edge with paste for gold ; model the 
dragons in paste and using red Bohemian glass jewels 
press them into a large dot of paste for the eyes, (they may 
crackle slightly in firing, but that will do no harm). Paint 



centers of flowers with Green lustre, shading when dry with 
Yellow Brown and Red Brown. Model the flowers with Auf- 
setzweis with }& Flux ; make three shades of pink by mixing 
Carmine 2 with the enamel; these shades with white will 
make sufficient variety in modelling the flowers. Use Jonquil 
Yellow with Aufsetzweis for the stamens. For the last fire, 
retouch where ever needed ; cover Dragons with Gold, using 
several shades; mix about }i Silver with Gold for the under 
part of Dragons. 

BIRD VASE BY MRS. ROBINEAU 

This design is suggested by the Japanese, but differs in 
treatment though not in feeling. The birds should be painted 
more broadly than the pen and ink drawing would indicate. 
The design would look well worked out in a monochrome of 
dull blues, like the Copenhagen or Delft. The clouds should 
be a light bluish grey with occasional streaks taken out 
lighter to give the feeling of driving wind. 

CLOISONNE AND KOZAN VASES 

By the kindness of Vantine & Co., Broadway, we are 






I=CE 




"DIVIDER— ISABEL MAY WIGHTMAN 
KERAMIC STUDIO PUBLISHING CO. 



SUPPLEMENT TO KERAMIC STUDIO 
JANUARY 1900 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



allowed to present to our readers a group of some of the most 
beautiful Cloisonne and Kozan vases. The suggestions for 

No. 1. Dark cream ground; poppies id red and pink, pale 

green leaves. Cloisonne i line copper wire outlines'). 
No. 2. Decoration in dullblue on white, bythe celebrated Ma- 

kudzu Ko/.an— called ECozati ware— an tmdergl 
No. 3. Decoration in blue and white underglazc. by Maklld 

Kozan. 

No. +. Wireless 

buds. 
No. o. Cloisonne; black ground 

mage. The copper wire outlir 

gold outlining. 
NO. 6. Cloisonne; grey ground ; - 
No. 7. Cloisonne"; dark blue groi 

sonis in natural colors. The " Ge 

blue kimona with a patterned fac 
No. s. Wireless Cloisonne; greyish 

Fujiyama and cloud in a lighter shad 



decoration ought to be of the utmost value to decorators. 
To enhance their value we further describe the pieces. 

No. !). Wireless Cloisonne; dull dark brown; birds in white. 

No. 10. Makudzu Kozan ; white ground; morning glories in 
pale lavenders; dull green leaves with white veins. 




JAPANESE VASES 

Ky courtesy 01 A. A. Vantine & Co., Broadway, New York, 



1 82 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



CUT LEATHER 




Ann Shazv 



HAD heard much concerning the leather articles 
manufactured at Vienna but was not quite pre- 
pared for the wonderful effects to be obtained 
by brush and tool on such materials. The num- 
erous shops one passes in the streets of Vienna, 
(to me one of the most beautiful of European cities,) contain 
fine examples of the work, but it remains for one shop on the 
Kolmahrt to surpass in exquisite design and execution all 
others in this lately renewed art. 

As the trend of the time seems to be to the conventional 
in design and the combination of Persian coloring, enriched 
by gold and occasional jewels, I find this style predominant in 
leather work also. 

The Arabs were the most noted cutters and fashioners of 
leather of the early times, using it to enrich the trappings 
that adorned the magnificent steeds whose royal service caused 
them to carry themselves and their mountings with such im- 
perial grace. The art was almost obsolete for seven decades, 
and it remained for the practical and enterprising German to 
study out and renew this useful but lost art, that is of such 
practical as well as artistic value, as leather can be used in so 
many necessary articles. These would remain plain and un- 
attractive without the added charms of decoration. The Ger- 
man who first noted the clever work on old saddles and 
leather articles used by the Arabs, obtained permission to ex- 
amine carefully some rare specimens of work exhibited in a 
museum, and from there deducted the facts that the leather 
was prepared carefully, then designed and cut with tools of 
which he knew naught.- He however fashioned from nails 
tools with which he experimented. After years of experience 
and hard work he died leaving a mode of handling such work 
that it (though crude) caused his efforts to be continued. 
Now one can obtain for a few florins a set of tools with which 
great results may be produced even by an amateur. The cut 
leather is considered the finest, as it can only be done suc- 
cessfully by hand and no machine work can in any way ap- 
proach it. The enameling and stamped gold is essentially 
factory work, as the machines requi.ed can not be used by 
amateurs. A wonderfully effective blotter and writing pad 
which was exhibited at last year's Salon in Paris and received 
a mention for artistic design and execution was wrought by 
a V. It was a beautiful trifle and can easily be reproduced 
by a beginner, light leather of a greenish tone shading at 
the edges to a deep cream, being used. The leather had been 
chosen with care, for its fine grain, not too thin, and was taken 
from the centre of the skin which is the best, though most 
expensive of course. A design of orchids growing from one 
corner was lightly traced, then the edges cut rather deep in 
the outline and turned by the modeling tool. The leaves 
were then veined in the same way, while the petals of the 
flowers were of very thin white kid inlaid as it were on the 
leather. The kid was tinted a bit toward the center of the 
flower with purple and at the immediate centre with yellow 
while in this latter was set by means of a gilt vine an uncut 
amethyst. The entire outline was then darkened slightly by 
means of the modeling tool being heated over an alcohol 
lamp and the tool used after the manner of a burnt wood tool. 
The background under the orchids was then stained a dark 
brownish color fading toward the top to the tone of the 
leather. The book was lined with white moray and the 
edges artistically finished by lacing the two materials together 



with a fine leather thong. They can of course be turned and 
mounted as the regular workmen do, but it gives a much 
more mechanical and commercial look to it all. Book design, 
ing in all materials has been growing steadily for the last few 
years and now one finds almost as much thought bestowed on 
the cover and its corresponding in color and design with the 
illustrations, as is given to the literary effort itself. This 
however is a different line on which I will not dwell here, but 
will speak of some useful and beautiful articles in cut leather. 
Card cases, picture frames, shopping bags, memorandum 
books, and countless other small trifles used every day may 
be fashioned and decorated with little trouble. 

Some handsome chairs ordered by royalty were of dark 
oak with seat and back of a dark brown natural colored leather, 
and the coat of arms exquisitely executed on the back, 
while the leather seat was in a conventional design very much 
raised. This effect is gained by padding the design from un- 
derneath with a cement for the purpose, which hardens and 
then keeps the leather in place, and centuries of hard usage 
can not change it when once dried and properly mounted. 

There is an interest displayed in this work and it bids fair 
to prove a very lucrative field for artistic and original workers 
and one that as yet is not over crowded, especially in our 
country. 

Vienna, September 25, 1899. 



o 



f 1? 

SUPPLEMENT 

UR supplement is an imported German study showing 
how the Pheasant can be used decoratively. This can 
be reproduced in color or lustre, and outlined in gold or color. 
It is particularly suitable for a vase or tankard. 

THE PARIS EXHIBIT 

To the Members of the National League of Mineral 'Painters : 

The following circular is addressed to the four hundred and thirty artists 
constituting the rank and file of the National League. 

The result of careful examination of contracts for space in the League's 
exhibit at Paris, and comparison of same, the maximum limit of time having 
been secured, and details of transportation settled we are now able to place 
before you these final instructions. 

The apportionment of space is necessarily your first consideration and 
your decisions will have a bearing of no small proportion upon ihe efforts of 
the Board of Managers towards justice to all exhibitors and economy in the 
use of the space allotted to the National League. 

A thorough calculation of the available space, and a well studied plan of 
arrangement of glass cases proves that we could give to many more exhibitors 
each one square foot of space. 

To make our exhibit the artistic and financial success for which we are 
striving we ask you to give us your highest support. 

If you will keep close to your heart and uppermost in your mind, for the 
next few weeks, the proper carrying forward of this enterprise in which you 
are, we believe, deeply interested, success will be ours. 

The National League contract for space is No. 25, Department of Varied 
Industries, Group XII, Class 72, running feet of Colonade n ; length of room 
in feet, 12.2-Hs ; depth of room in feet, 10.7 ; wall space, 299 square feet. 

RULES iND SUGGESTIONS I-OK EXHIBITORS AND JUDGES. 

As the contracts for individual exhibitors for the Paris Exposition call for such 
unequal divisions of space the Advisory Board believes that it will be more just to 
those having smaller exhibits to make additional charges lor extra apace. Exhib- 
itors should be guided by the following suggestions from the Board before submit- 
ting pieces to their local judges : 

A registration fee of five dollars entitles each exhibitor to one square foot of 
space, and no further assessment will be made lor that amount of space. For 
every additional foot an extra ch irge of three dollars will be made. Fees payable 
upon the decision of the judges. 

Believing it to be for the best interest of the League, we urgently recommend 
that the executive of each club interest themselves personally in obtaining the best 
representative work of their club to place before the jury of selection. The Com- 
missioners suggest that a small but choice exhibit would reflect more credit to the 
League than a larger one, in which the lines were not so closely drawn. 

The judges are instructed to show a preference to all pieces decorated on Anier 



KERAMC STUDIO 



183 



ican ware. Do not present large pretentious pieces, unless they possess the highest 
artistic average of the League standard. Figure work should be original and of a 
purely decorative character. No copies of French pictures except those of rare 
merit, will be passed under any consideration. Simplicity, or such treatment of the 
decoration which is in harmony with the form or shape of the ware, will receive the 
preference in every case. Frames surrounding panels or plaques must be plain in 
character, not more than two inches in width, and of adarkdull wood finish. The 
ardent desire of the executive officers of the National League is to place this exhibi- 
tion on the highest standard, and show our superiority over European commercial 
productions. 

A correct list of china selected by the local judges must be sent to Mrs. Worth 
Osgood, 402 Madison street, Brooklyn, N. Y., by January 5. It is important that 
each secretary keep a duplicate list of her club's exhibit. No piece of china will be 
exhibited unless marked on the underside with the name and address of the owner, 
and the name of the club of which the owner is a member. The price should also' be 
plainly indicated. Each case of china must contain a list of contents, 

A notice of shipment and railroad receipt for same must be sent to Mrs. Worth 



Osgood, 402 Madison street, Brooklyn, N. Y. All shipping charges must be pre- 
paid to New York. Notices will be sent to all exhibitors of the arrival of their ex- 
hibit in New York. The League's custody of the exhibits commences with their 
arrival in New York, and ceases with their return to this port at the close of the 
Exposition. The chairman of exhibition, Mrs. M.L.Wagner, will report to the 
clubs upon the arrival and installation in Paris of the exhibit. 

If photographs of the installed exhibit is desired, application may be made to 
Mrs. M. L. Wagner, N. L. M. P., Department of Varied Industries, Paris Exposi- 
tion, Paris, France. Cards of uniform size, color and quality, bearing the name 
'and address of each exhibitor will be provided by the League and placed with their 
respective exhibits. Cards or tags for marking all cases for shipment will be sent 
exhibitors from the U. S. Commission. George Sheldon, 12 Broadway, New York, 
and 303 Dearborn street, Chicago, III., under the U. S. Commission, will have 
charge of the transportation. Exhibitors will receive direct notice from him. The 
cases for shipment must reach New York by January 29. No shipment from New 
York will be made after February 1. Mrs. WORTH OSGOOD, Pkes't, 

Chairman Advisory Board. 




TEA CUP AND SAUCER— IDA C FAILING 



BODY of cup and saucer, yellow (delicate). Pansies, shades 
of yellow, yellow brown and greenish tones. Lined 
spaces delicate yellowish green. Dotted spaces green of a 
shade or two darker. Raised gold around dotted spaces. 
Lines of flat gold over green border. Jewels (enamels) of 



green and yellow set in raised gold. Handle green. Tint of 
delicate green inside of cup down to gold border. Lines of 
gold over this. Green enamel dots edging tint between 
figures. In place of the green, yellow brown (German) may 
be used for border, keeping same body and enamels. 



1 84 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



;--v n. 




BIRDS AFTER LEONCE 

Mary Chase Perry 

THE two birds which are flying are brown with red breasts. 
The heads are quite a dark brown with almost black 
markings close to the beaks and about the eyes. There are 
lighter brown and grey touches on the back and out-stretched 
wings. The breasts are a bright, strong red in front becoming 
lighter toward the back. 

The birds which are resting (page 189) have reddish brown 
heads and wings with touches of orange, and the strong lines or 
stripes are a pale grey and white. The breasts are a soft blue 
grey with the centers a strong dark blue into which the light 
feathers soften, making little wavy lines. 

In painting the birds, treat them all very softly as a whole, 
not seeking to place every feather. Rather put in the masses 
in solid color and then pick out enough to suggest the sleek 
smoothness of the back or wings and the downy character of 
the breast. At all events try not to over-paint them with too 
many strokes of the brush or too thickly, but on the other hand 
keep them constantly delicate and clear even in the dark tones. 

CHICAGO CERAMIC ASSOCIATION 

THE seventh annual exhibition of the Association opened 
November 10th, at the Art Institute, and closed Novem- 
ber 20th. Mrs. Charles L. Glass, its fourth president, received 
with the officers and members of the club. There was a strong 
jury of artists and designers of the Institute, and all work ex- 
hibited passed a rigid examination. (This is what we recom- 
mend for all club exhibitions.) 

While marking the seventh annual showing, this is really 
the first gathering of the work of the club displayed solely by 
itself as an art production. Formerly the exhibitions were 
practically sales held at the Auditorium. 

Mrs. Crane's treatment of trumpet vine lemonade pitcher 
was especially admired by the judges, so also the coffee pot, 
Turkish effect, by Mrs. J. C. Long. Mrs. Davis' American 
beauties received honorable mention, so also the exhibit of 
Mrs. Armstrong Green. 

Miss Jeanne Stewart's pitcher in purple Columbine was 
well treated. 

We quote from the criticism by James William Pattison: 

"A tall glass pitcher, sixteen inches high, is a beautiful 
article. Mrs. Cross, the artist who did it, is a glass decorator. 



This tall glass affair is nearly four times as high as its base 
perfectly plain, slightly smaller at the top and made graceful 
by vague curves. Originally it was simply transparent glass. 
The artist gave it a thin tone of color, which reduced the glass 
to translucency and destroyed the polish, Upon this is painted 
the design, a mermaid rampant. She is a very lively young 
thing and her action is well rendered. All about her are swirls 
of lines, suggesting waves and some floating sea weed. Worthy 
of all praise is the maintained translucency. The flesh is left 
in the original flat tone and no effort at realism mars the true 
sentiment of glass. The fish parts are in more solid colors to 
give value to the flesh, but never offensively insisted upon. One 
feels well that this sea maid is floating in liquid. To maintain 
the architectural dignity of the piece a band of very quiet 
design and slight color surrounds the top like a frieze. All 
this is just enough and not too much." 

The poster has taught the artists of Europe many a good 
lesson, and Puvis de Chavannes has taught more. Our deco- 
rators are learning the lesson. We turn to another case of 
objects quite different in character, but equally well and cor- 
rectly managed by Mrs. Wright. Her work is very rich and still 
dignified, very colorful and yet quiet and harmonious. Several 
tall vases, with slender stem and of round foot, are made elabo- 
rate and precious while still maintaining their original char- 
acter. One of them has a broad frieze around the top with 
dark blue and deep red designs on the white surface. Below 
this decorated white band the entire object is gilded to the foot. 
The gold appears to have been semi-polished and then etched 
with acid. At the foot and slightly climbing the stem is a 
decoration recalling the dark blue and red of the top. As a 
composition, as a treatment, all this is correct and charmingly 
tasteful. 

Another painter who has produced good color and used 
simple shapes in porcelain is Miss Helen M. Topping. She 
calls her schemes of decoration Chinese, Arabic, etc., and that 
seems to mean that she has adapted designs from the orientals. 
That this is appropriately done and tastefully applied is al- 
ready worthy of much praise. All nations, in all ages, have 
borrowed from neighbors. If the borrowing finally became 
imbued with a personal or national sentiment, they had a 
right to be set apart as original. This was true of the good 
old Delft. It commenced Chinese and ended as good Dutch. 
If I were this artist I would call my ware simply "Topping." 
And the same is true of Miss Iglehart's "Egyptian." All 
this artist's work is pleasing. Of Mrs. Frazee and Miss Philipps 
the same may be said; each seems to have comprehended the 



KERAKQC STUDIO 



,8; 



true architectural problem and to have managed well the 
patterns employed and to have secured good color. 

The use of the word "architectural" in connection with 
Keramics is to my mind correct, and all the laws applicable to 
the one must govern the other. But some one may say that 
Mr. Aulich's work is charming, though he does not treat his 
pieces architecturally. This comes pretty near to driving me 
into the corner because the statement is true. However, I 
observe that this gentleman knows his art, and has good taste 
and produces fine color, which virtues are a better cloak than 
charity. If he were to apply a little architecture also, I 
think it would be very fine, as is so manifest in that same 
Dutch work borrowed from the Chinese, and indeed in the 
Oriental work in its purity. Mr. Aulich paints fruit pictures, 
not on canvas but on porcelain, and he takes excellent advant- 
age of the stuff he works with. 

I find that marks of honorable mention have been placed 

against the names of Mrs. Randall, Miss Yeoman, Miss Green, 

Mrs. McCreery and Mrs Clark. Altogether this is the finest 

exhibition that the club has ever given. 

# •? 

BROOKLYN EXHIBITION 

THE Brooklyn Society of Mineral Painters held its annual ex- 
hibition at the Pouch mansion of that city, December 5th 
and 6th. There were thirty exhibitors, a beautiful place for 
exhibition, a fine light and work that improves with each 
year. The members are all inclined to the floral decorations, 
and there was nothing that impressed one as delightfully orig- 
inal nor of an individual stamp, but there were many beautiful 
pieces, and fine manipulation of color. All the exhibitions 
this year show less of the amateurish features and more of 
the professional. 

There was a tendency towards more simplicity in the 
treatment of flowers, and we noticed that more have taken 
advantage of the decorative effect, of allowing the lines to 
come from the bottom where a tall form was used, and on 
which were applied blossoms having long stems and leaves. 

Mrs. Osgood's narcissus vase is a striking illustration of 
this decorative principle. Her handling of greens was partic- 
ularly good on this piece and also on her green salad plates, 
with a wide band of delicate green on the rim and the floral 
design coming within the green band. 

Miss Montfort had a few pieces exhibited, — small plates, 
very simple in treatment, but a good, clean cut, finished style 
about them. 

Mrs. Prince had a charming set of after dinner coffee cups, 
in turquoise blue, decorated in conventional design of gold 
and white enamel, with the base of cup (which had been 
divided by the potter) in black with a delicate design of gold 
and red enamel. She utilized the form very correctly, and 
the decoration showed thought and study. 

Mrs. Tuttle exhibited a pitcher in ruby, with gold drag- 
ons, very decorative in effect, but it would have been better 
if some bronze had been introduced into the gold. Her roses 
were well painted. 

Miss I. C. Johnson showed originality in her mushroom 
set, one could see she has studied nature. Frank Muni has 
the true decorative spirit and his enamel and paste work was 
the best there. We would like to mention others, but with so 
many exhibitions it is impossible to do so. The exhibition 
was a success financially and we congratulate the club upon its 
management and hope to see next year more of the designs 
carried out conventionally. 



DESIGN OF GRAPES FOR TANKARD 

Jeanne M. Stewart 

AFTER making a careful sketch, paint in the bunch of 
Tokays to the right in Banding Blue, Aulich's Pompa- 
dour or Blood Red, Lemon Yellow, Yellow Brown and Chest- 
nut Brown. Keep colors clear and transparent, using a thin 
wash of Banding Blue to represent the "bloom" or lightest 
tone in study. 

Banding Blue, Brunswick Black and Ruby Purple may be 
used in the blue grapes, Yellow Green in a very thin wash, 
Lemon Yellow and Shading Green in white grapes with a 
touch of Pompadour in those most prominent. 

Use Yellow, Olive, Blue, Shading and Brown Greens in 
leaves, with Egg Yellow, Yellow Red. Pompadour and Chest- 
nut Brown in prominent leaf. 

Stems in Yellow Green, Chestnut Brown and Pompadour. 
Shadows in same but lighter colors. Lay in the background 
in second fire in tone shading from Ivory Yellow to the dark 
greens or browns at base. Accent shadows, and work out 
detail with same colors as in first fire. 

In third fire strengthen background and shadows under 
prominent leaves and on shadow side of bunches of grapes, 
using a tone of Banding Blue, Brunswick Black, Ruby Purple 
and Aulich's Pompadour over blue grapes, Chestnut Brown 
and Pompadour over red and grey for flowers over white ones. 

*• -f 

GRAPES IN WATER COLOR 

Rlioda Holmes Niclwlls 

WHAT a beautiful opportunity for color effect is suggested 
by the arrangement of grapes. The bloom of the rich 
purple bunch comes in contact with the soft green of the leaf 
and then passes on to a rich red fruit with darker green leaves. 
In the right hand corner is a bunch of delicate pale green 
grapes, inclined to a little yellow in the more mellow tones. 

The fruit can be combined and rearranged in many differ- 
ent ways, for water color work. The background or general 
tone of the Jar should be of different shades of buff, broken 
here and there with a suggestive tone of the grape. The deep 
tone at the base of the Tankard should be a low toned purple 
carrying the color of the grapes down without exactly repeat- 
ing the color. The colors to use in the purple grapes are French 
Blue, Alizarin Crimson, breaking the color here and there 
with a little Hooker's Green. To give the bloom Cobalt 
Blue will generally answer. If the painting is already too dark 
for that, Chinese White dragged rapidly over will help the effect. 
The student must remember to have some grapes without a 
brilliant high light. They could not have high light and color 
at the same time. For the red grapes the same colors can be 
used, increasing the Alizarin Crimson. For the green grapes 
use Hooker's Green No. 2, a little Yellow Ochre, Cobalt Blue, a 
little Rose Madder. For the leaves use Hooker's Green No. 
2 and No. 1, Rose Madder, plenty of water and a little Cobalt 
Blue. The stems of the grapes are a yellow green. They re- 
quire to be sharply cut out to give them value and yet not too 
regular. For the ground work use Yellow Ochre, raw Sienna, 
Rose Madder and occasionally a little Blue. The base of the 
Tankard should be redder than the upper band and the top of 
the handle be redder than the lower part. The taste of the 
student will have to come into play not to make the change 
too great between the purple and the red. The smooth 
Whatman's paper, 70 pounds weight will be the best adapted 
to the subject. 



..v«v 





WSA 



For Treatment see page 185 



DESIGN OF GRAPES FOR TANKARD— JEANNE M, STEWART 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



T EAGUE The Advisory Board of the League which 

-^-—p^ held its last meeting November 25th, was well 
attended. Mrs. Worth Osgood presided. 
There were present Mr. Volkmar, who, by invitation, submitted 
an excellent plan for placing the League's exhibit in the space 
allotted to them. Miss Fairbanks of Boston, Miss Ida 
Johnson of Brooklyn, the recording secretary, Miss Horlocker 
of New York, the corresponding secretary, Mrs. Frank Baisley 
of Brooklyn, the treasurer, Mrs Vance Phillips of New York, 
the chairman of education, Mrs. Mary Alley Neal, Miss 
Montfort and Mrs. Leonard of New York. 

Several individual members were admitted, in cases 
where the parties are in cities having no clubs. The League 
does not encourage this as each individual member requires all 
the attention and correspondence that is necessary for an 
entire club. 

The Board decided to print full instructions concerning 
the requirements for packing and sending to Paris and about 
the few restrictions asked by the jury. 

The prospects are good for a creditable exhibition there, 
and the Board is most anxious to have as many of the mem- 
bers send work as is possible. There is no organization of this 
kind in Europe, and it seems a wonderful chance for American 
workers to show what improvement has been made here, and 
also the interest taken in keramics. 

Mr. Volkmar, Mr. Marshal Fry and Mrs. Leonard, who 
were appointed by the New York Society of Keramic Arts to 
select work from that Society before it passes the final jury, 
were also asked by the Brooklyn Society to act in that same 
capacity for them. 

These members offered to visit the studios in both cities, 
thinking they may find choice bits from members who have 
the erroneous idea that only pretentious pieces must be sent — 
and in consequence have held back. The time set for the se- 
lection will be the week between Christmas and New Year. 
After the work is collected there will be a final jury. 
Schedule for the circulating letters for January : 

New York receives reply from Columbus. 

Detroit replies to Boston. 

Bridgeport receives reply from Indianapolis. 

Brooklyn receives a reply from Denver. 

Wisconsin receives reply from Jersey City. 

Providence replies to Chicago. 

Columbus replies to New York. 

Jersey City receives Indianapolis October letter to Providence. 

Duquesne replies to the League. 

Indianapolis replies to Bridgeport. 

Chicago receives reply from Providence. 

Denver replies to Brooklyn. 

Boston receives reply from Detroit. 

San Francisco receives reply from Washington. 

Washington replies to San Francisco. 
A suggestion comes from the Denver Club that the 
League have cases or cabinets in each city where there is a 
club, to be placed in a prominent store where work of the 
members can be on sale. A more practical idea is for each 
club to manage its own case and sales. 



F 



THE The editors had an exceedingly pleasant 

_j„^_„ call at the studio of Mary Tromm, Fifth ave- 
nue and Broadway, the other day. Her studio 
is full to overflowing with most interesting and artistic burnt 
wood and leather decorations and furniture. We are pleased 
to announce that she will be our next contributor on Pyrogra- 
phy, giving us original designs and treatment. 

Mr. and Mrs. Sherratt of Washington gave a most inter- 



esting exhibition of their work to the lovers of keramics in 
that city. Numerous pieces were shown and all of them were 
of more than ordinary merit, being of floral and decorative 
design. Mr. and Mrs. Sherratt have recently opened a new 
studio and china art store at 608 Thirteenth street, Washing- 
ton, and it is marvelous how they accomplish so much artistic 
work outside their business routine. 

Mrs. Mary Alley Neal sent out cards to a private view of 
water colors and porcelains at her studio. Her sketches from 
the coast of Maine and her decorations in lustre show artistic 
handling. 

Mrs. H. H. Beals of Mount Vernon, New York, held an 
exhibition and studio reception December 7th, 8th and 9th. 

Madame Le Prince of New York, and daughter gave an 
exhibition of sketches and porcelains at their studio, Dec. 9th. 

Miss Candler of Detroit, who has been taking a special 
art course in the Art Institute of Chicago, for the past three 
months will reopen her studio in Detroit, January 15th. 

Mrs. Harry Edgerly and Miss McKay of Boston gave a 
charming reception and exhibition of their work, December 
1 2th. These clever workers always have something original 
and quite different from the work usually displayed in the gen- 
eral run of studios. Their work is conventional and decorative. 



(*]LUB At the last meeting of the Bridgeport 

l\rR\Y7'<; League of Keramic Arts, a pleasing program 
was presented. There was a large exhibit of 
china and water colors which was criticised by Madame Le 
Prince of New York. Mrs. P. L. Holzer read a paper on 
" The Pottery of the North and South American Indians,'' 
which was illustrated with a number of specimens. This 
club held its annual exhibition at the Atlantic Hotel, Decem- 
ber 4th to 7th inclusive. A number of pieces from this exhi- 
bition were selected to be submitted to the jury, for the Paris 
Exposition. This is a very energetic club and quite up to 
date in its management. 

The Denver Club has adopted a new monogram for its club 
stationery, designed by its president, Miss Failing. This club 
holds a Christmas sale three weeks in December in one of the 
prominent stores of that city. 

The Atlan Club of Chicago held its annual reception and 
exhibition at the Art Institute, November 2 1st. Owing to 
lateness in receiving illustrations we will give a full description 
of this artistic exhibition in our next number. These workers 
deserve much credit for their courage in carrying out the cor- 
rect principles of decorative art. Each year their work is 
stronger and more individual. Space has been given them at the 
Paris Exposition, and we will give full description of their case. 

The Jersey City Club held its last meeting at the residence 
of Miss Darling, one of its members. The League course of 
study is closely followed by this club and criticisms and prizes 
each month are given by an outsider. Miss Hannah Coggins 
acted as judge for the china in this instance. The competitive 
number of pieces not being large enough, the usual pin was 
not awarded. Mrs. Rowel read and spoke of Miss Hart, who 
recently died. 

The New York Society of Keramic Arts held its Decem- 
ber meeting as usual at the Waldorf-Astoria. Mrs. Hutchin- 
son, one of the members, gave illustrations of her enamel work 
upon metal and porcelain. Other members brought interest- 
ing specimens of old Persian and Japanese enamels, together 
with modern specimens in other wares. 

The Detroit Keramic Art Club held their annual exhibi- 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



tion and sale from Dec. 2d to the 15th. The display was well 
placed and seemed to be popularly appreciated and patronized. 
Beside this public exhibit of the club, there have been a num- 
ber of studio exhibitions, especially those of Mrs. Wagner, 
Mrs. Nasmyth, Miss Donaldson and the ladies who form the 
"Art Colony" in the Holbrook building, Mrs. Harrison, Miss 
Leonard, Miss Adams and Mrs. Wells. 

The Kansas City Keramic Club held its second exhibi- 
tion at the Midland Hotel, Dec. 7th, 8th and 9th, inclusive. 

Mr. Bischoff will receive pupils throughout December, but 
his studio will be closed during the month of January, when 
he will work out some ideas he has in mind. His late decora- 
tions show some very beautiful simple effects, several vases 
having only a flower or two to suggest the color scheme, while 
all the rest was soft back ground effect. A plaque with black 
berries hadn't a single strong color in it, so that it seemed like 
a shimmering grey, yet it was really painted in many colors in 
low tones yet with perfect values. Then there was a charming 
reproduction of a water color rose study, with pink and yellow 
roses in the fore-ground and darker ones fading into the back- 
ground. It is possible that several other reproductions may 
follow this one. 

A reception was tendered to Mrs. M. L. Wagner on the 
evening of Nov. 27th, at the Detroit Museum of Art, by the 
members of the Detroit Keramic Club and Director Grifflth 
In behalf of the Museum. It was a delightful affair and well 
attended by some three hundred of Mrs. Wagner's friends and 
well wishers. She will remain in Detroit another month 
before leaving for New York, where she will spend a few days, 
sailing for Paris on Jan. 27th. 

♦ 

JN THE The vase with bird decoration in this 

SHOPS mont h's Historic Ornament, is from the shop 

of Burley & Co., Chicago. It is a very fine 

shape and comes in three sizes, white china, the largest being 

ten inches high. 

The New York Society of Keramic Arts has decided to 
place on sale the work of its members, during" the year, with 
Mr. H. T. Wilhelm, formerly Wilhelm & Graef, who for 
twenty-five years had a beautiful store on Twenty-sixth street 
and Fifth avenue. Mr. Wilhelm is now established at 1122 
Broadway on the corner of Twenty-fifth street (the building 
also facing on Fifth avenue), as a commissionaire and buyer. 
He carries only a few samples of the very choicest things in 
porcelain and glass, but his old customers knowing him to be 
an authority on such matters go to him for his advice and 
judgment, allowing him to purchase for them. This has never 
been done to any great extent in this country, but in Paris 
this method has always been carried out by some connoisseurs 
and collectors, or men of fine taste and good judgment, who 
assist their friends or customers in selecting the proper things. 



Beautiful china is a perfect passion with Mr. Wilhelm, and he 
is greatly interested in the work of the Society and will en- 
deavor to bring it before the public, and especially before the 
New York families that have traded with him for so many years. 

Birthday cups and saucers with the signs of the Zodiac 
are quite popular now for presents. 

A very old game set which we saw was extremely decora- 
tive and not so awfully " gamey " as those birds that are 
painted with the full landscape, clouds and all. This was 
French ware and must have given the table a magnificent ap- 
pearance with all the accessories of silver and glass. There 
was a most elaborate design of gold in fine tracings all over the 
rim (not a stamped pattern, it was all free hand) and the birds 
were decoratively painted right against the white china with 
only a few branches or twigs to give them a footing. It 
was the most attractive game set of that kind, that we have 
seen, and the quaintness of it was very impressive. It was a 
surprise to learn that it was French, as one would imagine it 
old Dresden. As this number is rather a "bird number" we 
take this occasion to mention the plates. 

We have been studying the effects obtained by the Jap- 
anese in their bird decorations and it is wonderfully interesting 
to see how much can be done with these forms. We saw a 
vase on which was painted a cock with the feathers in a per- 
fect swirl of color — making an exceeding decorative bit, but 
requiring precision and great freedom of touch — a Japanese 
touch ! 

Bawo & Dotter, Barclay street, New York, have some 
fine shapes in Vienna white china, which sells for one-third 
the price of French china, and they claim fires well, also some 
interesting Cobalt Blue underglaze band china. 

La Societe Ceramique, J. Pouyat has some good placques 
of different sizes for wall decoration. A stunning posteresque 
decoration made by Henrietta Barclay Wright on one of these 
placques, will be one of our next color supplements. 

We have been using a fine color from Miss Osgood's 
studio lately. It is called Persian Red, and when dusted on 
makes a rich oriental shade. 

We wish our readers to thoroughly understand that when 
we mention any one of our advertisers we do not mean to 
have you think that the others have not just as good or per- 
haps the same things. It is only that we have had the oppor- 
tunity of personal knowledge of certain things and we hope 
to become as well acquainted with all our advertisers and give 
each one the special good word he deserves. 






190 



KERAMC STUDIO 




JAPANESE PLATE DESIGN— SARA B. VILAS 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



191 




PLACQUE— MRS. L. VANCE-PHILLIPS. 

NEW YORK EXHIBITION 

THE New York Society of Keramic Arts held its ninth an- 
nual exhibition November 22d to 24th, inclusive, at the 
Waldorf Astoria. 

The general verdict was that " the best work was better 
and the poor work was worse." This is judging from the 
very highest standard and not as we looked upon the art ten 
years ago. 

We pronounce the exhibition better than the year pre- 
vious, although several of the exhibits (to put it mildly) were 
disappointing, showing an extreme contrast between the good 
and the bad, but considering that there was no jury and that 
each member exhibited what he or she pleased, it is quite 
surprising that there was not more of the reallv bad, showing 
that the standard is perhaps higher with each exhibitor. 
There was an improvement in the finish of the work and in 
the firing, and many of the exhibitions showed better designs 
than formerly. 

The entire exhibit suffered from the poor lighting of the 
room. A soft, beautiful light, that is very becoming in the 
ball room, is hardly the light that brings out the full beauty 
and the detail of delicate porcelaines. Colors and effects were 
entirely lost. The society appreciates this and hopes in an- 
other year to surmount that difficulty. 

The most active members have studied seriously, and 
their work shows it, yet at the same time they are held back by 
others who still cling to the stupid ideas of " china painting " 
instead of "china decoration." 

However, the policy of the club is to be lenient and to 
lend a helping hand to those who want to join, hoping that 
each member will study and improve, and some day be a credit 
to the club. Whether this is the best policy for the reputa- 
tion of the society remains to be seen. There are many mem- 
bers who cling to high standards, and recommend having a 
jury; 

There were dozens of decorators who came to the city to 



attend the exhibition from Boston, Philadelphia and from the 
smaller towns of New England, and this alone is a pleasant 
feature. 

Mr. Bischoff's work attracted much attention and there 
were various opinions of it ; the light being poor it hardly 
showed to advantage, but he still evinces a vigorous handling 
of color. His nasturtion vase was tremendous in color, which 
was enhanced by a superb glaze, but we did not like the dark 
color on the neck of the vase, which gave it a top heavy ap- 
pearance ; the form may have had something to do with that. 

Mrs. Neal displayed a coffee set in lustre with a Japanese 
treatment of iris, which was very broad and decorative, the 
lustre being dull instead of that glaring effect which some- 
times gives a taudry appearance to porcelain when used over 
large surfaces. Her small lustre jar with the swirls of beauti- 
ful colors running around it gave the impression that it was a 
choice bit of Favrile glass, and it was the choice piece in her 
collection. 

Many of the members exhibited lustre decorations which 
were original and clever, showing the greatest possibilities in 
these effects. 

Miss Cora Wright had a vase in a delightful oriental red, 
with dragons in gold and silver, which was good and very 
decorative. 

Miss Genevieve Leonard exhibited a grey vase with a 
single white morning glory, which simple treatment was artis- 
tic and showed her understanding of the solid grey back- 
ground, and the greys of the white flowers. 

We welcomed Mrs. MacLeans new treatment of a "grape 
tankard." Although a trifle overdone she used grapes in a 
decorative way, very small bunches in panels, with ruby and 
gold scrolls. The grapes were nicely painted and the whole 
effect was very rich and pleasing, suggesting the old Dresden. 
Mrs. Fanny Rowell's entire exhibit was of lustres, princi- 
pally on plates, showing a variety of effects. Her work hasa 
striking individuality about it — one recognizes the style at once 
and also her pupils' work. 




LAMP, PERSIAN MOTIF— CHARLES VOLKMAR. 

Mr. Volkmar had a very choice exhibit of his pottery in 
single color effects, — also a lamp decorated in different colors 
under the glaze in Persian motif; we give an illustration of it 
in this number. We think his dull blue tones and peach blow 



I 92 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



colors are really wonderful, and if they came from across the 
water, they would create a sensation : as it is they are gaining 
new and lasting friends all the time, which may after all be the 
better way of winning fame. 

Mrs. Keeler had a small exhibit, but extremely dainty; 
one cup and saucer with a pale grey background, relieved only 
by a decoration of white enamel was artistic, but so quiet in 
effect that many passed it without noticing it. 




WILD CARROTS— MARSHAL FRY, Je. 

Mr. Fry's exhibit was poorly lighted, but it was just as 
artistic as ever. There was a variety in decoration, and just 
the same harmonious blending of color, which is the despair 
of all his imitators. We specially liked his handling of pine 
cones in the browns, and his roses. His work was superbly 
fired. 

Mrs. Fry exhibited a beautiful plate with raised gold 
flowers and vine combined with his delighted miniature roses, 
as a visitor said, " it out-Fryed the Frys." 

Miss M. M. Mason had a large and varied exhibit, show- 
ing she had profited by her summer sketches. We liked her 
treatment of the trumpet vine and a vase with the fleur-de-lis, 
which did not show to advantage until seen in a strong light, 
when the " quietness and goodness" of it was greatly appre- 
ciated. 

Miss Elizabeth Mason had some striking things in 
enamels and her designs were well adapted, and well drawn. 
A cup and saucer tinted in a soft ivory with a band of dull 
gold, containing a Persian motif, was very good indeed — ex- 
cellent. Her tea set in oriental style was particularly pleas- 
ing and admirably executed, as were her designs in enamels. 
If only more of our "painters" would become "decora- 
tors." 

Miss Allen exhibited a mushroom set, which was one of 
the first things sold. She is paiticularly successful in her fine 



pen work in gold, and with such skill we wish she would "go 
in for the conventional." 

Mrs. Phillip's work shows great improvement and it was 
especially pleasing to see that the figure work treated pictor- 
ially was painted on slabs and framed as a picture should be. 
Her handling of draperies and textiles is good. 

Miss Scammel exhibited an ambitious punch bowl (which 
was much admired) with lustres and dragons in raised gold 
very admirably executed. There was a band of currants in- 
side, also admirably painted, but which was not in keeping 
with the Japanese treatment outside. 

A very difficult thing to do, is to decorate a bowl so that 
the outside and inside hold together as one decoration. Study 
the Chinese and Japanese decorations ! 

Miss Horlocker showed a beautiful set of after dinner 
coffee cups. There was a band of green on the upper edge, 
which was cut into by a conventional design of hawthorn 
blossoms and steins in white and faint pink. This was a dear 
little bit of coloring, the green being so luminous and the 
blossoms so simple and clean. Her yellow roses on a jar 
were well placed and were particularly clear and transparent 
without being in the least hard against a fine background of 
browns and yellow. 

A stein in warm, rich reds was immensely decorative, 
with berries simply treated, that seemed under all this color. 
It was more in the nature of a monochrome. 

Miss Frances Marquard had a very choice exhibit, there 
was a bowl with conventional design in green lustres, and also 
a placque with a Japanese treatment of butterflies on a gold 
background that was noticeably good. Mrs. Calhoun had 
some small plates exquisitely painted. 

Miss Mary Taylor who was chairman of the Exhibition 
Committee, unselfishly allowed her arduous duties in that 
capacity to interfere with her own exhibit, and therefore had 
nothing that was truly representative of her best style. She 
is making a serious study of miniature work. 

Miss Fanny Neal had two vases with bird decoration, 
most beautifully painted. 

Mr. Sharadin's jug with the corn decoration was well 
painted, but the decorative effect was spoiled by the unac- 
countable splash of red on one side. 

Why is it that decorators are so fond of a clouding of 
red, whether with violets, roses, iris, or anything that grows? 
It is nearly always a fatal thing to do, and this we see run- 
ning through all the exhibitions. 

Many of the exhibitors were disappointed in not receiv- 
ing their work from the Omaha Exhibition, which had been 
there during the summer. The delivery of this work had 
been promised much earlier, and these members had counted 
upon their exhibits, to represent them here. There was 
much indignation felt, as of course it means a financial loss as 
well — the chance of sale being lost. 




KERAMIC STUDIO 



19^ 




DESIGN FOR PLATE— M. E. WEIGHELL 

THIS design is rather odd and pretty on biscuit or unglazed blue between headings of paste. Another treatment for the 
plate. The border design is of different metals with the border is to do the design in gold and enamel on a dull blue 
background of golden yellow lustre. The bands are of cobalt ground. 



194 



KERAMC STUDIO 




THE COLLECTOR 

THE cut herewith presented is of a German Jug in the col- 
lection of Col. John H. Drake, Syracuse, N. Y. 
It was a wedding present to the grandmother of a Ger- 
man woman who is upwards of 90 years of age, and if the 
story that was related in regard to it is true, and there is no 
reason to doubt it, it is more than 1 50 years since that wedding 
took place in a small town in Germany. The jug was prob- 
ably made especially for the recipient, as the following legend 
(impressed) on one side would indicate : 
" Mit dein Wiebien vereins, 
Beim vollem Becher, 
Dieses sind Stunden, 
Urn an gesurden." 
Translated it reads about as follows: 
" With thy little wife opposite, 
And a beaker well filled, 
These are hours to be enjoyed." 
By reference to the cut you will observe that the spout is 
formed in the shape of a man's face with a beard and great 
horns protruding from the forehead. The handle is formed 
with a dragons head at the upper end and finished below with 
the head of a serpent. On one side in relief is shown a Ger- 
man and his frau reading the news from the " Gartenlaube," 
and judging from the expression on their countenance the 
news is both interesting and pleasing. On the table in front 
of them is the " well filled beaker," the pipe and the old lady's 
knitting. The rest of the body of the jug is covered with lattice 
work, dotted with jewels in dark blue, the upper and lower 
parts are decorated with festoons, flowers and other designs, 
in relief, in dark blue, the prevailing color being the usual 
grey of the German stoneware. The modeling of the faces 
and the expression are very artistic as well as pleasing, and 
stamp the jug as the work of a master. 




THE APPLICATION OF ORNAMENT 

A. G. Marshall 
THIRD PAPER. 

N designing a decoration or adapting an ornament 
some of the essentials to a happy result that are not 
always given enough consideration, are that the 
characterof the decoration both in motive and hand- 
ling should be in keeping with the material of the 

object, harmonious with the lines of its form, and in mass, and 

also magnitude of detail, proportioned 

to its size. A design appropriate for a 

vase of fine paste and elegant shape 

would be as much out of place on a 

stout majolica jug as a lace shawl would 

be on the shoulders of a milkmaid, while 

the robust motives suitable to the coarser 

form would degrade and spoil the deli- 
cacy of the finely modeled vase. To 

illustrate : any one with a sensitive eye 

would at once perceive that such mo- 
tives as Figs. 1 and 2 would harmonize 

with a vase of classical purity of outline, 

while the delightfully shapeless Dutch 

boy (Fig.3), taken from a painting by Nico 

Jungman, would be simply dreadful in 

a like situation, but would well befit a heavy cylindrical or 

pot-shaped piece of ware, and be just as good art in its proper 

place. 





KERAMIC STUDIO 



i99 



In Fig. 4 we see the mis- 
take made by using hard, an- 
gular motives to ornament 
objects having curved outlines. 
It is the old difficulty of the 
square block in the round hole, 
it is never comfortable. How 
much more harmonious for the 
purpose are designs in curves 
as suggested in Fig. 5. 






although easily effective in a loud voiced way, are difficult to 
manage and apt to become bizarre without attaining the naive 
quaintness of rude and primitive styles. Contrast is necessary 
to avoid monotony; it is indeed the life of ornament, yet it 
must be well governed or it becomes merely discord. Forms 
in the ornament contrasting with the shape of the object 
should differ much from its size as well, hence they are better 
in the detail than in the principal lines. For a piece of fine 
outline a design should be sought which will give repose by 
harmonizing main lines, contrast being secured in the subor- 
dinate features. And as the circle or some full, swelling 
curve forms the outline of most keramic shapes it follows that, 
excepting when we have cylindrical or conical shapes, the 
decoration is best planned on curved lines. Fig. 9 shows 
some totally bad, discordant ornamentations. Fig. 10 gives 
the same shapes with decorations arranged on harmonizing 




It must always be remembered that the ornament must 
fit the outline from every point of view, like the details of a 
piece of sculpture. In this requirement the decoration of 
vases and jars is even more exacting than the composition of 
pictures which are to be viewed from one point only. In the 
case of a cylinder or truncated cone there is more latitude in 
the lines of the decoration as the outline is made up of both 
curved and straight lines, harmonizing with either in the 
ornament (Figs. 6 and 7). 






A design combining both kinds of line is very effective 
for such shapes, affording both harmony and contrast (Fig. 8). 
It should be looked to, however, that the two kinds of line 
are not equal in quantity. If the main lines in the ornament 
are straight, bring some curves into the subordinate lines, and 
vice versa. 

Decorations in marked contrast to the lines of the object, 




lines, contrasting lines occurring in the details. In Fig. 1 [ the 
element of contrast is secured by the varied character and 
size of the curves. 

As a matter of taste the finer the form the less need there 
is of decoration beyond that given by a beautiful color and 
exquisite glaze, as is seen in some of the most precious ex- 
amples from the orient which need the enhancement of orna- 
ment as little as do pearls and gem-stones. The finer the 
form and material, the greater thought must be exercised 
that the decoration is in perfect harmony, so that it shall en- 
hance instead of doing an injury to the beauty already there. 
And again the decoration of a fine material should never be 
such a complete covering as to conceal that precious quality 
or make it hard to discover. So, as a rule, with wares already 
precious in shape and substance, the less of the surface should 
be covered by decoration, especially with mat colors, gilding, 
jewels and raised work, that change or conceal the true sur- 
face. The value of broad spaces, of plain or graded tints and 
of rich, solid color, is too little appreciated. 

Go again to the orient and see how a few touches applied 
in exactly the right spot make all the decoration required for 
some of the masterpieces of keramic art. Or visit the Tiffany 
warerooms or any museum where the wonderful " favrile " 
glass may be seen and notice what slight suggestions serve 
where any ornament at all is placed upon those resplendent 
and dreamlight forms. But think not that the few strokes or 
the dreamy suggestion in these instances mean little work. It 
is easy to make pretty things; a little taste and industry will 
do this. But to make fine things that look so simple — not 
till one tries it again and again will he understand the years 
of study and practice that are behind the few little easy 
touches that have fallen so carelessly in exactly the right 
place. Into such art there have gone masterly technique and 
the imagination of poets. 



196 



KERAMC STUDIO 



H* 



fib _ l3"r-. 






^ 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS 



.4rn' questions to be 1 



wered by this department must be s 
the month preceding- issue. 



1 bv the 10th of 



White Rose.— This is a color between an olive and brown green, and 
makes an excellent shading tone for white roses or other white flowers. Used 
in a dusted tint it makes a rich soft green. 

J. W.— The design of the Jubilee cup and saucer, by Mrs. Leonard, was 
published in the Art Amateur two years ago. 

S. M. K. — Your Aufsetzweis was not sufficiently fired, otherwise it would 
glaze. A design for a cheese dish will be given next issue. 

H. R. D.— The reason of your gold precipitating of a dark color and diffi- 
cult to mix with the oil, is because you used too strong a solution of ferros 
sulphate. The second precipitate will be darker than the first, because of the 
addition of more of the solution, but it will fire all right. Rub the powder with 
a muller on a ground glass slab just sufficiently to mix thoroughly. It should 
not need grinding, as it precipitates as soft and fine as flour. Stir the solution 
only once or twice. Stirring too much makes it gritty. It is surprising what 
a difference a little thing makes. Use a horn palette knife. If your gold 
blisters off, you have put it on too thick. Only a thin wash is necessary, as 
this \s pure gold. 

M. D. G. — Paste chips off when over color, when put on too flat and arti- 
ficially dried, when too much oil is used, also when oily turpentine is used. 
Perhaps you will be more successful with the lavender oil instead of tur- 
pentine. 

C. H. R.— All questions must be signed by the name and address in full, 
otherwise we are liable to take up space which belongs to subscribers in an- 
swering questions for non-subscribers. This would not be fairto subscribers, 
as they have a right to the space and might be crowded out. The La Croix 
color charts, kindly furnished by Favor & Ruhl, can be obtained only from the 
office of the KERAMIC STUDIO. Any yearly subscriber can have them by 
writing to us. We would much prefer to have you subscribe directly with us, 
but as soon as you become a yearly subscriber you will be entitled to the 
charts, in whatever manner you subscribe. To become a member of the New 
York Society of Keramic Arts three pieces of work done without the aid of a 
teacher must be submitted, your name being proposed at the same time by 
some member with whom you may be acquainted. If the work passes the 
eligibility committee, your name will be voted upon, and you will be notified 
of the result. We presume the other societies are similarly constructed. 
Occasionally pieces of Belleek have a very poor thin glaze which sometimes 
disappears wholly in the second or third fire. This is found most in the 
heavier pieces of Belleek. It is no fault of your flux or oils. 

J. G. W.— To dust grounds of different colors, blending into each other, 
for instance, Celadon, Royal Green and Brown, prepare your grounding oil 
on the surface as for a single tint. Make a mixture of the celadon and green 
and of the green and brown. Put on the celadon, then the mixture with 
green, then green, then the mixture with brown, then brown, working one 
color into the next so there will be no hard line of demarkation. In the second 
fire you can use, if you wish, a single color, dusted on all over, to bring all 
together better, or if strengthening of one shade only is required, dust over 
that part, blending the oil thin at the edges. Ivory yellow in tube colors is 
best for an ivory ground. For old ivory effect, use a mixture of Yellow 
Brown and Brown 17 to rub in creases. Orange yellow can also be used thin 
for this effect, but ivory is better. The beautiful yellow brown luster on Mrs. 
Leonard's chocolate set at the Waldorf exhibition was Sartorius' Yellow Brown 
padded on twice. Your monogram will be given in the February number. 
We delay giving the monograms to give other subscribers a chance to send for 
their own. 

B. J. M. — The Fry Art Co. sell the ivory glaze for which you inquire. It 
can be dusted over any finished painting to give a uniform glaze, but as it is 
liable to absorb the reds and give a monochromatic effect, it would hardly be 
safe to use over figures when clear flesh color is desired. The ivory glaze 
gives quite an underglaze effect, but hard fires are always most necessary to 
get a uniform deep glaze. Dampness or insufficient ventilation in the kiln 
will sometimes cause white spots on lustres, or if your china is not absolutely 



clean or dust gets on. Some colors show spots worse than others. Greens 
yellows and lighter colors, are safest. To get a deep shade it is better to put 
on two thin washes than one heavy one. Color too thick will peel off. The 
more neutral colors of lustre used sparingly can be used effectively with 
figures, but do not let your border overpower your painting. The designs in 
the KERAMIC STUDIO are not so difficult as they look ; most of the work is in 
the drawing. Try them and you will be surprised to see how simple and 
effective they are. To paint light golden brown hair, use ivory yellow in the 
high lights, finishing brown in shadows for (he first fire; in the second tire. 
break the light into the shadow with cool shadow (the composition of this is 
given in the June number), in the deepest shadows use a little yellow brown. 

W. K. B.— You will find the Dresden Aufsetzweis in tubes the most reli- 
able enamel. It needs a hard fire but will stand any number of repeated 
firings. When used white, mix with one-eighth flux. When it is used 
colored with tube or powder paints, no flux is required, though a touch of flux 
makes it fire better. Use Carmine No. 3 for the little old-fashioned roses and 
ruby purple for the darker ones. The powder colors for dusting can be pro- 
cured from any of our advertisers. Miss Osgood of the Osgood Art School 
makes a very fine Persian red for dusting or painting Blood red is also a fine 
color. For turquoise buy either turquoise blue or turquose green, according 
to which shade you prefer. 

K.— The corresponding colors in powder for the lemonade pitcher in 
cherries by Miss Wright (October) are the same as the Dresden tube colors, 
with the exception of White Rose, of which which we have written elsewhere 
in this number. We have given a study of storks in this number of Historic 
Ornament, but will give another of storks standing in the February number. 
Did you receive your La Croix color chart ? 

H. P. B. — Scroll on Greek lines of No. 4, July.— In substituting the 
cockle shell for the honeysuckle ornament in the ''wave line" scroll, it would 
have been better to use a heavier scroll like the third No. 4. This is more 
typical of the sea and illustrates the meaning of the word fitness in design. 
To use this border on a fish or oyster set would be fitness in decoration, the 
black in the lower part makes a contrast in lines, The heavy wave line is in 
better proportion to the cockle shell than the delicate stem line which holds the 
honeysuckle. A half inch border is in better proportion to a four-inch saucer 
than an inch and a half border. It balances better. A wider border would over- 
balance the saucer. There is more action or movement in the heavy wave line 
which supports the honeysuckle ornament because it suggests more the action 
of a wave in running along and curling over before breaking. The waves in 
the scroll are evenly spaced, [f two waves were closer than the others they 
would be unevenly spaced. Quiet spacing is where there is no ornament, as 
in the space above the wave design. 

Study of oak leaves and acorns.— Were your acorns quite so pointed? 
Could you not have indicated the little scales on the cups, without going too 
much into detail? Were not the stems which held the acorns rather too slen- 
der? Maybe that variety is slender. There is strength in your drawing, but 
not yet a careful observation of your study. Your shadows on leaves are too 
indefinite and frequently destroy the shape by going in the wrong direction. 
Make the lines follow the roundness of things, in broken sections. 

Water color study of asters. — You could not have seen your study in 
those colors. Your drawing was good. The upper part of design softened 
nicely into, background, but the part touching the table could not have left a 
hard line, the outlines of the flowers must have been lost somewhere on the 
table, and should have been softened everywhere Your table does not exist, 
it hangs down straight instead of coming towards you. It surely grew lighter 
as it approached you, and the farther edge must have softened into the back- 
ground. The darkest dark is never at the edge. You have the wrong colors 
in your box. Use Hooker's Green 1 and 2, Rose Madder, Cobalt Blue, 
Yellow Ochre and Lemon Yellow. 

Study of Asters in Pen and Ink.— This is an improvement. You are 
gaining strength. Do not make your shading lines too straight or too con- 
tinuous. Use short broken lines to indicate curve of leaf and petal. 

Study of Fruit.— What kind of fruit? This is soft and dainty. But 
could you not soften the edges of the fruit where it conies against the shadow 
on the table? And was the blue quite so strong on two only, and why ? decay ? 
Be absolutely truthful in what you do say in painting but don't say loo much. 
Leave something to the imagination. 




OLD DALTON WARE 
The figure to the extreme left represents one of the oldest trade-marks. Tin 
cross indicates Christianity, the circle belief in eternity, and the triangle the trinity. 



FEB. MDCCCC Price 35c. Yearly Subscription $3.50 



f 



CONTRIBUTORS 

MISS MABEL C DIBBLE * # * * 

COL. JOHN H. DRAKE j* jn j» ^ j» 

MRS. ANNA B. LEONARD .* J* j» .* 

MR. A. G. MARSHALL j» * J- * * 

MISS MARY CHASE PERRY * j* # 
MRS. HENRIETTA B. WRIGHT-PAIST 

MRS. ADELAIDE ALSOP-ROBINEAU a» 

MRS. CLARA S. TAYLOR j* ^ ^ jt 

MISS SARA B. VILAS .* > J* * .* 

MR. O. A. VAN DER LEEDEN j» ji .* 



a MGHTHLY: 
flffleiZIHE: 

THE: 






btimm ■ PGTTER :£BGBBH0B :PIBB& 



Copyrighted 1899 by the K 



: Studio Publishing Co.. S.vn 



nd New York. Entered at the Post Office at Syracuse, N. Y.. as Seeond Class Matter. Aug 2, 18B9 



[ The entire contents of this Magazine are cohered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted Without special permission. ] 

CONTENTS FOR FEBRUARY, 1900 



Editorial, 

Design for Wild Rose Plate — Treatment 

Treatment for Poppies (Supplement), 

Historic Ornament — Celtic, . 

The Application of Ornament (fourth paper), 

Celtic Plate Design, 

Chicago Letter (Illustrated), 

Suggestion for Vase in Poppies, 

Storks, 

Wild Roses, . 

League Notes — Club News, 

In the Studios — In the Shops, 

Bonbonniere, 

National Arts Club (Illustrated), 

Design for Cheese Dish, 

The Collector— Willow Ware Pattern, 

Cheats in Oriental Ceramics, . 

Monograms, 

Art of Pyrography or Burnt Wood Etching, 

Answers to Correspondents, 



Mrs. Anna B. Leonard 

Mary Chase Perry, 

Adelaide Alsop-Robineau, 

A. G. Marshall, 

Sara B. Vilas, 

Mabel C. Dibble, 

Adelaide-Alsop-Robineau, 

Adelaide Alsop-Robineau, . 

Mrs. Henrietta Barclay Wright-Paist, 



Clara S. Taylor, 

Adelaide Alsop-Robineau, 
Col. John H. Drake, 



O. A. Van der Leeden, . 



PAGE 

197 
1 98- 1 99 

199 
200-201 

202-20} 
20} 

204-206 
206 
207 

208-209 
2IO 
210 
21 I 

212-21} 
21} 
214 

214-215 
215 

2l6-2I7 
2l8 




SYRACUSE, N. Y. 



Vol. I, No. tO 



NEW YORK AND SYRACUSE 



February 1900 




|EW realize the amount of money spent each 
year by students who leave their homes and 
go to the larger cities for instructions in 
overglaze decorations. It seems to us that 
students in Keramics spend more money 
than is necessary, that is, if different plans of 
instruction were carried out. 
Several well known teachers have been discussing a plan 
to teach by the month instead of by the lesson. For instance, 
a schedule might be made in this way. Those who are eager 
to get as much help as possible and wish a teacher's advice 
and assistance every day (Saturday should be exempt from a 
teacher's criticism) could have the working privileges of the 
studio every day and instructions from the teacher five days 
a week, either morning or afternoon, the time given at the 
option of the teacher. This for twenty-five dollars a month, to 
be paid regularly whether the pupil is in the studio every day 
or not. For those who wish oniy two criticisms a week, the 
working privileges of the studio could be given each day, but 
only assistance given on two days. This for fifteen dollars a 
month. Then again there may be others who would care for 
only one critcism a week, which could be given for ten dollars 
a month, with the privileges each day of the studio. In this 
way a pupil could be under the guidance of a teacher and yet 
she need not feel that every minute the teacher left her side 
it was so much money lost. It would give the pupil time to 
work out an original design, to do the zuork herself, to learn 
the practical side of every question that comes up. It would 
relieve that nervous strain which every pupil (and every 
teacher) feels, when paying for a lesson by the hour. We 
have seen students come to New York and completely break 
down under the strain of trying to get their money s worth, 
which seems to them to be only the number of pieces finished 
instead of the practical knowledge gained. 

It has seemed to many that the plan of receiving instruc- 
tion entirely by observation is all wrong. It is not the most 
beneficial way for the pupil and it certainly is most exhausting 
for the teacher. Those that teach by this method give the 
best that their talent and brain afford and when these teachers 
try to do something great for an occasion, they find their ideas 
worked out, their inspiration all sapped, their energy gone. In 
fact a complete prostration invariably follows this method of 
teaching. It is not right. This plan is of course encouraged 
by those pupils who desire to have a number of pieces to copy 
or to exhibit in their studios at home. This is all right, but 
it would be cheaper to buy these pieces at once and save the 
expense of traveling and board. The same amount of money 
could be used to better advantage both for teacher and pupil 
if this new plan could be adopted. We would like to hear 
from the teachers on this subject. The schedule of prices 
could be regulated by the general expenses, each teacher 
being guided by her own ideas on that subject, expenses, 
rents, etc., being different in different localities. 



Our plan would, perhaps, call for more studio room, but 
in the end both teacher and pupil would feel repaid. 

4= 

Our decorators will find a very interesting letter from 
Miss Dibble about the exhibition of the Atlan Club, and the 
case to be sent to Paris. This little hand of wnrki-rs have 
been quietly preparing for their exhibit during all the past 
year, and should rouse to action, even at this the eleventh 
hour, older and larger clubs to which the League naturally has 
looked for strong support and the fulfillment of promises 
made in the first outburst of enthusiasm. The officers of the 
National League have been working for over a year to secure 
a creditable representative American exhibit in Paris. 

Space has been secured in a most advantageous position, 
along with notable ceramic art productions of our country. 
Everything is in good shape. 

Space paid for, designs for cases and shelves made, esti- 
mates for covering the wall space, etc., etc. 

Strenuous efforts have been made to obtain accurate 
information of the entire cost of making this exhibit and to 
justly apportion among the exhibitors the allotted space. 
Careful consideration by the Board of Managers of all details 
shows that the fixed charge of five dollars a square foot and 
three dollars for every additional square foot is a safe and 
just basis of apportionment of the expense. One club writes: 
"This is most exorbitant. Why we exhibited at our State Fair 
for nothing! " True, and we exhibited at our own beautiful 
World's Fair; but there were cases, attendants, and all the 
small expenses involved in the transportation and placing of 
the exhibit. 

The French charge for every detail, and while the 
National League is in good financial condition, it cannot in- 
stall an exhibit in a foreign country free of cost. 

The exhibitor will have the advantage of an individual 
exhibit. He or she will be so catalogued and passed upon 
by the jury. Were an individual to exhibit alone, the cost 
would be two hundred dollars at least. 

There should be uniformity as to cases, frames and cards. 
Let each exhibitor's work stand an equal chance, and let it be 
entirely upon its own merit. Let it be a dignified artistic 
exhibition. Fortunately those who have so generously re- 
sponded are of the best workers and realize what it is to make 
a good representative exhibit, but a few can. scarcely under- 
take the financial responsibility of the whole thing. Every- 
thing is being done to reduce the expense of it, and the 
managers are anxiously awaiting a sufficient guarantee of 
funds to preclude the possibility of failure. 

4> 

The United States Navy is supplied with china from the 
Royal Copenhagen factories, which at one time received the 
order from Washington for thirty thousand dollars worth of 
china. It is claimed that the severe tests have proved the 
ware to be very durable. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




DESIGN FOR WILD ROSE PLATE— MRS. ANNA B. LEONARD 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



199 



DESIGN FOR WILD ROSE PLATE 

Mrs. Anna B. Leonard 

THIS design will look well in monochrome, say blue on the 
white china, for an. ordinary dinner plate, or it could 
be used on a smaller plate for a tea or breakfast sendee. 

If carried out in color, the design can be used in flat 
enamel without any further ornamentation, or if merely 
painted on, there may be, just a very narrow little edge of 
turquoise blue with a dot of turquoise enamel at the begin- 
ning of each scollop, or there may be a deep rich green behind 
the design running out to the edge of the plate. 

The design would look well, drawn smaller and nearer to 
the edge. If closely observed, there will be seen three larger 
spots of pink in the design and three smaller ones coming 
in between, which balances the color in the rim. 

Keep the colors clear and crisp. Use the Lacroix colors 
in powder form — or any of the corresponding colors given 
in our color chart of the June number, where we have 
compared the different names of colors to one standard — 
Carmine No. 3, which at first use quite delicately, Moss 
Green and Apple Green (which should be mixed with almost 
half Mixing Yellow). Brown Green, Deep Red Brown. Brown 
4 or 17, Mixing Yellow, German Ruby Purple, German Yellow 
Brown. 

Vary the shades of pink in the petals, and the shades of 
green in the leaves. Use sharp little touches of Deep Red 
Brown, on the stems and leaves, and an occasional touch ot 
German Ruby Purple on the sharp edges of the petals. The 
centers are of Mixing Yellow with a delicate touch of Apple 
Green nearer the center, and the stamens are Yellow Brown, 
darker touches of Brown Green and Deep Red Brown. 



TREATMENT FOR POPPIES 

Mary Chase Perry 

THE conventional shade of poppy red may be used pleasingly 
in the flowers, if there is plenty of cool green and brown 
of the purplish cast in the background, or a strong green 
border with the leaves and buds cutting directly into it. makes 
a positive and striking decoration, especially at the top of a 
tall piece of china. But the varied shades now found in Pop- 
pies, give the opportunity for greater delicacy and an un- 
limited scope for developing color effects. 

The large central Poppy is pale and of the reddish pink 
order, and may be laid in for the first firing with Pompadour. 
using Moss Green toward the center, with Meissen Brown and 
Finishing Brown in the dark stamens. Drag some of the 
same color — Pompadour — into the edge of the flower at the 
left, with a wash of Ruby over the other petals. Use Olive 
Green, with a touch of Brown Green toward the center. 

The Poppy at the right is deeper, with Ruby in the lighter 
parts and Roman Purple and Banding Blue in the shadows. 
The half shown flower at the right is very delicate and deco- 
rative, treated with a wash of Lemon Yellow and Yellow 
Brown in the upper part with Pompadour in the darker side. 

The leaves and buds are Apple Green and Russian Green 
in the light shades, with quite a bluish cast, and Brown Green 
and Shading Green in the dark edges. A little Moss Green 
may be used sparingly to give life but if too much is used it 
gives a crude " greeny " effect. The shadow flowers and 
leaves are of pale Copenhagen in the lighter part of the de- 
sign and of a light wash of Gold Grey in the darker. At all 



events, make these shadow washes as simple and flat as possi- 
ble and absolutely without detail. 

If one has worked sufficiently to have gained control over 
his materials, it is as well to put in the background at once, 
so that the colors may melt into it, while they are still moist, 
or if one prefers to do so. the design may have been carefully 
suggested in outline and the background laid before the flow- 
ers were painted at all. This latter method is more often 
pursued by proficient workers, but the beginner is more apt 
to have clear results if the design is fired before laying the 
background. In this case it may be put in the first thing 
before the second painting. Make it with pale Lemon Yellow 
and a soft lavender made of Violet No. 2 in the lighter parts, 
above the design and near the flowers, with Yellow Brown and 
Meissen Brown below. L T se strong Copenhagen and Gold 
Grey in the deep parts. One will have to exercise his own 
instinct for color, as no amount of dictation will yield a har- 
monious resuk. See that the tones are in correct relation to 
each other, and that no one part jars upon another. Again, 
see to it. that the background, as it appears to go underneath 
the design, carries the same tone to the other side. For in- 
stance, do not put Yellow on one side of a straggly stem, with 
Russian Green on the other, allowing the stem to break the 
two. Rather let one color flow underneath and unite with 
the other in open ground. Of course when there is a large 
mass of the design, there is room for change of background 
beneath. We frequently see broken-backed vases — otherwise 
good in form — with the background made "choppy" by this 
very abusive treatment. Before firing, the strong lights and 
accents may be taken out with a pointed stick wound with a 
bit of cotton. Be especially careful to preserve the character 
of the prickly buds and seed pods. No harm comes from 
leaving the white of the china in the light parts for the first 
firing. 

If the background has been laid, after the paint has be- 
come too dry to be " tack}-," the colors may be modified and 
strengthened by dusting on the powder color and letting it 
go direotlv up to and into the flower and leaves which are in 
shadow. Fire very hard, so that the paint will become one 
with the glaze, not minding if they lose much of their strength, 
for strength can be attained again, but if there is not a good 
glaze after the first firing, it is difficult to make it come an- 
other time. For the second painting, strengthen with the 
same colors, vet using other tones as the}- would naturally be 
reflected from one portion of the design to another — it will 
prevent the look of hardness— a wash of Pale Yellow on the 
light part of the light flower and touches of blue as well. In the 
deeper Poppies, a wash of Banding Blue and Yellow Brown 
in the light parts will help to hold the study together. Be- 
fore the second firing, see that there is a sense of unity 
throughout the whole, so that it has an easy feeling, perhaps 
lowering one part by deepening it or giving dash to another 
by taking out a light. 

In a stud}- of this kind a third firing is a great improve- 
ment if not a necessity, as it gives opportunity to give finish 
by glazing again. Washes of Rub}- will generally result ac- 
ceptably and touches of Shading Green and Dark Brown will 
help to accent parts which stay back too much. If one 
chooses, a little enamel mixed with Moss Green, to take off 
the staring white, may be used in the buds and stamens and 
on the stems in slight touches. Be sure that it is well fluxed, 
so that it will melt easily in a low fire — for remember that the 
last firing will be a light one, so as not to disturb or lose the 
half tones and " speaking touches " which have just been put on. 



200 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




This art, so fantastic with its endless and tortuous wind- 
ings, its fanciful and distorted forms so drawn as to fill the 
required space regardless of nature, remind us forcibly of Irish 
ingenuity in twisting and ornamenting the truth so as to fit 
the circumstances, until the original form is scarcely recogni- 
zable. And after all we have to admit the artistic effect of 
the distorting of truth as well as of form. 

The colors used are dull blue, dull green, orange, red, 
black, buff and white. 




HISTORICAL ORNAMENT— CELTIC 

ELTic decorative art had its origin in Ireland. 
Many similarities can be found in the art of 
Russia and Scandinavian countries, showing a 
common origin, and it is believed that the 
Irish missionaries carried their art with them 
to these countries. But, without doubt, the 
Celtic form of ornament was the growth of Irish soil. Inter- 
laced ornaments, formed almost the only element of the earliest 
period; this is essentially a primitive method, suggested by 
interlaced cords, the pliancy of this 
medium giving curves instead of an- 
gles as in Arabian geometric designs, 
and making a great variety of de- 
signs from this simple element. 

There is a real charm in follow- 
ing the complications. The skillful 
divisions, clearness of links, ingenuity 
in windings, show a knowledge 
of ornamental construction. There 
is an entire absence of foliage or 
vegetable ornament in the primitive 
Celtic art. The distinguishing pecu- 
liarities are the extreme intricacy 
and excessive minuteness and elabo- No. 1 

ration of the interlaced designs. Later, strange and mon- 
strous birds and animals with long top-knots, tongues and 
tails intertwining in almost endless knots (sometimes called 
Runic knots) served as terminals to principal lines, which 








No. 2 No. 3 

were then made to repesent bodies elongated out of all just 
proportion or probability, from which emerge feet or claws 
corresponding with the head. These fantastic and grotesque 
images constitute a separate art, which interlacings alone 
could never have done, other races using the latter form of 
ornamentation. 




PLATE BY MISS VILAS (PAGE 203) 

Application We would suggest as a treatment for this, 

to Modern a ^ u ^ Dlue design on a dull green ground 

( outlined in black ; or the alternate panels 

*» might have a green design on a blue ground ; 

from the design to the edge of plate should be a buff, either 

light or dark. 

TOBACCO JAR BY MRS. ROBtNEAU 

Ground, buff. Design in dull blue on a black and dull 
green ground ; a touch of red or orange might be used in eyes. 



201 







STUDY OF "POPPIES-MARY CHASE PERRY 

KERAMIC STUDIO PUBLISHING CO. 



SUPPLEMENT TO KERAMIC STUDIO 
FEBRUARY 1900 



H 




Celtic form c 
laced orname 
period ; this 
interlaced co 
medium givi 
gles as in An 
and making 
signs from tl 
There is 
ing the comr 
divisions, cle; 
in winding: 
of ornament 
is an entire 
vegetable or 
Celtic art. 
liarities are 
and excessiv 
ration of th 
strous birds 
tails intertw 
Runic knots 




were, then it 
proportion c 
correspondin 
images cons 
could never 
ornamentatic 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



201 




202 



KERAMC STUDIO 



THE APPLICATION OF ORNAMENT 

A. G. Marshall 

FOURTH PAPER 

HE decorator, no less than the portrait and 
figure painter, should understand the 
effect upon the emotions produced by 
lines, masses and colors. Lines are the 
most important element in composition 
both of pictures and ornaments, and their influence is none 
the less felt when they are lost in full chiaroscuro than it is in 





a drawing of pure outline. Not only do they form the skele- 
ton or constructive framework of all designs, but they deter, 
mine the last refinements of detail as well; and they govern 
expression quite as much in a decorative scheme as they do in 
a face. Indeed it seems quite probable that the expression of 
lines throughout nature and art is 
understood by an unconscious mental 
reference to their significance in the 
human face and gesture. I have not 
seen any allusion to this principle in 
any treatise on ornament, and doubt if 
it has ever been recognized as an impor- 
tant and often dominant factor in the 
impression made by ornamental de- 
signs, lightness or somberness of tone 
and brilliance or sobriety of color being 
supposed to determine the entire effect 
upon the emotions. Reference to Figs, 
r to 6 will make plain the expression 





of lines in various positions. The level gives absolute repose, 
calmness and absence of excitement. This qualitv so pro- 
nounced in ancient Egyptian and Greek architecture, is due to 
the emphasis given to horizontal lines in construction and 
decoration. In every instance where repose is to be secured 
in ornament, the introduction of level lines or bands, when 
consistent with the form to be ornamented, is the easiest and 
surest way of accomplishing this result. Lines sloping or 



curved somewhat upward from a central point, express cheer- 
fulness, lightness and gaiety. Chinese architecture, for this 
reason never seems serious and is always suggestive of toy 
construction. Designs having as motives upward bends or 
curves or arrangements on such lines will give a cheerful effect 
and suggest pleasure and joy ; while lines sloping or curving 
steeply downward from a central point are expressive of sad- 
ness or solemnity, as seen in Gothic construction, and can be 
depended upon for a similar, or at least sober, effect in decor- 
ation. Lines inclining or curving a little downward from a 
center suggest protection, shelter and coziness, like the ordin- 
ary roof gable or an umbrella or spreading branches of a tree. 
Very steep upward slants or high springing curves give a 
feelingof sublimity, excitementand exhilaration, like mountain 
heights and leaping fountains. And the vertical is always 
associated with dignity and maj- 
esty, possessing the repose of power, 
as the level possesses the reposes of 
sleep or inertia. Horizontal lines or 
bands increase the apparent breadth of an object, and perpen- 
dicular ones cause objects to appear more slender. (Fig. 7.) 
Inclned lines, and all "running ornaments" which are based on 
them, like many "arabesques" and much French and other 
scroll work, lead the eye in the direction of the inclination 
(Fig. 8). hence in themselves are lacking in the element of 
repose. They should not be employed in situations where it 



& 




sir 



TB 



Fig S 

is desired the eye should rest, or to decorate the most impor- 
tant feature of an object, room or building. As subordinate 
decorations for edges of utensils, moldings, etc., and as con- 
nective links between principal features, they are appropriate, 
When used completely around anything, the effect is best 
when they can be seen at once in the entire circuit, as around 
a plate or the inside of a room, and are less pleasing around 
the outside of a box or a dish, in which case 
the eye is led merely to the outline in any 
view. They should never be used simply 
to cross a surface where there will be an 
abrupt stop after leading the eye to nothing, 
as in Fig. 9. Such ornaments, however, are 
very properly adapted to similar situations 
by reversing half and introducing a center 
piece as a point of repose (Fig. 10). This 
shows the beautiful way of using running 
designs as bands around utensils, like a 
belt fastened with a clasp. Spiral mo- 
tives, twists and whirling effects (Fig. 11) 
should be carefully considered in their 
application, as the unrest in them, how- 
ever beautiful in many situations, is in- 
consistent with the highest dignity. 

Fig. 11 Hence they are never good 

( ,v for grand ornaments or cen- 
^j)" ter pieces of important or 
monumental things. The 
Japanese make very clever 
use of such motives, but 
always apply them where 



l dTSii^S\S \Sl 




KERAMIC STUDIO 



203 



^3-e^- 



J r^bS^ 



thoroughly appropriate. By reversing alternate figures of 
that kind very quaint and pleasing bands may be made having 
a sort of rhythmic, dancing effect (Fig. 12). And by bringing 

such motives close to- 
gether, either all in one 
direction, or reversing 
alternately, and by sepa- 
rating them and introduc- 
Fig - 13 ing connecting lines, an 

endless series of rhythmic ornaments may be invented 

(Fig- 13)- 

Repose is an attribute of many forms, the circle, elipse, 
oval, square, oblong, lozenge, hexagon, octagon, etc., which 
are constantly employed as the bases of center pieces and 
medallions; and this quality may be secured in almost any 
symmetrical form, if kept simple (Fig. 14), and an infinite 




Fig. 14 

variety of ornaments constructed in this way are emphatically 
resting places for the eye and should be used for centers and 
at salient points. The circle, ellipse and curved forms gener- 
ally, either as frames or as structural bases for ornament, give 
more spaciousness and buoyancy of effect than squares or 
other forms bounded by straight lines. Where unsymmet- 
rical designs are employed, as where the human or some 



animal figure or floral motive is treated freely and without 
formality, repose must be sought through a proper balance of 
parts, very much as with the composition of a picture or 
statue, and strained attitudes and violent action will be found 
very difficult to handle satisfactorily in elevated and serious 
decoration. It should not be forgotten that it is perfectly 
proper to treat separate keramic pieces or articles of furniture, 
etc., in pairs, right and left, to be seen together, the "action" 
of their forms or decoration being toward each ether, or 
towards a third, self-poised and more important piece which 
is to be their center, like the keystone of an arch. Needless 
to say that such groups must be designed as one harmonious 
whole. 

The festoon and arrangements following its lines are 

Fig. 15 

valuable elements in formal decoration and may be used with 
great style and stateliness of effect. The wide and shallow 
festoon, with knots above the points of support, is especially 
festive and joyous in character, and yet in perfect repose 
(Fig. 15). The deep and thick festoon, with drooping knot, 
is, on the other hand, heavy and solemn in effect (Fig. 16.) 





CELTIQ PLATE DESIGN— SARA B. VILAS 



204 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




VASE 

. R. M. McCn 



TEA POT 

i M. Topping 



Mabel C. Dibble Mrs 

HOT B'J 



CHICAGO LETTER 

THE Atlan Ceramic Art Club opened their seventh annual 
exhibition at the Art Institute on Tuesday, November 
21st, with an afternoon reception, for which one thousand in- 
vitations had been issued. Despite the rainy, disagreeable 
weather, a very large attendance marked the interest felt in 
the work of this club. 

Naturally, the chief attraction was the " Exhibit for 
Paris." The space given to the Atlan Club at the Paris expo- 
sition is a direct compliment to their fine strong original 
work, and the club members appreciating this faith in them, 
have succeeded in making the finest exhibit they have ever 
shown at the Art Institute. The choicest of this has been 
selected for Paris and placed in two cases, in order to give 
space for each piece. The photograph however shows one 
case arranged so that at least one piece from each member is 
visible. The Atlan Club work will fill a case just within the 
arch of the main facade of the Palace of Industries, a con- 
spicuous and fitting place for this exhibit. 

With one exception, every piece was painted during the 
present year and never before exhibited at the Art Institute, 
so perhaps a brief description of this case will prove of greater 
interest than a general one. 

Commencing at the left of the photograph, the large jar- 
diniere in Persian design, by Mrs. J. E. Zeublin, is a rich and 
harmonious piece in colorings of dark blue, green and brown? 
on the pure white, with touches of red to enliven the quiet 
tones. 

A chop platter, by Miss Eva E. Adams, has a brilliant 
and yet delicate design in pink, turquoise, green and yellow, 
with a rich darker border in blues. 

The little teapot, by Miss Helen Topping, is most charm- 
ing, or as one member of the club said, "the color scheme is 
distracting." Only simple blues and greens, with touches of 
yellow — but its the "knowing how" that makes so many bits 
of china from the Atlan Club a delight to the possessor. In 
fact the repetition of "blues and greens" and so few colors 



Mrs. F. M. Steele 



PLACQUE AND BOWL 

Mrs. L. T. Stewart 



CHOCOLATE POT 

Mary A. Phillips 



mentioned, make, I fear, a dull showing, but the reality is far 
from dull, and though the palette used by the club is very 
small, there is not the slightest trace of sameness, and where 
brilliant, no crudeness, and though soft, not dull or weak. 

Mrs. R. M. McCreery's vase, fleur-de-lis in old blues on 
creamy ground, with gold and blue band at top, is simple but 
very good, and the small hot water pitcher with an artistic 
arrangement of hydrangeas conventionalized in soft violets, 
blues and greens, with ground of yellow lustre, by Miss Grace 
H. Peck, is so delightful that it attracts the eye at once. The 
large vase with pink chrysanthemums, pale blue lilies with 
bright little scarlet blossoms and many leaves, all in enamels 
on white, with severely conventional band at top in dark blue, 
yellow and pale green enamel, is by Miss Mabel C. Dibble. 

The beautiful peacock vase, by Mrs. A. A. Frazee, is most 
striking. Persian in design and coloring, rich but not glaring 
— it is an interesting study to all. The beauty of the cup and 
saucer at left of this vase unfortunately is not revealed in the 
photograph, but Mrs. Adele Lawson has received many com- 
pliments upon her work. The cup and saucer are divided into 
panels by double bands of two distinct designs, but perfectly 
harmonizing; the panels are filled with lotus blossoms. 

The quaint little pitcher at the right is even more quaint 
in coloring — pink, blue and yellow flowers on a violet lustre 
background, with stiff little nosegays standing upright around 
the neck, making one hesitate to decide whether it is one or 
two hundred years old, or just a delicious bit worthy of the 
Atlan Club. This pitcher represents Mrs. F. M. Sessions in 
the Paris case. 

The large placque in the foreground is an orignal arrange- 
ment of the humble dandelion, by Mrs. L. T. Steward, in dark 
and turquoise blue enamels with lustre background. It is 
well designed and carried out in purely conventional forms, 
with the motif not lost sight of in any portion of the placque. 
Mrs. E. L. Humphrey's tall Moorish shaped vase is correctly 
treated in Moorish style — design, color and shape all harmo- 
nizing. The color scheme simply dark blue with purple tone. 



KERAM1C STUDIO 



209 



green and yellowish brown, with a yellow lustre background, 
makes a striking appearance. 

The large vase at the extreme right, by Miss L. E. Cole, 
is truly Persian. The all-over design of violet and white 
enamel blossoms, encircles a delicate pinkish red flower with 
connecting bands and garlands of green and pinkish red. A 
background of yellow lustre adds greatly to the strength and 
quality and makes a most artistic and pleasing vase. 

A dainty vase by Mrs. F. M. Steele is the only piece with 
a Japanese motif in this case. A simple bamboo design on a 
grey-green ground, with a narrow delicate band of vivid scarlet, 
black and golf! tracery at base and top, but so satisfying that 
one feels the truth of the Japanese method of showing but 
one, or at most a very few choice bits at a time. It is enough 
when perfect. The last piece is a beautiful elaborate choco- 
late pot by Miss Mary A. Phillips. A rich dark band reach- 
ing up fully one-third the height of the pot, then an all-over 
design of pink blossoms and irregular scrolls and leaves, with 
again the richly colored band at top, a perfectly designed and 
artistic piece of work. 

Besides the pieces shown in the photograph, are a number 
of beautiful things also to find a place in the Paris case. A 
hot water pot in delicate pinks and greens; a blue, green and 



colors with the peacock as the motif. A number of very 
decorative placques. A low vase with blackberry as the motif 
on greyish yellow lustre background. A beautiful vase with 




LI BUTE E. COLB. 



HELEN M. TOPPING. 



gold all-over cup and saucer, also one with pink, green and 
black on gold ground — both of these in Persian design; 
several finely executed plates, a quaint bowl, and a lovely pea- 
cock plate. One of the prominent Chicago papers says, 
"Among all these pieces by which the Atlan Club will make 
a conspicuous showing for ceramic art in America at the 
Paris exhibition, there is not one which is unworthy to stand 
the test of prominence to which it will be subjected." 

Six of the remaining cases were filled with just as original 
and artistic work as the Paris case, while one held the beauti- 
ful figure work of Mrs. A. A. Frazee and Miss Mary Phillips. 
The chief piece in this case was a finely executed panel named 
"The Brother's song." The cool marbles of a monastery 
court, with many dark gowned brothers listening to the song 
of one of their number — a most interesting study in every 
detail. This is Miss Phillips' work, also several well designed 
bonbonnieres. Mrs. Frazee's work in Rookwood effects is de- 
lightful, the jolly little darkey being especially adapted to this 
style, but a small pitcher vase with a dear little Dutch baby 
on its golden brown surface was simply charming. 

Only a few words can be given to the remaining cases. 
A jardiniere (small) with brilliant butterflies and tiny white 
blossoms on a dark blue matt ground. A small vase in Persian 




MRS. J. E. ZEUBLIN. 

a yellow lustre over flowers and all, making almost a mother- 
of-pearl effect. A covered jar with copper color lustre back- 
ground, and another with white flowers in enamel, shaded into 
pinks and blues, with entire background in rich dark blue 
enamel. A graceful tall Rhodian vase in cool blues, green 
and violets. These are perhaps the most noticeable, but a 
small case of simple soft blue designs on white and blue and 
green on white, attracted many favorable comments, thus 
proving untrue the statements often made that "conventional 
work is so difficult, complicated and elaborate." Difficult 
truly, but often the most simple designs call forth the enthu- 
siastic admiration of the entire club at one of their " criticism " 
afternoons. 

The club members surely should feel satisfied that their 
progress the past year has not only been noted but appreci- 
ated, for never has the Atlan exhibit awakened so much in- 
terest, especially among artists and critics. 

The attendance during the two weeks has been good, the 
sales very satisfactory and particularly have the comments 
and praise of the strangers within our gates warmed our hearts, 
their first surprise over the total absence of all floral decora- 
tion — so closely connected with china painting in all minds — 
having passed away. A thoughtful study of the work on ex- 




MRS. A. A. FRAZEE. 



206 



KERAMC STUDIO 



hibition brought out hearty words of commendation and en- 
couraged us to plunge into the work for 1900 with unabated 
zeal and the determination that the exhibit of 1900 shall sur- 
pass the present one even without the incentive of the watch- 
word for 1899 "Paris-" "Appreciation" can force us to con- 
quer difficulties that would be almost insurmountable otherwise. 

Mabel C. Dibble 



After reading Miss Dibble's most entertaining and in- 
structive letter from Chicago, the editors would like to quote 
from the criticism of James William Pattison and also to sav 
that Miss Dibble's modesty prevents her describing her own 
work, which ranks with the best of the club. We heard from 
an artist and critic that her chrysanthemum vase which was 
large and in Chinese treatment was indeed a " noble thing," 
there being blossoms of different colors. Miss Dibble showed 
courage in attempting it, but the result was harmonious and 
artistic, showing her skill as well as thought and study, there- 
by mastering her subject. 

















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.MRS. F. W. SESSIONS. GRACE H. PECK. MABEL C. DIBBLE. 

Mr. Pattison says: These artists seek to reach over the 
departing centuries and touch the lyre of the ancients, that 
some sweet melodies may be re-awakened to their edification 
and ours. All history of art is studded with adapted gems 
from the ancients. If the result in this case shall take upon 
itself the personality and character of Americanism all is well. 
But all things here are not Oriental by any means. 

The blackberry vase of Mrs. Stewart is purely indigenous 
and an original composition. The object is simple in shape 
(how restful is simplicity), only a bulging bottle, undertoned 
in lustre of color that the author calls "Yellow." No matter 
about the name; it is the sort of yellow that tries to be grey 
green, and it sets off well the blackberry leaves profusely dis- 
tributed. The white blossoms are formally grouped, and the 
dark berries likewise. A neat band keeps the horizontal line 
to sustain all this elaboration. What is good in it is the skill- 
ful way in which the design keeps its place and forms a series 
of parts that go round and round, each doing its special work 
in the whole. 

This artist's "Dandelion Placque" (also for J^aris) is an- 
other original design, and correct, even if the blossoms are 
"original," as well as the arrangement. Had the flowers been 
kept to the yellow, that we suspect dandelions owning, the 
rest of the placque would have had to have the same tone. 



As it is the artist is designing in blues and catches the field 
flowers named only for the sake of form. Of course they 
suggest the German corn flowers. 

In speaking of Mrs. Frazee's Peacock vase (Persian) he 
says "It is one of the most important articles in the room. 
It goes to Paris and the French will like it. I select this 
because of its individuality, as well as for the ingenuity dis- 
played in conventionalization of peacock forms. The shape 
of the vase is maintained perfectly, the architectural charac- 
teristics are well understood and the combinations of color 
quiet and still very rich. One must see this work to under- 
stand its beauty. 

Mrs. Humphrey sends to Paris a plate. Its center is 
plain (as are all the plates here) only the rim is treated. 
Several bands of varying warm red of excellent quality circle 
this rim, but are cut by panels of mat-gold, the whole tenderly 
broken by green leaves. 

"Throughout the room one finds evidence of careful 
training in the suitableness of applied form and attention to 
the sentiment of decoration, rather than to realism. Perhaps 
nothing is more generally admitted at this moment than the 
good sense in ti eating all such things as an architect would 
do it. For is this not architecture?" 

SUGGESTION FOR VASE IN POPPIES 

BACKGROUND, yellow brown lustre; neck of vase in dark 
brown, Poppies in gold outlined in black. In second fire 
shade Poppies with ruby lustre and stems and leaves with 
light and dark green lustre, or 

Light green background, dark green neck, Poppies in 
white shaded with pearl grey and white rose outline, in black 
or gold, or Poppies and leaves in brown on a celadon ground, 
the neck of vase a darker brown. 




KERAMIC STUDIO 



207 




^5. 








For Treatment see page 2J0 



STUDY OF WILD ROSES— HENRIETTA BARCLAY WRIGHT 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



LEAGUE Designs for the government table service 

NOTES Wil1 be submitted to a J ur y selected by the 
Chairman of the Educational Committee. 
The names before the board being Mr. Louis Prang, Mrs. 
Candace Wheeler and others not decided upon. 

Meeting of Advisory Board was held on the evening of 
January 3d. Reports from the committees on transportation 
and insurance (for the Paris Exposition) were heard. Reports 
from the various clubs in the League regarding their exhibit. 
There will be work sent from New York, Chicago, Boston, 
Detroit, Bridgeport, and probably Pittsburg, Denver and San 
Francisco. The response from the East has been very 
generous. 

Schedule for the circulating letters for February : 

New York receives letter from National League. 

Detroit receives Chicago October letter from Jersey City. 

Bridgeport receives Chicago letter from Providence. 

Brooklyn receives Providence September letter from Indianapolis. 

Wisconsin receives letter from National League. 

Providence receives Brooklyn September letter from San Francisco. 

Columbus receives Bridgeport December lettter from Indianapolis. 

Duquesne receives Wisconsin December letter from Jersey City. 

Indianapolis receives Brooklyn December letter from Denver. 

Chicago receives Detroit January letter from Boston. 

Denver receives San Francisco December letter from Washington. 

Boston receives San Francisco letter from Columbus. 

San Francisco receives letter from Detroit. 

Washington receives Duquesne November letter from Chicago. 

£LUB The December meeting of the Bridgeport 

ISTEAJCS L ea S ue °f Keramic Art was held at the home 
of Miss Hurd. Mrs. N. E. VVorden read a 
most excellent paper setting forth the benefits of the public 
library to all keramic workers. Mrs. H. C. Waite, who was 
the critic for the day, afterwards spoke interestingly upon 
Holland. 

The New York Society of Keramic Arts held its January 
meeting at the Waldorf-Astoria. Final business arrange- 
ments were made for the Paris Exposition. 

Although we have had nothing but newspaper clippings 
giving an account of the Exhibition by the Kansas City Club, 
we have had letters saying the exhibition was very successful 
and that the work of members is steadily improving. 

Nashville has started an Art Club, with the idea of 
establishing an Art Institute. The club is meeting with 
encouragement in the acquisition of active members and in 
generous subscriptions from men of wealth which will go 
towards a new building. 

We received an interesting account of an exhibition given 
by the Indiana Keramic Association which we are unable to 
publish in full, owing to the lateness of its arrival, when our 
number has gone to press, so that we can give only a short 
statement. The President, Mrs. W. S. Day, and the Vice 
President, Mrs. J. M. Orndorf, were good enough to write to 
us. The club being comparatively new it will please those 
interested in the Keramic movement in this country to know 
that these officers say there was great improvement in the 
work this year, and that the sales were good and the attend- 
ance large. Each year's exhibit represents the work of the 
past year, so that comparisons are easily made. The exhibi- 
tion was given at the "Bates House" with a special reception 
committee. Among the exhibitors were Mrs. Wilmer Christian, 
Miss Flora Greenstreet, Mrs. J. J. Gower, Mrs. C. J. Buchanan, 
Mrs. W. Perkins, Mrs. Lewis D. Stubbs, Mrs. B. F. Howard, 
Miss Katherine Conard (who has been studying at the Doul- 
ton potteries, England, and bears the distinction of being one 



of a very few Americans who have been admitted there to 
study), Mrs. Henley, Mrs. T. B. Adams, Mrs. Thomas Har- 
rington, Mrs. H. B. Smith, Mrs. Daniel De Prez, Mrs. F. O. 
Haver, Mrs. W. S. Major, Mrs. W. H. Welch, Mrs. O. C. Wil- 
cox, Mrs. M. H. Woodsmall, Miss Flora Greenstreet, Mrs. 
Mary A. Phipps, Mrs. Geo. Fleming, Mrs. Ovid Adams. Mrs. 
Orndorf and Mrs. Day. 

♦ 
JN THE Mrs. Fanny Rowell entertained the Jersey 

STUDIOS ^' ty ^lub at her studio January S, Mr. Mar- 
shall Fry being the critic for competitive work. 
Miss Nora Hosier received first prize and Miss Mulford hon- 
orable mention. 

Mrs. Florence Koehler, who has been the instructor and 
guide of the Altan Club, will be in New York during Febru- 
ary and part of March to give lessons in keramic decorations 
and designing. Mrs. Koehler's influence in the West is so 
strongly felt and is bearing such fine results that she needs no 
introduction here, and all artists will welcome her. Mrs. Koeh- 
ler thinks with the wonderful resources here of libraries, 
museums and potteries, that keramists should accomplish 
much that is truly artistic and original. Under her inspiring 
instructions we hope that such may be the case. Address all 
communications, care Mrs. Leonard, 28 East 23d street, New 
York City. 

Mrs. Sara Wood Safford of Boston, will give lessons in 
New York during the winter at the Fry Studio. 

♦ 

TN THE China decoration in lustres is noticeably 

cuv-vpc good from the German potteries and there is 

usually some all-over design of gold used 

where the lustre covers large surfaces. Light green lustre and 

steel blue lustre seem to form the favorite backgrounds. 

The magnificent borders on the plates of the Russian china 
at Tiffany's should make those who are fortunate enough to 
see them, appreciate the artistic designs adapted from historic 
ornament published in the Keramic Studio. 

The designs of the best plate seen, are confined almost 
entirely to the rims, and many of the designs are simple, but 
beautifully executed. 

There is a certain fascination about the Royal Copenhagen 
china whether it is a vase, jar or table service. We give 
our preference for the blue and white, but the white violet 
pattern is always attractive and looks very elegant and clean 
upon the table. The Japanese are imitating it, but it lacks a 
certain individuality. We were distressed to find in one of 
the shops some Japanes cups done in the rococo. It seemed 
a pity to think of it ! 

WILD ROSES 

Henrietta Barclay Wright 

USE for the roses Dresden Carmine 53 (or any good pink.) 
Shade the more delicate ones around the center with 
White Rose, painting the centers with White Rose and Yel- 
low Brown, and pick out the stamens to be washed over the 
second time with Albert Yellow. A little Ruby may be 
added to the pink for the darkest Rose. 

For the leaves Brown Green and Dark Green, glazed with 
Moss Green J the second time. Royal Copenhagen and 
Purple Grey for the shadowy leaves. Shade the stems and 
some of the young leaves with Deep Red Brown. Blend 
softly for the background the shadowy tints of Copenhagen, 
Purple Gray and White Rose. A touch of Russian Green for 
the extreme light, very thin. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



211 




OOOOD 
O O DO 

ooooo 



CaRCXES 






~7> 



,«3^ 



BONBONNIERE— CLARA S. TAYLOR 



THE proper colors of the design are given in the little chart line looking better. Divide the surface of the china into 
which accompanies it. Each ornament or form may be quarters, then eighths, then trace the design on in pencil, 
outlined in raised gold, or a fine flat line of gold, the raised afterwards going over it carefully in India Ink. 



212 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




NATIONAL ARTS CLUB. 

ECIDEDLY the most interesting exhibition this 
year has been the exhibit of American potte- 
ries at the National Arts Club. The walls of a 
green gray, the wood work of green oak, the 
fine lighting from above, made an ideal place 
for such an exhibit and brought out every 
possible beauty. 
The most interesting exhibits were those of the Rook- 
wood Pottery, Grueby Faience, Volkmar Ware, Newcomb 
Pottery, Dedham Pottery and the superb lustres of Clement 
Massier. Brouwer of the Middle Lane Potteries, showed some 
interesting effects in imitation of the ancient iridescent wares, 
which looked as if they had been through the fire of ages and 
come out burned and blistered, but the attendant iridescent 
effect was interesting. His attempts to use gold leaf under 
the glaze, or rather under transparent enamel were cheap and 
tawdry looking in the extreme, but we presume they were 
simply initiatory experiments. 




GENERAL VIEW OF POTTERY EXHIBITION AT NATIONAL ARTS CLUB. 

George H. Ohr, of Biloxi, Mississippi, showed some 
quaint potteries that reminded one of the ancient Aztecs. 
But the quaintest thing about him is his huge conceit. He 
adds a card with some legend inscribed to every piece, one of 
which describes himself as the only one and greatest variety 
potter in the world, or words to that effect. 

The Rookwood Pottery's exhibit was extremely interest- 
ing, showing every style of glaze and decoration of the Stand- 
ard ware, so well known with its rich reds, yellows and browns. 
A vase with tulips in pale mahogany tints on a warm grey 
yellow ground, another of thistles, and a big luscious pumpkin 
color vase with dandelions, were the most striking in decoration. 

Of the "Sea Green Ware," the gem of the collection was 
a large jar in dull green grey, with brown poppies clustered 
around the neck, the stems making wavy longitudinal divisions 
all around the vase from neck to base. 

A waterlily vase, tall and slender, had a grey green body 
and one lily in brown at the top, the stem reaching down to 
and encircling the base. A stunning vase was one in greys 
with a fish darting across the base. 

Of the Iris ware, whose tones remind one of the faint 
reflection of a rainbow, the most unique was a decoration 
with a crane in low relief on the shoulder of the vase, and a 
vase decorated with waves. 




VOLKMAR 

NEWCOMB COLLEGE 

BROUWER 

Two other pieces quite unlike what one usually expects 
from Rookwood are in highly modelled form, one with three 
white fleur-de-lis raised in bold relief around the neck of the 
vase, and one vase, which at first glance seemed a piece of 
melted half opaque grey glass, resolved itself into a quaintly 
modelled mourning nymph. 

The Grueby faience has a refined and restful effect, 
though seeing so many pieces together gives a sense rather 
of monotony. The decoration is in form and color only with 
a restricted range of both. The forms are very simple usually 
representing over lapping leaves. The colors range from 
greyish yellow to grey browns, grey greens and a few grey 
blues. The finish is a dull satiny effect and each piece by 
itself is a marvel of quiet, unobtrusive beauty. No collection 
would be perfect without a piece of this ware. 

Mr. Charles Volkmar had two fine landscape tiles painted 
in the underglaze, framed artistically in black. They showed 
by their broad and bold treatment, the artist in pictorial 
effects as well as in the fine simple color work to which he 
has confined himself of late. 




MASSIER 
ROOKWOOD 



VOLKMAR 



The Dedham Potteries showed some interesting plates in 
various shades of blue and white modern decorations, with the 
glaze crackled and color rubbed in to represent age. Their 



KERAMC STUDIO 



213 



vases as s rule were hideous masses of glaze and lustre and 
lumps of clay, though there were a few redeeming specimens 
which recalled the Chinese colored glaze ware, one color run- 
ning in streaks into another. 

The Newcomb Pottery of which we have spoken before, 
was peculiarly interesting from the fact that the work is done 
by students. The coloring as well as designing was simple 
and artistic, most decorations being in blue and grey. 

A vase by Miss Mary Sherer, the teacher, was well 
thought out, the decoration being of pine trees in lengthwise 
divisions all around the vase, the coloring, blue on grey, with 
just a little tinge of green in the foliage. Some of the pieces 
without decoration were most interesting in form and color. 
The work of the pupils pronounce the teacher an artist of the 
highest merit. 



The lustres of Clement Massier, of Golfe Juan, France, 
were a marvel of accurate knowledge of the most freakish of 
mediums. He has no doubt how his color will come out, for 
he paints with them a sunset landscape with trees and water 
and distance too. The effect is obtained by the use of metallic 
oxides on stone ware, but such living greens and blues and 
violets, yellows, oranges and reds have not yet been discovered 
by us. The curious thing about them is that when you stand 
at a distance the entire design resolves itself into vague greys 
with scarce a suggestion of lustre. His is a method it will 
take long for us to fathom. 

Other pieces are immense jars with flower or leaf patterns, 
and a placque with a draped figure in low relief over which 
the colors waver like the prismatic colors in a mist. 

The exhibition is an education and an inspiration. 



/&*( 




DESIGN FOR CHEESE DISH, ADAPTED FROM HABERT DYS— MRS. ADELAIDE ALSOP ROBINEAU 

THIS can be carried out in flat color or lustre, the original "cheeses" in different shades of yellow and orange, the whole 
application was in lustre. For the ground light green, outlined in gold. The different depths of color can be ob. 
the mice in brown, the vine and leaves in dark green, the tained by repeated washes in the second and third fires. 



214 



KERAMC STUDIO 



THE COLLECTOR 



WILLOW WARE PATTERN 

Loving birds poised on the wing, 
Sigh when you hear the song I sing. 
In a little boat one summer's day, 
Two happy lovers sailed away. 

Weep, sad willow, to your name be true, 
For a father's wrath doth these lovers pursue. 
O'er the bridge hard by his armed band 
Hastens to meet them when they land. 
To the lordly castle the maiden is led. 
Her lover, alas ! for his life has fled. 
Beneath this tree with its apples red, 
For her lover she mourns as though he were dead. 
She is sleeping now beyond the fence, 
Again they will meet some few years hence. 
So whenever you see a willow pattern plate, 
Be warned stern parents by the lovers sad fate. 




THE "willow pattern "was undoubtedly the most popular 
ever made, and was first introduced by Thomas Turner 
of the Caughley works in 1780. Its great popularity led to it 
being copied by nearly all the other English manufacturers of 
that time. The cut herewith published represents the original 
pattern with the addition of eight indentations in the rim. 
This was in many instances slightly altered, some patterns 
having but two figures on the bridge, where the original has 
three; others very different in that the relative position of the 
lovers and bridge were reversed. The color was a beautiful 
blue, not so dark as that used on American historical designs 
or so light as that used on more modern dishes. In those 
days styles did not change with every season, as in our day, 
and the willow pattern was made for many years and reached 
far into the nineteenth century, in fact, some enterprising 
English manufacturer has lately reproduced it, and the unprac- 
ticed eye could hardly distinguish it from the old, but the 
connoisseur can readily detect the imposture. 

The pattern was undoubtedly of Chinese origin, as were 
many patterns of that day. It was applied to both ironstone 
and china ware, but mostly all that is to be found nowdays is 



of the former, which is not surprising, as the greater portion 
of the importations of table ware were of that material. 

The writer has also seen the willow pattern reproduced in 
Cloisonne, which was very beautiful, as is almost everything 
that is produced in that elegant ware by the Japanese. 

As to prices on the willow pattern, it is difficult to deter- 
mine. At the Gov. Lyon sale in 1876 plates sold for one 
dollar each. Everything in the line of old dishes have ad- 
vanced, and I have known of plates selling as high as three 
dollars. Col. John H. Drake. 

e e e 
CHEATS IN ORIENTAL CERAMICS 

THE most inviting field to-day. perhaps, for the unscrupu- 
lous business man is in the trade of Chinese and 
Japanese antiques. There is hardly ever the possibility of 
detection in the frauds perpetrated. "Antiques" that were 
formed by a cunning Celestial twelve months ago are sold at 
enormous prices, and no one can dispute their claim to be 
antiques because the date of their manufacture has never been 
registered. 

To understand how extremely difficult it is to come into 
possession of a veritable antique, it is necessary to go into the 
atelier of the Chinese or Japanese artist in his native country. 
One hundred years ago aud earlier the Japanese and his 
neighbor loved art for art's sake as well as for the profit in it. 
He conceived and executed a vase of beautiful form, and then 
he broke the mould. That single vase whose creator could 
easily be told from the peculiar handiwork has become valua- 
ble from the fact that it is the only one of its kind, and not 
because it is more beautiful than those of later date. Art 
connoisseurs agree that the more modern artists — in fact the 
artists now living and producing — do infinitely finer work than 
their forbears did, both in design and workmanship. The 
early artists never registered dates. Because of this fact buy- 
ers of antiques are at the mercy of the dealer, and he in turn 
is at the mercy of the modern native Japanese and Chinese 
artists. But his business interests will not permit him to 
make this confession. 

" We absolutely cannot rely upon anything that is told 
us," said a buyer. " I go to Yokohama, Tokio, Koba, and 
other art centres every year. In the first-named city, about 
ten years ago, I visited a large native art store. The proprie- 
tor, among other things, showed me a stone lantern, on one 
side of which was this inscription in Chinese characters : ' Pre- 
sented to temple in 1774.' I looked the lantern carefully over 
and it did look its 125 years. I bought it, not because I believed 
its story, but because the price asked was reasonable. Before 
parting with it the owner told me the roundabout way by 
which it had fallen into his hands — a pretty tale, which, of 
course, I did not believe. 

" Well, in the course of my stay, I came across another 
merchant. At this particular time I was looking for antiques. 
I began to deplore the fact that he had nothing sufficiently 
old. The next year I visited him his store teemed with an- 
tiques. I grew suspicious, and questioned him sharply, but 
his self-composure never deserted him. I got no satisfaction 
whatever from investigating. The natives preserve their 
secrets, and a traitor among them in their dealings with for- 
eigners is unknown. I became convinced that they met our 
demands for antiques by manufacturing them. 

" I have handled Japanese and Chinese art goods for 
twenty-five years. To-day I cannot tell between a piece made 
150 years ago and a piece made fifteen months ago. These 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



219 



people are wonderfully clever imitators, and know how to were killing their own trade through imitation. They copy 

give the semblance of age to their wares when it is desirable the French, German and English ideas, and interweave them 

to do so." with their own until the native work loses its own peculiar 

Concerning the relative merits of the Chinese and Japa- character. The Chinese, on the contrary, cling tenaciously to 

nese art of to-day the merchant declared that the Japanese their own style and refuse to be influenced by foreign ideas. 



A FEW MONOGRAMS 









y*0 








B.H-W, 







c 
Sa 



Pi 




KERAMC STUDIO 



217 




ART OF PYROGRAPHY OR BURNT WOOD ETCHING 

O. A . I r an der Leeden 

SECOND TAPER 

HE outfit being complete, the first step is to 
prepare the implements for use. Take the 
small square bottle, filling it from one-half 
to two-thirds full of benzine. Insert the 
metal stopper in the neck of this bottle, 
attaching the loose length of tubing at one side, and the tubing 
with the bellows at the other. Now securely fasten the point 
to the metal handle, attaching this to the other end of the 
loose tubing. A small amount of alcohol is necessary for the 
lamp, also a piece of wood for practice work. 

Lighting the lamp, hold the point in the flame for a few 
moments, letting the heat extend well up into the point, then 
slowly commence to press the bulb. A perfectly new point 
should be held longer in the flame before commencing to 
press. At first it will seem awkward to use both hands at 
once, but this will soon be overcome, and you will find that 
your left hand almost unconsciously presses the bulb, accord- 
ing to the heat desired. 

First practice making straight lines, holding the point 




with a free, swinging motion, removing it from the wood while 
in motion. Avoid stopping at any particular part of it, as the 
least hesitancy will produce a dot. Practice these lines until 
you can make them with ease and confidence. Next practice 
curved lines, holding the point loosely and turning the handle 
in the fingers, at the same time keeping a steady .heat in the 
point. Resting the hand firmly upon the wood, move the 




point with the direction of the curve, doing this slowly and 
evenly, as the least jerk makes an irregular, jagged line, or 
may cause the point to skip the grain of the wood (see illus- 
tration). To become thoroughly familiar with the uses of the 
point, the pupil must prac \ \ -\. >. J\ y\ 

tice these lines with great \ \ \ J / y" J 

care. When selecting the 
wood, care should be taken 
to see that it is well sea- 
soned and as free as possi- 
ble from all knots and 
blemishes. Oak, ash and 
elm will be found useful 
for large pieces. Holly, 

sycamore and lime may ^*- ^ 

be used for delicate work, but on account of its pure white 
color and soft texture, which does not injure the point, I prefer 
the basswood, and use it almost entirely for burning purposes. 

After overcoming the mechanical difficulties of the art, 
we now turn our attention to a simple design. This design 
given is for a small round frame (see illustration). 

First carefully outline the design, making the lines of 
medium thickness. Having the outlines in, next put in a 
very light fine background. To obtain this background, hold 
the point in an almost straight direction, making the strokes 
converge towards the center. Make the strokes short and 
fine, and closely together, letting no white spaces appear. 
Try to put the pressure of the point in the middle of the 
stroke, blending the stroke together, so that an even and reg- 
ular background is produced. 

Finish the outer edge of the frame by making dots. Hold 
the point flat, burning the dot-- in deeply, making them even 
and slightly slanting; 

In the inner part of the design make a darker, dotted 
background. To make this background, hold the point 
straight and slightly to the side, inserting the point deeply 
into the wood, making each dot perfectly round and close 
together. Follow the direction of the inner edge of the frame, 
making the second row fit into the first, so that no white 
space shows, and so that the round shape of the dot is pre- 
served. Finish the inner edge of the frame by making small 




2l8 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



dots close together. The contrast of these two backgrounds 
—light brown and black— is very rich, and if properly done, 
brings out the design clear and distinct. 

The accompanying design, given for a tabourette, is very 
effective and handsome. This design is outlined in the same 
manner as the frame, but with heavier lines. After outlining, 
the tabourette may be stained either with ebony, flemish oak, 
•mahogany, walnut or any finish the pupil wishes, ebony 
especially being very effective. When the background is 
stained, different bright colors may be used to give an oriental 
effect. Burned backgrounds suitable for using on tabourettes 
will be described in the next issue of the KERAMIC STUDIO. 

[TO BE CONTINUED.] 

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS 

Any questions to be answered by this department must he sent in by the 10th of 
the month preceding issue. » 

C. L. M.— In mixing the powder colors use the medium until the color is 
the consistency of paint as it comes from a tube ; then use turpentine to dilute 
it as you use the color in your brush. After the paint is almost dry, dust in 
the color in the background. This is repeated in the next fire if you have not 
obtained sufficient depth in the first fire. The ivory glaze will give a light 
effect dusted into the background. Too much of the medium will cause the 
color to crawl and to collect the lint and dust. We will have a treatment of 
dark red roses in our next number. 

H. H. — If your gold comes out dull after two coats and two fires, either 
your raised paste is not right (see A. C. C.) or your gold has been discolored 
by a steel knife or color in your brush, or there is something wrong in your 
gold. Gold in powder form contains a larger per cent of gold than most ready 
mixed preparations. To use it mix with one drop each of fat oil and tar oil, 
then thin with turpentine 

" Floating on Enamel " means letting it flow off the brush so as to spread 
of itself and make an even surface. In this case the enamel must be thinned 
with lavender oil to the desired consistency and put on with a large square 
shader. 

To learn to draw -well without the personal instruction of a good teacher is 
exceedingly difficult. Teaching by correspondence is very unsatisfactory in 
that the teacher cannot see whether the pupil sees correctly. Mr. A. G. 
Marshall whose advertisement will be found elsewhere is one of the few we 
can recommend for this kind of instruction. 

A. C. C— In using an oven to dry china in the process of painting, it is 
best to warm the oven slightly. Put in your piece of china, close the door 
and leave until so hot that you cannot bear your hand on it. Then turn off 
the heat and do not take out the china until cool enough to handle. If you 
leave the door open, or open before fairly cool, you are liable to crack the china, 
especially delicate or Belleek pieces. Fresh paste or enamel should never be 
dried artificially until they have dried enough naturally so that the surface is 
dull, otherwise it is liable to blister and stew, especially if used heavily. I 
should judge your trouble was in the make of raised paste if your gold comes 
out generally dull or dark. There is no raised paste on the market to com- 
pare with Hancock's for good results. Your gold is a good make and should 
come out well. Using saliva would not affect the color, but we find a much 
better effect by breathing on the paste as described in the article on paste for 
glass in the August Number of KERAMIC STUDIO. This method applies 
equally well to china. Dusted colors should never be dried artificially. The 
oil is made to keep open a long time and will soften with heat, thus causing 
tint to run. 

Roman Purple can safely be used over any other Purple, painted or dusted. 
Some lustres require a harder fire than others. An ordinary fire is generally 
about right. Ruby and Orange require an extra hard fire. Rose, if lightly 
fired, has a bluish tone. They should be placed in the lower half of kiln and 
usually on the bottom unless on Belleek. 

We have planned for a set of fruit plates to go with berry bowl in the 
near future. 

You will find the recipe for gold in the October Number of KERAMIC 
STUDIO a very useful one. If one has time to spare, it surely pays to make 
one's own gold. 

M. C. W. — If you consider your rose jar unsightly, do not hesitate to try 
an improvement. We fire paste successfully any number of times. 

Putting a "Worcester background " over gold would not be a success. 
You might subdue the effect of the bright gold scrolls, by adding a little shad- 
ing of a strong green or ruby in sharp touches, or by using the colored scrolls 
as an accessory to the gold ones ; or you could subdue the gold by covering it 
entirely with a bronze. Your mistake is the same made by the majority of 



china decorators, not having it right in the first place. If the design is correct 
and the color harmonious and well balanced, a piece decorated one year should 
be good not only for that year but for all time. 

L. V. S.— Maroon, Roman Purple or Ruby (practically the same) are the 
most difficult of all colors to dust on or to fire properly. In the first place the 
color should be ground with a muller and sifted through the finest copper wire 
sieve, which removes most of the " grit." Your grounding oil should be put 
on a little thinner than for the other colors, for unless this rubv color shows 
transparency, it is hideous and at once gives a piece of china a heavy appear- 
ance. If there is too much grounding oil the color will be too thick, firing a 
brownish color, with no depth to it at all and it is apt to scale off in that case. 
The English potteries claim that they produce the best overglaze ruby, and no 
doubt the glaze has much to do with the difficulty. Then the grounding oil 
should be padded peifectly smooth, going over it again and again. 

H. C. R— In the August number treatment of yellow roses, the term 
"glaze" means to give a wash of a certain color. You might learn about 
photographing on china by applying to the firm who advertise in the KERAMIC 
STUDIO. 

M. L. P.— To lay on an even dark color the best method is to dust the 
color on as described in an earlier issue. KERAMIC STUDIO has only been 
issued since last May and you would do well to have all the back numbers as 
they contain much valuable information which will not be repeated at least for 
a year. For small spaces you will have to rely oii your skill with the brush, 
and repeated firings in which you can retouch the lighter places. There is a 
long article on lustres in the July number, and more or less information on 
that subject in every number, beginning with May. Yes, they .ire especially 
good for any kind of decorative work. Their chief beauty lies in their iri- 
descent color and high glaze. They can be put on smoothly or not, as desred. 
B- D —You can obtain studies of shells and sea weeds by writing to any 
of our teachers who advertise water color designs for china. We will put a 
conventional design for fish plates in the March number. 

F. M. L.— Any of the borders given in the various articles on Historic 
Ornament would make a suitable design for a cold meat tray. A conventional 
design only would be appropriate. 

L. V. W.— The best deep purple with which we are acquainted is the 
Royal Purple put up by the Fry Art Co. It has the deep blue purple of the 
Pansy. To obtain a uniform deep tone the color must be dusted on. 

J. S. M.— We would refer you also to the border designs in Historic 
Ornament for plate borders. For instance, take a Persian border from the 
November number, say the plate design by Miss Vilas. For the white por- 
tion use light green lustre painted on two or three times till quite deep and 
iridescent. Put rose on the dotted portion for the first tire and yellow over it 
for the second. This gives a pearl effect. For the black portion use orange 
for first fire, brown for second. Outline all in gold. Am oilier color scheme 
can be used or the design raised in enamels. 

H. R D. — You will find your monogram in this number. We will give 
another sheet of monograms in a few months. There is no need for two glass 
vessels for the chloride of gold. One is sufficient it large enough to add more 
water if your solution should prove too strong. 

J. D. Y. — Both colors you mention can be dusted on, the Matt wax color 
having a dull finish or semi-glaze. 

H. E. B— We expect to have an article on tiring very soon and will look 
up the matter of gasoline attachments. 




MARCH MDCCCC Price 35c. Yearly Subscription $3.50 



//) 



CONTRIBUTORS 

MRS. K. E. CHERRY > j* * * * 

COL. JOHN H. DRAKE * * * > 

MISS MIRA BURR EDSON ^ j* * 

MISS LETA HORLOCKER * * * 

MRS. ANNA B. LEONARD > j* J- 

MR. A. G. MARSHALL * * * * * 

MISS ELIZABETH MASON > * * 

MISS LIDA S. MULFORD j* > > j* 
MRS. HENRIETTA BARCLAY PAIST 

MISS MARY CHASE PERRY * * * 

MRS. L. VANCE PHILLIPS.* * * j* 

MRS. ADELAIDE ALSOP-ROBINEAU ^ 

MRS. MARY TROMM * > S ^ j» 

MISS SARA B. VILAS j* j* j» j» j* 

MISS M. E. WEIGHELL > > j» > 



&■ 



I M§HTKLYs 
H/IBG2ZIIIE: 

FOR: ^THE: 

DEfflgHffi:P€nffi:BBefiBffiRK:HBER: 



Copyrighted 1869 by the Kerainic Studio Publishing Co.. Sy 



nd New York. Entered at the Po*t Office at Syracuse, N. Y.. as Second Claaa Matter, Aug 2, 18 



[ The entire contents of this Magazine are cohered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted Without special permission. ] 

CONTENTS FOR MARCH, J900 



Editorial Notes, 

First Exhibition of the American Society of Miniature 

Painters, 
Study of Cupids with Treatment, 
Rookwood Pottery for Paris Exhibit, 
Historic Ornament — Russian, 
Barberry Plate, 
Design for Fish Plate, 

Treatment for Poster Placque (Supplement), 
Treatment for Red Roses, 
A Tiffany Lamp, 
Russian Plate Design, 
Plate Design, 

League Notes — Club News, . 
In the Shops — In the Studios, 
Paris Exhibit, . 
Paris Exhibit, 
Paris Exhibit, . 
Egyptian Cup and Saucer, 
Design for Bowl, 
Pink Plate, 

The Collector — Silver Lustre Teapot, 
Design for Bonbonniere, 
Cabinet with Decoration in Pyrography, 
The Boar Hunt (Illus. about -£> size of original) 
The Grueby Pottery, 

The Application of Ornament (Fifth Paper) 
Answers to Correspondents, 



L. Vance Phillips, 

Adelaide Alsop-Robineau, 
Mary Chase Perry, 
Adelaide Alsop-Robineau, 
Henrietta Barclay Paist, 
Leta Horlocker, 
Mira Burr Edson, 
Sara B. Vilas, 
Anna B. Leonard, 



Elizabeth Mason, 

Anna B. Leonard, 

Adelaide Alsop-Robineau, 

M. E. Weighell, 

M. E. Weighell, 

K. E. Cherry, 

Col. John H. Drake, 

Lida S. Mulford, . 

A. G. Marshall, 

Mary Tromm, 

A. G. Marshall, 



PAGE 
219 

219 

220-221 

221-228-231 

. 222-223 

224 

225 

225 

225 

226 

226 

226-227 

228 

229 

229 

230 

230 

232 

232 

233 

234 

235 

236 

236 237 

237 

238-239 

239-240 




SYRACUSE, N. Y. 



Vol. I, No. U 



NEW YORK AND SYRACUSE 



March 1900 




S IT is the aim of the KERAMIC STUDIO to 
elevate the standard of keramics with students 
and teachers, and to aid them in placing their 
work on a commercial as well as artistic basis, 
we would suggest that a universal protest from 
all keramists be made against the importation 
of defective white china— called "seconds", (or perhaps sixths 
as we get it) — from all factories. 

It is almost an impossibility to select a perfect piece of 
white china, and as for getting a dozen perfect plates, without 
specks and flaws, one has to be almost disagreeable with 
dealers, in persistently returning the defective pieces, until a 
reasonably fair dozen has been selected. This has been 
brought forcibly to our attention in a practical way since Mr. 
Wilhelm of the old firm Wilhelm & Graef, has undertaken 
sales and orders for the New York Society of Keramic Arts. 

With his long experience in handling goods from all the 
renowned factories of Europe, his practical criticism from the 
trade side is valuable to decorators here, who have not given 
much thought to the selection of white china. Mr. Wilhelm 
is perfectlv surprised to see so much good work placed upon 
such absolutely defective china; he says it greatly injures 
the sales, notwithstanding the artistic merit of the decoration. 
Some of the dealers in white ware are making great 
efforts to procure perfect china for decorators; but it is only 
by persistently refusing to buy poor china that the factories 
will pay any attention to the demands of the decorators. 

The Keramic Studio suggests to the " National League 
of Mineral Painters" some missionary work upon these lines! 

Having heard from well-known teachers, our suggestion 
in our last issue regarding the method of teaching by the 
month, seems to have met with approval. Students also are 
in favor of the idea. Suggestions from our readers are in 
order. 

We are in receipt of a dainty booklet entitled " Egypt," 
from the publishing house of the Robert Clarke Co., Cincin- 
nati. The poem is artistically gotten up and illustrated. We 
particularly admire the design on title page and cover, an 
artistic combination of the winged " Ra," the lotus and the 
scarab. The authoress, Miss Laura G Collins, is to be con- 
gratulated on her publisher and illustrator, Mr. J. Augustus 
Knapp. 

The marks on Oriental porcelain are given in the various 
editions of Chaffers; they are also to be found in works pub- 
lished by Dr. J. G. Theodor Griisse and others, and in Hopper 

& Phillips' Manual of Marks. 

The illustrated article on Pyrography by Mr. O. A. Van 
der Leeden is omitted from this number for lack of room. It 
will appear in the April issue. 



First Exhibition of the American Society of Miniature Painters 
at Knoedler's. 

THIS society was formed for the purpose of encouraging 
and fostering the art of miniature painting in this country 
There would hardly be a need for such a society if miniatures 
could be displayed to advantage at any of the chief annual 
exhibitions, but, though it is true that at the Society of Amer- 
ican Artists and at the Water Color Society a few miniatures 
are seen every year, yet the painters doubtless felt that these 
fragile little things were too often overwhelmed and crushed 
by the more pretentious pictures that make up the greater 
part of such exhibitions. 

The interest of the New York public in miniature paint- 
ing was very slight until six or seven years ago when it 
suddenly arose and grew until it became the hobby of a large 
number of dilletanti. Unhappily most of those who chose to 
indulge a taste for collecting showed a singular lack of judg- 
ment, and apparently never learnt to distinguish between a 
real work of art and a colored photograph. Many seemed to 
regard a picture on ivory merely as a curiosity because of its 
exceeding smallness, others looked on it as a proper excuse 
for a piece of jewelry, and for a time the jeweler's shop was 
thought to be the natural place to go in the quest for minia- 
tures. Within the last few years, however, the buyers have 
grown more discriminating and though the demand has on a 
whole somewhat fallen off, yet the decline of the hobby has af- 
fected the jeweler and the photographer rather than the artist. 

The American Society of Miniature Painters naturally 
does not profess to encourage the photographer; it was at 
least partly in order to save the art from degradation to the 
level of a trade that the formation of a society was originally 
contemplated. The miniatures at Knoedler's are not all good 
by any means, but the work of the hack photo-miniaturist has 
been very successfully kept out of doors. The proportion of 
really able work is fairly large, and it is interesting to note 
that some of the very best examples are contributed by 
women. — New York Post. 



Mr. Baer, who is past master of the art of miniature 
painting, had a very uneven exhibition. His work is beauti- 
fully soft and suggestive, but occasionally overworked to 
tameness. We have seen much finer work of his than the 
present examples. 

Miss Laura Hills showed the same daring and vigor, 
though she too is hardly up to her mark in originality and taste. 

Mrs. Rhoda Holmes Nicholls had but one miniature, a 
likeness of her father, but perfect in its way. It had the 
quaint refinement and intellectuality of the days of Nathaniel 
Hawthorne. 

Miss Strafer's subject, a laughing child, was charmingly 
full of life and well painted. 

Mrs. Lucia Fairchild Fuller also had an interesting ex- 
hibit, but not so good as at the "American Artists" last year. 

There is plenty of room still at the top. 



KERAMC STUDIO 




KERAMIC STUDIO 



TREATMENT OF CUPIDS 

L. I 'a nee Phillips 

AS the management of the flesh painting has been given in 
previous studies, only hints on a few special points will 
need to be given. In the painting of the darkest shadows 
very little "warm shadow" is used. In its place medium 
fluxed Pompadour gives the more rosy tone so desirable in 
Cupids. When a sky background is used and some blue 
loosely painted in, it is wise to use extra blue in the cool 
shadows of the flesh to give a more atmospheric effect. This 
effect is still further heightened by having the high lights of 
the flesh very delicate and more yellow than usual. This 
effect is secured by adding extra Canary Yellow to the usual 
flesh tint (blonde). 



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In the management of the Cupids, where there is the fire 
light and the cold light of the gray day, use decidedly blue 
but delicate shadows on that portion of the flesh and hair not 
lighted from the fire brands. These brands, having touches 
of yellow and red flame suggested, will throw pale yellow and 
pink lights on the flesh and hair. Contrast this effect with a 
cool blue gray and purple gray background suggesting also 
snow-flakes. View the work from a distance very often as you 
proceed, and you will have more strength and variety in color 
by so doing. 




GRACE YOUNG 



ROOKWOOD POTTERY FOR PARIS EXHIBIT 



WE present this month illustrations of a few of the pieces 
of Rookwood pottery which will be sent to the Paris 
exposition. This Pottery claims a great advance, both 
technically and artistically, over any former work. 
It expects to show itself thoroughly alive and 
offering the utmost opportunities for the devel- 
opment of individual artistic merit. The present 
mark was adopted in 1886, every succeeding year 
adding a flame point above the mark. In addi- 
tion to the two illustrations herewith given see pages 228 
and 231. 



Ivance, both 

5P 




IiBE WAREHAM 



KERAMC STUDIO 










HISTORICAL ORNAMENT— RUSSIAN 

USSIAN decorative art is a mixture of borrow- 
ings from the Celts and the Orientals, selec- 
tions being drawn always from those designs 
which appealed most strongly to the national 
taste and made individual and national by 
remodelling on lines which allowed of pro- 
fuse and gorgeous ornamentation. The striking characteristic 
of the Slavonic race is a love for magnificence, a feeling for 
color highly developed, and a certain characteristic eccentric- 
ity. amounting to originality in the development of the bor- 
rowed designs. 

The Russian and Celtic intertwined patterns show a close- 
affinity. It has been disputed as to whether their common 
origin was Celtic or Scandinavian. The balance of opinion, 
however, is in favor of the Celtic. The difference in nation- 
ality is shown by the elaborate and fantastic treatment of 
these designs in jewelling and gold. 

The Moor also used these interlaced ornaments; which 
shows that it is a development of ornament common to all 
barbaric nations. The other examples of ornament are decid- 
edly Oriental. 




Application The plate by Miss Vilas is a" simple 

to Modern adaptation of motives from Nos. i and 2 : 
t the cup and saucer by Mrs. Robineau, of 
CSI ^ n one of the interlaced designs, No. 3. These 
designs should be treated with raised gold and enamels, some 
inferior parts being left in flat color and gold. Almost every 
color is used, the turquoise blue predominating, combined with 
a dark rich purple blue and touches of ruby purple and lav- 
ender. For beginners a very fine effect can be obtained in flat 
colors and'gold. (For plate design see page 226.) 




KERAMC STUDIO 



223 




CUP AND SAUCER DESIGN 



224 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




BARBERRY PLATE— MARY CHASE PERRY 



THE little oval berries are quite a bright red, yet with a 
shade of maroon. Use Yellow Red, Blood Red and 
Ruby for the first firing, with Roman Purple in the second. 
The leaves and stems are Olive Green shaded with Brown 
Green and Shading Green. The blossoms are Albert Yellow 
in the center with Yellow Brown stamens. Make the latter 
very delicate indeed. The petals are white with a wash of 
Moss Green or White Rose toward the center. The shadowy 
flowers are Copenhagen — in fact this color is a good one for 
all parts of the study except the main portion, which is, of 
course, in full color. The background is Lemon Yellow, Rus- 
sian Green, Meissen Brown and Copenhagen. Guard against 



making it too much of the pink-and-blue order, as it makes 
any study, especially of small flowers or fruits, appear trifling 
or amateurish. 

Work with a clean crisp touch, striving first of all to keep 
your colors pure. Finish with as little detail as possible, yet 
with enough to give the character of the little blossom and 
berry. The latter is a hard little affair and not soft like a 
currant or other small fruit. A little enamel may be used in 
the stamen and high lights, but very sparingly and in the 
tiniest touches. For a beginner this study may be helpfully 
carried out in monochrome — preferably a pale green — using 
no darker tones than olive green will give. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



22^ 



DESIGN FOR FISH PLATE 

Adelaide Alsop-Robineau 

GROUND, dark blue and grey blue; for the dark blue use 
Banding Blue }j, Copenhagen j4, ; for the light blue, 
Copenhagen thin. Lobsters and crabs, Pompadour Red ; 
bands of Coral Red (LaCroix), black outlines. 

Or, ground, dark and light green lustre; lobsters and 
crabs, rose lustre first, orange lustre in second fire ; bands of 
orange lustre, outlines black or gold. 

Or, ground in two shades of brown; lobsters, olive green; 
crabs, red_; and bands, orange. 



TREATMENT FOR POSTER PLACQUE 

[HEAD ADAPTED] 

Henrietta Barclay Paist 

THE original placque was painted in Gouache colors. It may 
also be done in glazed colors and olors, for both are given. 
Draw the design carefully with India ink, so it will not rub in 
working. The Gouache colors used were: Mixing Yellow, 
Pompadour Red, Chocolate Brown, Brown Dark, Old Ivory, 
Olive Bronze Green and Black. For the flat flesh wash, mix 
Mixing Yellow and Pompadour; for the hair, Chocolate 
Brown and Brown Dark; paint the drapery with Olive Bronze 
Green. Next cover the background (leaving the disk of gold 
and the design of oak leaves around the edge), with grounding 
oil. Pad thoroughly, so as to make it perfectly even. Dust 
with Chocolate Brown. Then paint the leaves and acorns 
with Olive Green, Chocolate Brown and Brown Dark, using 
Old Ivory for lights. For the first coat of gold disk, use 
liquid Bright Gold, as it makes a good foundation for a flat 
gold surface. For the second fire, strengthen and smooth, as 
it may appear weak and uneven. Leave the outlining for the 
last fire, as it will probably need a third fire. Outline strong 
and evenly ; no suggestions of shading in the outline, but firm 
and even. 

To do the placque in glazed colors, use Pompadour Red 
and Albert Yellow for flesh, Brown Green and Shading Green 
for hood, Fry's Meissen Brown for background, and for leaves 
and acorns Meissen Brown, Chocolate Brown and Brown 
Green. The placque may be done in two firings by outlining 
the painting and drying for the second fire ; but if the outline 
is not strong and even, repeat and fire again. 



TREATMENT FOR RED ROSES 

Let a H or locker 

FOR the first painting model the roses in deep or ruby pur- 
ple, with the brush mix a little pompadour red with the 
purple, this keeps the purple from being harsh or intense, be 
sure your color is well ground— ruby is apt to be grainy. 
Paint the center part by laying the color heavier, in the 
darkest places where more depth of color is desired use 
finishing brown or black, taking care not to have the color 
thick. In repeated firings this is apt to oxidize and remain 
unglazed, and again chip off. Keep the lightest petal clear — 
if pinkish use rose or rose pompadour. If there are any bluish 
lights use Copenhagen blue. Should an outside petal show 
joining to the calyx, shade this part with yellowish green and 
shading green, keeping it light. 

Second painting, after first fire, if the roses are to be dark 
and rich in color, wash them over with Pompadour red, accent- 
ing the darkest parts with the finishing brown or black. Keep 
the lightest petals clear. Fire very hard for first fire. 

Third painting after second fire, apply a wash of deep or 
ruby purple over the rose and over the lightest pinkish petals, 
such as are often seen on the American beauty rose, give a 
wash of rose or carmine. Sometimes this wash of rose over 
the entire rose may be used to good effect, giving a glaze and 
glow to the color. 

The secret of a good effect in painting red roses is to 
have the color washed on freely, and not stroke and restroke 
it over and over after once laid. The best results are obtained 
by good modeling and well laid color in the first painting, 
with careful consideration for the lights and shadows. 



226 



KERAMC STUDIO 




A TIFFANY LAMP 

Mira Edson 

SOME charming combinations of glass and metal, artistic in 
color and design, are to be seen at the Tiffany studio. 
The work is full of suggestions to the decorator. The lamp 
here shown is of a dull green, opaque glass. It rests on a base 
of lily pads in dull bronze. The shade is of metal and glass, 
the design outlined by the metal, while the glass fills the 
spaces between. Around the lower part of the shade are 
dragon flies with crimson eyes, gossamer wings outstretched, 
and purple-dark bodies. Rich glass effects in green and red 
above, represent the marsh grass and flowers over which the 
insect flies. 

The effect of the whole is of soft green lighted up decor- 



atively by spots of red— the crimson eye-spots — reflected 
above in the softer yellower red of the flowers, amid lighter 
yellower greens than those below. 

TREATMENT OF PLATE DESIGN 

Anna B. Leonard 

TINT the narrow band on the rim, and the band under the 
shoulder of the plate, turquoise blue — a color composed 
of Night Green two-thirds and Deep Blue Green one-third 
(Lacroix colors). To this mixture add one-sixth flux. The 
turquoise bands are edged with paste dots as indicated in the 
design, there being one jewel setting between the panels. 

The narrow bands coming from the outer edge to the 
shoulder are edged with paste dots forming a beading; be- 
tween these two parallel lines of dots is a line of turquoise 
blue enamel dots, made by coloring the white enamel with 
little (very little) Night Green and Deep Blue Green (add 
more Night Green than is necessary for a tone of turquoise 
tinting, as the green tints fire out). 

The garlands of roses in the larger panels are in color, 
while the roses in the smaller panels are modeled in raised 
paste. 

This design may be treated in various ways. The smaller 
panels may be gold, with the roses inlaid in color. Any color 
may be used in the bands that will harmonize with the roses. 
Or the design may be carried out entirely in raised gold and 
enamels. 

This design is given as a suggestion and may be made 
simple or elaborate, built upon the same lines. It is very 
dainty as given in the directions and makes a charming entree 
plate, or if carried out in green and gold it may be used as a 
salad plate. It will be helpful to beginners. 




RUSSIAN PLATE DESIGN— SARA B. VILAS 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



227 




PLATE DESIGN— ANNA B. LEONARD 



228 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




ROOKWOOD POTTERY FOR PARIS EXHIBIT— STURG1S LAURENCE 



LEAGUE 



NOTES 



We publish a letter from the President of 
the League, whose indefatigable efforts to 
have a creditable exhibition in Paris, repre- 
senting American decorators, are to be crowned with success 
at last. 

Work from the members of the League was sent to Vogt 
& Dose, 43 Barclay street, to be there judged and packed. The 
jury found rather a small exhibit, but choice, representing 
most of the best workers. The League is greatly indebted to 
the kindness and courtesy of the firm, who gave every atten- 
tion to all details. A large room and large tables were at the 
disposal of the jury and the committees in charge. Every 
piece was carefully judged, measured and marked for ship- 
ment, not only by the chairman of the jury, but by the 
Treasurer, Secretary and President. Everything has been 
packed in casks, under the careful and business like manage- 
ment of Messrs. Vogt & Dose. All arrangements have been 
made for its reception and unpacking on the other side. 
There seems no chance of any mistake. 

The President writes (and we know the members will feel 
her cheerfulness and encouragement.) 

I am not teaching to-day, but am trying to gather up all the loose ends 
of our League work * * * My interview with Mr. Hulbert yesterday 
was perfectly satisfactory. Our relation with the United States Commission 
is what it should be. The only thing that they ever refused me was the 
appointments of exhibitors as jurors. But Mr. Hulbert afterward said that 
he was glad that he did concede this point, and is now quite satisfied with every- 
thing done. I thank the members of the jury and believe they have saved 
the League from much adverse criticism. I hope that all are as well pleased 
with their efforts as I am. 

I made a third revision of my catalogue work and the corrected up-to-date 
list has gone on the St. Louis to-day. 

Miss Cowen's exhibit came, and the Newcomb Pottery case is at Vogt's. 

The Dedham Pottery has on the way a case containing nineteen pieces 
valued at seven hundred and seventy-six dollars and fifty cents. Mr. Robert- 
son sent a diagram showing how to arrange the pieces on four square feet. 

Do not think that 1 write all this for the sake of writing, I believe that 
you may herein find some items for the KERAMIC STUDIO. 

I have to-day received from Miss Montfort, Chairman of Transportation 
and Insurance, a concise list of every piece in this Jan. 29th, 1900, lot. It is 
fine. This consignment cannot be added to. I am ten years younger for 
this shipping list. Mr. Hulbert sent this morning our Certificat d'Admission 
No., which has been placed on labels and made over to Miss Montfort. I 
am so grateful that I have no responsibility of the shipping. 

The exhibitors' cards are ordered, though not as we had hoped. 

Mr. Volkmar has ordered the cases, and I hope to have the burlap sent 
with the cases. I saw the color that the Grueby and Rookwood have selected 
for wall covering. Miss Montfort will get the insurance down to as low a 



figure as is advisable. Let me know if I have forgotten any of my duties. 
1 feel that in this work we are weakening a bit on the educational features. 
Let us brace up in the next KERAMIC STUDIO and bring the clubs into line. 
They do need tutoring. Yours, LAURA HOWE-OSGOOD. 

The members of the League gave Mrs. Wagner, League 
Chairman of the Exhibition in Paris, a reception at Mrs. 
Leonard's studio. Mrs. Wagner is president of the Detroit 
Club, and is one of the pioneer decorators of the country. 
Her enthusiasm regarding the League's work, and the success 
of its exhibition in Paris, was most inspiring, and each mem- 
ber regretted that he or she had not made more of an effort 
for the exhibition. Mrs. Wagner sailed the 29th. and will 
arrange and install the exhibit in Paris. The KERAMIC 
STUDIO will be informed from time to time of the progress of 
her work. 

Circulating letters for March : 
New York writes to Washington. 
Detroit writes to Duquesne. 
Bridgeport writes to San Fmncisco. 
Brooklyn writes to Van Wert. 
Wisconsin writes to Boston. 
Providence receives letter from Jersey City. 
Columbus receives letter from Denver. 
Jersey City writes to Providence. 
Duquesne receives letter from Detroit. 
Indianapolis receives letter from Chicago. 
Chicago writes to Indianapolis. 
Denver writes to Columbus. 
Boston receives letter from Wisconsin. 
San Francisco receives letter from Bridgeport. 
Washington receives letter from New York. 



(TUB Mrs. Florence Koehler will commence a 

lVTRW^ series of lessons and criticism during February 
and part of March, in the studio of Mrs. 
Leonard, 28 East Twenty-third street, New York. Her treat- 
ment of enamels is a great specialty and her unerring taste, 
both in design and color, will be very helpful to those who 
have never seriously studied keramics. She has done much 
for the work in Chicago, where she has gradually won pupils 
from their old ideas of decoration, and we predict the same 
success in the East. 

Mrs. Wagner, the President of the Detroit Club, sailed 
on the 29th for England, where she will visit for a fortnight 
previous to going to Paris, when she will immediately attend 
to the installation of the League's exhibition. The League is 
to be congratulated upon its representative. 

The Poughkeepsie Keramic Art Club will hold its first 
reception this month. This is a flourishing little club with its 
own club rooms and class room. 

The New York Society of Keramic Arts held its annual 
meeting at the Waldorf-Astoria and elected the following 
officers: Madame LePrince as President, Mr. Chas. Volkmar, 
Mr. Marshal Fry and Mrs. Neal, Vice-Presidents, Miss Mont- 
fort as Treasurer, Mrs. Pond as Corresponding Secretary and 
Mrs. Andresen as Recording Secretary. The society will give 
a series of studio entertainments for the benefit of the 
League's Paris Exhibition fund. 

The Jersey City Keramic Art Club elected the following 
officers for the year: Mrs. Charles E. Brown as President, 
Misses Mulford and Ehlers and Mrs. Held as Vice-Presidents, 
Miss Nora Foster as Recording Secretary and Mrs. Elmer 
Mount, Corresponding Secretary. Mrs. Dressier, the Treas- 
urer, was re-elected. 

The Indiana Ceramic Association elected the following 
officers: Mrs. W. S. Day President, Mrs. J. H. Orndorf, Mrs. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



229 



Alice Hadley and Mrs. T. B. Adams Vice-Presidents, Mrs. O. 
C. Wilcox Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. Woodsmall Record- 
ing Secretary and Mrs. Williams Welch Treasurer. 

The Duquesne Club of Pittsburg gave its annual exhibi- 
tion the first week in February at the Carnegie galleries. 

The Jersey City Keramic Art Club held its last meeting 
at the home of Mrs. James Ervvin, one of the members. After 
the business meeting Miss Thiers read a paper relating her 
experiences of a "China hunt" through New Jersey. This 
was interestingly described, and she said that many interest- 
ing pieces were still to be obtained in spite of the frequent 
explorations of the relic hunters, The china to be criticised 
at this meeting was the work of the members, each one having 
decorated a nut bowl. First prize was given to Miss Nora Fos- 
ter, and honorable mention to Mrs. Erwin and Mrs. Browne. 

The Brooklyn Society of Mineral Painters held its regular 
meeting February 7th at the residence of Mrs. W. H. Phillips, 
and was well attended. The subject of the day was, "History 
and Development of Keramics and Painting." Miss Montfort 
was chairman of the day and made a pleasing address, followed 
by a very delightful talk on the exhibitions of the season. 

We have received such an interesting letter from the 
Secretary of the Chicago Ceramic Association (Mrs. I. C. Long) 
that we publish extracts from it, knowing that the educational 
features will be of interest to other clubs. 

" A meeting was called January 6th, to arrange for a study class during 
the rest of the season at the Art Institute under Prof. Millet, instructor in de- 
signing. The instruction will include the study of organic ornament in its 
various phases : 

That having geometric forms for its basis, and that which consists of 
conventionalized plant forms. 

The various effects obtained by analogy and contrast, by individual repe- 
tition in series. 

The decorative use of colors and their harmony will be carefully consid- 
ered. 

There will also be a course of study under Mr. John Hasburg,the profes- 
sional china decorator and expert keramist, upon the practical application of 
conventional designs to keramics and the tools and appliances used ; the prop- 
erties of painting, grounding and tinting oils; eradicators of various kinds, 
how made and used; application of gold, bronzes, lustres etc., mixing flux- 
ing and matting colors and all practical instruction pertaining to keramic 
decoration. 

The class opens February 3rd and will work in black and white in the 
morning, applying the same to china in the afternoon. 

We hope this is a step in the right direction, and trust the efforts made 
by our president and officers will close the studios on Saturdays, so that all 
may receive benefit from the Saturday classes at the Art Institute. 

The club is growing in size, and this study class seems to be a much 
needed help to all keramic workers; and the interest of the Art Institute in 
the efforts of the decorators will be of untold benefit, if rightly taken and used. 

There is more than the usual enthusiasm shown in the venture by all 
members of the club. 

The name of the club has been changed to "Chicago Ceramic Art As- 
sociation " and about twenty new names have been added. The next meet- 
ing will be held March 3rd at the Art Institute." 

♦ 
TN THE Mrs. Filkins of Buffalo, so well known as 

STUDIOS 1<ee P in S tlie largest, most varied and artistic 
line of white china in western New York, is 
now slowly convalescing from an illness of six weeks' duration. 
We are hoping soon to see her in New York, as she promises 
us a visit when fully recovered. 

Mr. E. Aulich has returned from abroad and is now busy 
in his studio in the Hartford building, New York. Mr. 
Aulich has some of his work, both in water color and china, 
now on exhibition at M. T. Wynne's, 65 East Thirteenth 
street, where one may see the real beauty of his coloring. 

Miss Pearl Waneta Phelps held a studio reception on the 
19th at The Princeton, Brooklyn. 



Mr. Marshal Fry leaves his studio for a few months to 
travel abroad, where he will pursue his out-door work in Spain 
and Holland, and then visit the Paris Exhibition. 

Mrs. Mary Alley Neal will close her studio in April and 
expects to do some work in Italy and then settle in Paris for 
the summer. 

Many of the keramists will visit Paris during the summer, 
and they will find the League exhibit the common point of 
interest. 

♦ 

TN THE We have had our attention called so many 

cu/vps t ' mes to tne f act that china painters are still 
wasting their time rubbing down sticks of 
India ink and drawing on china with a brush, that we take 
the opportunity of telling our readers how much more con- 
venient it is to have a fine Spencerian pen and a bottle of 
Higgins' India ink, already prepared. The saving of labor 
and time is incalculable, the ink always the right consistency 
and ready for use, and the pen making a firm black line. We 
would advise all to use this method who have not already 
tried it. 

Dealers tell us that there is more of a demand now than 
ever for English china, as it is claimed that the French or 
German is more brittle. However this may be, it is almost 
impossible to secure the undecorated English china, and even 
then it is extremely difficult to fire it. Our decorators should 
make it a point to interview some of the importers, and to 
experiment with the firing of this ware. 

The choicest plates have the designs only upon the rims. 

The new style oyster plates are becoming very popular. 

Plates with a narrow turquoise blue band and a mono- 
gram of gold and turquoise enamel on the rim, make delight- 
fully refined and elegant service plates. 

In some of the auction rooms this season, historical plates 
have sometimes brought much lower prices than at the regu- 
lar shops, but as a rule rare old porcelains bring enormous 
prices. There is a great demand for old lustre placques, 
plates and pitchers. 




FOR PARIS EXHIBIT— ELIZABETH MASON 



2-JO 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




PARIS EXHIBIT— ANNA B. LEONARD 




PARIS EXHIBIT— ADELAIDE ALSOP-ROBINEAU 




POSTERESQUE PLACQUE— 

HENRIETTA BARCLAY WRIGHT PAIST. 



SUPPLEMENT TO KERAMIC STUDIO 

SMARCH 1900 

COPYRIGHT, 1900. 



KERAMIC STUDIO PUB. CO. 



KERAMC STUDIO 



231 






HARRIET E. WILCOX 



MATT A. DALY 



wm. p. Mcdonald 





AETUS VAN BRIGGLE 



ALBERT R. VALEN'TIEN 



ROOKWOOD POTTERY FOR PARIS EXPOSITION 



2->2 



KERAMC STUDIO 




lriB)\e^ 



EGYPTIAN CUP AND SAUCER— MISS M. E. WEIGHELL 



THIS is done in bright and rather deep shades of capucine 
red, deep blue, yellow, moss green with a little blue 
green mixed, and the fish in a light shade of blue with the 
other colors. 



The colors of course alternate, the highest paints in red 
the other parts in blue and yellow. The whole is outlined in 
liquid bright gold or very bright Roman gold, and the handle 
in green. 




DESIGN FOR BOWL 

Miss M. E. Weight- 1 1 

BOWL tinting in dark shade of 
green blue, gouache color 
sandpapered very smooth. The 
border is not dark but of a light 
tint of same. Narrow bands be- 
tween the gold in a darker shade 
than the whole. 

Design: Flat portion in red 
bronze, the other of blue bronze 
outlined and modeled with paste, 
dots in cobalt blue enamel, and 
head is shaded with blue bronze, 
leaving the background for lights. 
The dark shadow around the head 
is blue bronze and the wreath de- 
sign in paste. 



KERAMC STUDIO 



233 




TREATMENT FOR PINK PLATE— K. E. CHERRY 



DIVIDE plate into five parts. Draw in design carefully with 
India ink; then dust border with peach blossom, leaving 
medallions white, to be painted in the second fire. The design 
will show through the dusted color, wipe out scrolls carefully 
the pink is so highly fluxed, that it may cause paste to chip 



off should it be put over the color, wipe out edge 'for gold 
border. The paste and laying in of roses is done in the second 
fire. The jewels are white and put in, in the last firing. Tint 
center of plate with a little ivory glaze used with lemon yellow 
to tone it with the pink. 



234 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



THE COLLECTOR 



SILVER LUSTRE TEAPOT 

THE cut shown here, is of a silver lustre teapot, the 
largest and finest piece of silver lustre ware that it has 
been the fortune of the writer to have seen. The information 
obtainable from the text books of the authorities on {ceramics 
is very meagre, owing mostly, I presume, to the fact that 
lustred ware rarely, if ever, bore the mark of the maker. 




Jewitt in his "Ceramic Art of Great Britain," has very little 
to say on the subject of silver lustre, and it is as follows: 
"John Aynstey, toward the end of the 18th century, estab- 
lished a pottery at Lane End (now Longton), and made, 
among other wares, silver lustre." One thing is very certain, 
the quantity of the ware now to be obtained is very meagre, 
consequently collectors desire to have specimens, and the 
prices paid are pretty well up. 




TORTOISE SHELL TEAPOT 

This cut is of tortoise shell teapot, manufactured at 
Bennington, Vt., and as the cut shows is a very fine spec- 
imen, being about ten and one-half inches high, octagon 



in shape and resembles tortoise shell showing brown, yellow, 
green and black colors. The stamp impressed on the bottom 
is "Lyman, Fenton & Co., Fenton's Enamel, Patented, 1849, 
Bennington," this pottery was established in 1846, and was 
closed in 1858, consequently good specimens are very scarce. 
There is, I believe quite an exhibit of the ware in Bennington, 
and those who have been fortunate enough to have seen it 
state that it is well worthy of a visit to that city, and the lover 
of old china will feel well repaid by the pleasure that an exam- 
ination of the beautiful specimens give one. 

Col. John H. Drake. 

SALES OF VALUABLE PIECES 

THERE have been lately in New York some important sales 
of antiques, including valuable pieces of old china. 
Prices were irregular, as is always the case in auction sales, 
some pieces selling at fairly good prices, while others sold 
much below their value. For instance in one auction, a 
States plate, nine inch, brought $1 1 ; in another, just as good 
a plate, brought only $4. Dealers generally ask for such plates 
from $12 to $15. 

Here are some of the prices brought by pieces in good 
conditon : 

STAFFORDSHIRE. 

One States plate, 10 inch diameter #30.00 

States plates, 9 inch diameter $4.00, 7.00, 9.00 and 1 1.00 

State Home, Boston, platter 25 00 

McDonough's Victory, plate 20.00 

Shakespeare's House, plate 17.00 

LaGrange, residence of Lafayette, plate 14.00 

City Hall, New York, plates #8 00 and 14.CO 

City Hall, New York, platter u 00 

Landing of Lafayette, plates $5.50 and 1 1.00 

Landing of Lafayette, small tureen 9 00 

Pain's Hill, Surrey, plate g. o 

Christ Church, Oxford, plate 8.00 

Newburgh-on-Hudson, platter 7.50 

Regent's Park, plates $4.50 and 7.50 

Fairmount Park, plate 7.00 

Landing of Columbus, platter 6.00 

Fishkill-on-Hudson, plates S5.50 and 6.00 

Oxford Cathedral, pink plate , 4.00 

Residence of Richard Jotden, pink plate 2.00 

Cupid behind the bars, dark blue plate 14.00 

Sheltered Peasants, dark blue plates 84 00 and 13.00 

Ordinary plates and platters, willow pattern, &c from 50 cents to 2.00 

OTHER WARES. 

Old Delft plates, according to decoration from $1.00 to 4.00 

A fine Delft tankard, polychrome decoration 6.00 

Old Canton blue plates from 60 cents to 1.25 

Old Canon blue platters from $3. 00 to 4.00 

Ordinary copper lusire pitchers from 50 cents to 2.00 

Copper lustre pitcher, Portrait of Lafayette 17.00 

Liverpool pitcher, The Farmer's Arms, good condition 22.00 

Liverpool pitcher, the true blooded Yankee, damaged 9.00 

Three Lowestoft vases (Chinese), in perfect condition each 37.50 

Small Lowestoft pieces, some slightly damaged from S2.>oto 5.00 

Capodi Monte vases from $10.00 to 25.00 

■#> ^ 
Dodd Mead & Co., Fifth avenue, New York, have just 
published a magnificent book, Pictures of Early New York, on 
Dark Blue Staffordshire Pottery, by R. T. Haines Halsey. 
The price is high, $50, but the issue is limited and already 
nearly exhausted. Every piece of Staffordshire pottery relat- 
ing to early New York is reproduced in color and the book 
will be of great value to collectors. 

if -f 
Damp ware, as it is called, if put in the oven comes out bad; 
it is ware in the clay state with all the wet not evaporated. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



2 3S 



LUSTRES 



If fired just right rose will come out a pretty pink, but 
usually it is a pinkish lavender. Some pretty combinations 
are yellow over rose, which gives a mother of pearl effect, and 
green over rose, somewhat similar, only greener. 

BLUE GREY. 

Blue grey used thin makes a good color for skies and 
water in decorative landscapes. It is a good neutral color for 
any use, decorative figure or flower work or painted in two or 
three coats it makes a rich blue with a pink sheen. Some- 
times if fired hard it has a violet tone. 



THERE are three processes in the production of ornament: 
First — Invention of subjects purely imaginary, foreign 
to nature. Second — Conventional representation of natural^ 
objects expressed merely in their essential characteristics and 
under generalized types. Third — Imitative representations in 
which nature is followed, both in color and design. 

The first is found in every style of art, the basis being 
■lineal and geometric lines, responding to the faculties of order 
and measure found in every human brain. The second is the 
link between the first and third. From this is formed the 
highest type of ornament, as it is the "impress of human mind 
on nature " (M. Charles Blanc). The third form of decoration 
is found in modern times. It may suggest charming decora- 
tions but it has been carried too far in industrial and decora- 
tive arts. It is more appropriate in painting. 




DESIGN FOR BONBONNIERE— LIDA S. MULFORD 



The background should be painted in rich dark blue. The 
center, indicated by the dotted lines, is of gold. The 
outer design is of red (bright red), and white enamel striped 
with blue. The small design is painted a much lighter blue, 



Deep Blue Green (Lacroix). The small loops in design are 
in white enamel. 

A small portion of background, between the designs, is 
left white, tiny dots of red covering the surface. The entire 



for which use three parts Night Green (Lacroix) and one part design could be outlined with a fine line of raised gold. 



2 3 6 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




times if desired. 



CABINET WITH DECORATION IN PYROGRAPHY 

A. G. Marshall 

HIS cabinet is exceedingly simple in construc- 
tion and may be put together by anyone 
who can handle a few carpenter tools. The 
design should be enlarged sixteen times 
at least, and may be enlarged twenty-four 
If enlarged sixteen times, one inch planks 
will be required ; if twenty-four times, one and one-half inch 
plank may be used. The material may be oak, Georgia pine 
or white pine stained. The panel in the door on which the 
conventional landscape is done in pyrography must be of clear 
basswood. This panel may be let into a rabbet at the back of 
the door, like a picture in its frame. The joints of door can 
be half mortised, and screwed together from the back, and the 
ends of the shelves can be either mortised an inch back of 
front edge into the sides, or supported on cleats screwed to 
the sides. If mortised, they should be glued. The brackets 
under top and next to bottom shelves are of thinner wood. 
Four little posts stand between the narrow lower shelf and the 
next. Either bronze butts and knob as shown may be used, 
or more ornamental plate hinges of simple 
design. The black lines on edges of 
shelves, at top of sides and around the 
curves of the brackets, also across the little 
posts and the zigzag around the door panel 
are all done in pyrography. If natural 
wood is used, it may be oiled, or filled 
with wood filler, varnished and rubbed 
down to a soft polish. Never leave the 
raw varnish shine on artistic woodwork. 

The landscape panel should be burned 
in heavy outline with great care. The 
shading will be most artistic if done with 
the fine point or the hot air tool. If this 
is more work than one cares to spend upon 
it, the shades may be put in with a brown 
stain made with oil color and turpentine. 
The two-inch border may be shaded in 
same way as the landscape. . No attempt 
at realism should be made or the decora- 
tive object will be defeated. The panel 
design ought to be enlarged twice for 
the cabinet being enlarged sixteen times. 
If cabinet is larger, the panel may be used 
as above with wider border, or may be 
enlarged three times each way. 

THE "BOAR HUNT" 

Mary Tromm 

THIS is one of the latest and best of 
many pieces of burnt-work done by 
Mrs. Mary Tromm. The scene is a spir- 
ited representation of a boar chase, and 
was specially designed to serve as part of 
a fire-place mantel, in a private residence 
at Peekskill, N. Y. The work is a combi- 
nation of pyrography and wood carving, 
the latter being employed to produce the 
reliefs of greatest depth, while all the light, 
shade and minor relief work are done 
with the various burning tools. 





KERAMC STUDIO 



**7 




THE GRUEBY POTTERY 

C. Howard Walker 

THE art of pottery has been little known in our midst until 
within recent years. The delicate bisques of Germany 
and France and the rich glazes and coloring of Japanese wares, 
while found within the cabinets of collectors, have had few im- 
itators, and it is only within a decade that the art of the potter 
has been considered above the mere utility of the ware by our 
potteries. The first impulse naturally led to actual imitation 
of foreign wares, — seldom with success ; but recently forms, 
colorings and quality of glazes have been studied with care, 
with the result that the individual qualities have appeared in 
some instances. Amongst these the Grueby pottery of Boston 
has developed distinctive glazes and forms. It has, in addi- 
tion to full, rich glazes of great brilliancy, a dull or lustreless 
glaze, which is an enamel not produced by acid or sand blast, 
and which is unique to this ware; old Corean pottery pre- 
viously possessing it. The quality of this glaze is that of 
great delicacy ; it has that peculiar softness that invites the 
touch and satisfies it as it does the sight. Mr. Grueby has 
also succeeded in obtaining a remarkable crackle which is 
equal to that of the best old Chinese and Japanese crackles. 
The glaze is strong and fine, and the crackle does not pene- 
trate to the clay. 

This pottery is made from designs by Mr. George Pren- 
tiss Kendrick, who has aimed to use the glazes and enamels 
discovered by Mr. Grueby, on forms both useful and decora- 
tive. Here is found again the unique quality of the ware, 
not only in the appreciation of the delicacy of line that is 
peculiar to Mr. Kendrick, but in the fact that, excepting in 
Japanese pottery, nowhere are natural forms more justly con- 
ventionalized than here. There is in the unfolding leaves of 
the lily and plantain and mullein, not only the suggestion, but 
the actual representation of the natural form and color, yet so 
restrained by arrangements of line and surface that the forms 
are firm and conventional. With the advent of machinery the 
intimate relation of the potter to his ware disappeared. Here 
it has been resumed. Instead of the mechanical formality 
which has so often been mistaken for precision, every surface 
and line of this ware evinces the appreciative touch of the 
artist's hand. As in the old wares, there are no two pieces 
that are exactly alike, for while the general form may be 
maintained every detail is a matter of individual regard. The 
gamut of color is large; the greens are especially soft and 
rich, while there are also golden yellow and russet, deep 
browns and reds, and velvety blues. Both in conception and 
design, in glaze and color, each piece of the Grueby ware is 
individual and of unusual merit, and deserves to take a prom- 
inent place among the best known wares. 




2^8 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



THE APPLICATION OF ORNAMENT 

A. G. Marshall 

FIFTHJPAPER. 

HE decoration of any object is a problem 
of filling a space of a given form with 
agreeable subdivisions, by means of lines 
and masses of light and daik. Color may 
be added as a crowning glory, or the 
work may be carried out in simple monochrome. In either 
case the lines and the light and dark space covering (what the 
Japanese call the "notan" ) constitute the design, and unless 
these are right, all the tints the goddess Iris ever distilled 





from the rainbow, blent in the sweetest and most heavenly 
"tonality," and all the rest of it, will not help the matter in 
the least so far as true decoration goes. And this is just what 
is the matter with nine-tenths of the pretty things done by 
amateurs, with the purest of motives and loveliest faith in 
their "art." And nearly all the "decorated" things sold in 
stores to eat and drink from and to hold flowers or perfumes 
or illuminants, or just to set up and admire, fail miserably on 
the side of design. The color, as a rule, is pleasing, often 





distinguished ; and that only aggravates the trouble, begotten 
of a widespread and thoughtless taste for realism in matters 
botanical and zoological misapplied to decorative purposes. 
However well painted a realistic bunch of flowers, flock of 
birds, string of fish, pack of animals, group of human beings, 
or a natural landscape, — anything, in short, in the way of a 
picture clapped into a plate or onto a vase or jug, is not deco- 
ration in any sense, but is lamentably false art and wasted 
effort. I revert to this point simply because evidences on all 





ments of ornament were 
undoubtedly suggested 
by structural necessi- 
ties. With fragile mate- 
rials like unbaked clay, a 
vessel was very weak 
and liable to be broken 
at the edge. So it 
was here strengthened 
either by a band of 
woven or twisted grass or perhaps a strip of textile fabrics 
fastened around under the edge (Fig. i). For the same 
reason, and in similar manner, places of abrupt curvature and 
projecting handles and spouts were strengthened (Fig. 2), 
and large utensils, being specially liable to accident from their 
great weight, were re- 
inforced by vertical 
bands secured by cross 
strips, or enclosed by 
basket work (Fig. 3). 

When baking the 
clay was discovered, 
with the great increase 
of strength, and still 
more after the invention oi glazes, it was no longer found 
necessary to strengthen such places, and thinner and less 
clumsy construction was possible. But the primitive potter, 
feeling the plainness of his wares without variation of surface, 
naturally followed the old lines of reinforcement with rude 





ornaments suggesting those structural helps (Figs. 4, 5 and 6.) 
And his ideas for the use of decorative bands, stripes and all 
over-patterns, being aesthetically right, cannot be improved 
upon to-day. The line, the enriched band or border, and the 
elaborate frieze give a sense of security and are felt to be 




appropriate around the edges of a dish, and about slender 
parts, and at places where there is an abrupt change of curva- 
ture or very full bulging. In other situations these ornaments 
are out of place. We feel at once that the bands are in 
the right places in Fig. 7, and in the wrong ones in Fig. 8. 




hands shows that it needs to be iterated and reiterated and 
dingdonged as often as a call to a Mussulman's prayer. 

There are a few principles governing the use of ornament Flg ' s ' 

upon utensils that were instinctively discovered by primitive So with vertical lines and all over-patterns. They fulfill an 

peoples, and that are just as sound to-day as at the beginning, aesthetic purpose in the examples in Fig. 9, but none whatever 

for the kind of ornament to which they apply. The rudi- in those shown in Fig. 10, where the verticals are applied to 



KERAM1C STUDIO 



239 



the part least in need of apparent support, and the network 
to a form requiring neither actual nor apparent strengthening. 
We often see dishes "decorated" without reference to their 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS 



■ered by this department mt 
the month preceding issu 



;t be sent in bv the 10th ol 





Fig. 9. Fig. 10. 

shape, as in Fig. 1 1. This is all wrong. The best decoration 
frankly accepts the shape and makes the best of it. Fig. 12 
shows two out of hundreds of good ways. 

It is a curious fact that in viewing a plate which is deco- 
rated by a border ornament, we always regard the outer edge 
as the top of the design, as though we stood in the center, so 
that a wholly different effect is given by inverting the pattern 
(Fig- 1 3)- At first 
thought there would 
seem to be no reason 
for thus regarding a 
practically flat circular 
plate, but the reason * \5F^i\ / * / 
becomes evident if we 
imagine the slight con- 
cave deepened into a Fig.il. 
bowl form, when the outer edge becomes actually the top. 
Best decorations for plates, saucers and platters are either 
confined to or heaviest upon the borders. With dishes that 
are to be turned every way, central designs having an up and 
down are best avoided. Even initials and monograms are 
best upon the border or worked into a border design, rather 
than set ignominiously in the center of the arena where knife 

and fork or spoon are 
to vanquish piles of 
food. In the case of 
ornamental placques, 
this objection to the 
center as a field of 
honor, does not apply, 
but for plates for the 
p 's- 12 - service of food, the 

most artistic treatment of the center is to leave it plain, to 
tint it simply, or to cover it with a powdering of small figures, 
or a quiet mosaic-like diaper pattern. I wonder why it does 
not occur to decorators that there is no more sense in paint- 
ing a live or dead fish upon a fish platter, than there is in 
painting an ox upon a beef platter or a quart of potatoes in a 
vegetable dish. This sort of thing is much after the order of 







Fig, 13. 

a china hen as a cover to a dish for eggs made to look like a 
nest of straw. A very appropriate, though by no means nec- 
essary design for fish service would be made from shell and 
sea-weed motives well conventionalized, or treated more freely 
in flat tones after the Japanese manner. 

Semi-Porcelain — Thin earthenware with a good percent- 
age of bone. 



This column is for yearly subscribers only. Every inquiry must be 
accompanied by full name and address of subscriber. We would prefer to 
have all our readers as regular yearly subscribers, and in order to have them 
as such we try to favor them rather than those who buy a single copy here 
and there. Whenever an opportunity arrives we offer them special favors, 
such as the use of this column for instruction, the privilege of suggesting 
such designs as they would like published, the La Croix Color Charts from 
Favor Ruhl & Co., monograms, etc., and we hope to be able to offer new 
favors from time to time. For this reason we must refuse these favors to 
buyers of odd copies as they would occupy time and space which belongs to 
our real supporters — the yearly subscribers. The editors are too busy with 
their own work to answer personally, and we ask our readers to refrain from 
sending us inquiries with stamp enclosed for reply. If they are subscribers, 
they will be answered at the earliest opportunity in the magazine. If they 
are not, it is asking rather too much of busy women to take their valuable 
time to instruct perfect strangers gratis — our subscribers are our friends — and 
we are glad to help them. 

Some of our readers buy the magazine regularly from a dealer and are 
really good friends of ours, but it is impossible for us to know this even if 
they write to this effect. A written statement from a stranger is of no weight. 
Why not give your yearly subscription to the dealer or send it directly to us, 
which is better? Then there would be no mistake. We are answering some 
such friends in this issue, but after this no more will be answered. 
4= 

SISTER M. M. — We have been asked to give suggestions for a pretty, 
stylish, and novel way of giving a studio luncheon or tea, to the pupils of an 
art class in a young ladies' college (not expensive.) 

While this is somewhat out of the line of the KERAMIC STUDIO, we 
hastily write a few suggestions that have amused our students and friends : 

For a half hour or so, it would be very amusing for the students of your 
art class to make posters from the names of popular books, and after pinning 
them on the wall, the person or persons guessing the greater number of sub- 
jects will receive a prize or prizes. 

If the members of the art class are keramic decorators, the prizes should 
be decorated by them. Or it would be a novel idea for the class to decorate 
the tea cups to be used and then exchange with one another — keeping the 
cup and saucer as a souvenir of the occasion. Affairs are not supposed to be 
elaborate in studios, so that simple refreshments are always in order. If one 
has to buy china to use for occasions, simple blue and white designs are inex- 
pensive and always of good form. 

A fancy dress affair may be entertaining and we suggest only keramic 
features, which may be followed out by each pupil representing a certain 
make of china or pottery or style of decoration. For instance, Rookwood, 
Grueby, Dresden, Sevres, Russian; Royal Worcester, Canton, Lowestoft, 
Willow ware, Japanese, etc. 

We have not the Peacock design for tankard in color but the Vorbilder 
published the Peacock alone in an old number of several years ago. The 
coloring as given in the treatment of tankard is very nearly the same. 

MRS. A. G. C— The best help you can have in making conventional 
designs on paper or china is, a pair of dividers with reversible point so you can 
use either pencil or pen, (the pen part should be a regular compass pen which 
can be regulated to make a wide or narrow line as desired), a bottle of Hig- 
gin's India ink, a ruler, a half circle of metal with degrees marked upon it, 
the plate divider which was published in the January number, good tracing 
paper, a soft and hard lead pencil, and a good Spencerian pen. With these you 
should be able to make any desired design accurately. To draw a perfect 
circle within the rim, first divide your rim into the desired number of sections 
using the plate-divider, with your rule draw your lines across the centre from 
point to point, when all lines are made your centre will be accurately found 
where the lines »ll meet, on this point paste a small bit of paper, fill your 
compass point with ink, fix the steel point of the other arm of divider in the 
centre of the bit of paper opening the divider until it will mark the line at the 
desired distance. This is better than marking the circle, measuring from the 
edge, as plates are rarely perfectly true circles. A compass pencil which fits 
on the edge is also good for this purpose. 

"ENGLISH CHINA" — English china is made softer than French china, 
each piece should be fired without allowing any stilt or other piece to touch it 
as the glaze easily chips off and adheres to other objects in contact with it. It 
should be fired at a less degree of heat than French china, usually the upper 
part of a Stearns Fitch kiln or the front of a Revelation kiln. It takes ename's 
better than the harder porcelain and has a beautiful even glaze when fired. 

MRS. E. B. R.— We must ask you to sign with your full name and ad- 
dress hereafter, so that we may know that you are a subscriber. 

In painting with Lacroix colors use a slight amount of medium (copaiba, 



240 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



six drops, clove oil, one,) for washes, for the fine touches use turpentine alone. 

For a dark rich red use blood red dusted on, or if that is too bright use finish- 
ing brown first and dust with blood red for second fire. For a deep blue, dust 
first with a thin coat of purple, for second fire dust with banding blue. For a 
deep green use Royal green or Empire green dusted on. Lacroix colors are 
not as safe for grounds if used from the tubes, but the Lacroix powders are all 
right, any other make of powder colors advertised in our magazine is per- 
fectly reliable. The corresponding Lacroix colors would be carnation one or 
pompadour red and red brown or brown four, victoria blue and purple two, 
chrome green and dark green seven, or for a colder green, emeraldstone green 
with dark green seven. 

We prefer that a set of any kind should have the same design and color- 
ing throughout, a simple design in gold and enamels or gold and flat color 
would be suitable, any conventional design such as are given in KERAMIC 
STUDIO, we shiver to think of cupids or flowers buried in ice cream. 

MRS. C. T. S.— Your letter came too late for the February number. All 
inquiries must be here before the tenth of the month. Gold can not be made 
into bronzes. The green gold is the only modification an amateur can make, 
this is done by adding a small quantity of silver to gold. 

The plum blossoms on the dragon vase if used on a fifteen-inch vase are 
about five-eighths of an inch in diameter. It is very difficult to suggest an 
appropriate design for the vase of which you send a photograph. The entire 
surface seems to be modeled in relief and necessarily you will have to be 
guided by the design already on it. We would suggest using a simple color 
on the body of vase and following out the garlands in raised gold and enamel, 
the spout, handle and base of gold. For the lower part of vase you might use 
purple lustre for first fire, for neck, light green or yellow brown ; second fire 
wash dark green lustre over the purple ; or you could use a dusted color on 
base and the same tinted on neck. A plain piece of china is much easier 
to decorate artistically. 

MRS. E. F. M.— Please read the article at the beginning of this column. 
In painting the family crest on your cups and saucers, we would use the colors 
in which the crest was originally blazoned, if you do not know the colors and 
as your family is Scotch we would paint the thistle on one side in natural 
colors, purple, green and yellow and your crest in purple, green and gold. If 
you have the original colors of the crest, use the same colors for the thistle, 
conventionalizing it if necessary for unity in decoration. 

F. E. S.— Write to any of our advertisers for catalogues of white china, 
they keep the best in the market. We will be glad to accommodate you with 
a crab-apple design for cider pitcher as soon as possible, but it may be a few 
months before we can publish one as we have three months planned ahead. 
We have a very fine design of blackberries on a punch bowl by Miss Jeanne 
M. Stewart in the December number of KERAMIC STUDIO. 

MRS. M. L. F.— We have never heard before of Empire green coming out 
with dull iridescent spots when dusted on. This happens occasionally to 
Ruby when not dusted evenly, or too thick, you might try a harder fire and if 
that does not improve the glaze, we would suggest covering the ground with 
a fine pattern in white enamel or gold according to balance of design, use 
Aufsetzweis in tubes with a scant one-eighth of flux. 

F. J. V. — To make a delicate pink which will not turn purplish in a 
second firing is a very difficult thing to do. Mr. Fry paints first with pompa- 
dour and in the last fire with rose, Miss Mason has a rose which is considered 
good and Miss Osgood swears by her standard pink and our other adver- 
tisers also have what they consider a reliable pink, the truth of the matter is 
that almost any rose will come out well if fired just right and every pink will 
turn purplish if over fired. We would advise doing all the painting ;md shad- 
ing possible with other colors, putting on the rose for last fire and firing mod- 
erately. 

H. E. B. — If your gasoline kiln burns in the mixing pipe at one time and 
at another burns all right, we would say that in the first case not enough gas 
was generated or turned on before lighting so that the air does not combine 
perfectly and makes a roaring noise, simply turn out and light again, allow- 
ing enough gas to light well. Great care should be taken to avoid explosion, 
the tank and all joints should be examined well before firing and the kilns 
should be constantly watched. We will have a general article on firing soon, 
it was crowded out of this number. 

"Crackle ware" is found both in china and glass, some potters still 
make a crackle glaze on china, but we understand that crackle glass has not 
been made for some time. The piece your friend bought is probably intended 
lo be crackled, we could tell better if we knew the mark. 

When Dresden Aufsetzweis in tubes seems too oily, squeeze out the oil 
and throw it away, mix the drier part with lavender oil and if still too oily 
breath on it once or twice and it will thicken up. Theie ought to be at least 
a part of the tube that would fire all right. Use lavender instead of turpentine. 

G. A. N. — If your enamels on a gold ground refuse to glaze, give them a 
wash of flux, possibly by adding a very small quantity of flux to the enamel 



before firing you could overcome the difficulty, or you might use Aufsetzweis 
in tubes, colored and one-eighth flux added. Mr. Cobden advertises an 
enamel to be used over gold specially, you might write to him for a sample. 
Other teachers doubtless have the same and would be glad to send sample to 
you on application stating color desired. 

MRS. L. M. — We do not know the first study you describe, the other 
" Cupid Thirsty " you can procure in photograph from E. P. Dutton & Co., 
West Twenty-third street, in two sizes. Price 15 to 30 cents. Please men- 
tion Keramic Studio. 

N. G. K. — We have not the study of Prof. Sturm's " Kakada," or would 
be pleased to suggest treatment for you, but would advise trying the bird in 
flat color or lustre and outlining and shading in black, some dark color or 
gold, you would not then find it difficult. We very rarely publish Rococo 
designs only the very simplest and best as it is a mode of decoration too easily 
over done, wrongly done and cheapened. We prefer any other style of deco- 
ration to it. For a luminous back ground we would suggest Meissen brown, 
or yellow brown and brown four. Only kilns with iron pots need white-wash- 
ing. We have fired lustres at the same time with other colors and have 
never had any difficulty, but to be on the safe side, you can fire them sepa- 
rately, nothing; that is fired, ever can affect the next firing, the kiln is thoroughly- 
purged of all gases, oxides, everything by the fire itself. 

We will try to give you soon an article on the color of cast shadows in 
painting from nature. For reeling figures in Delft colors we would suggest 
Delft blue, deep yellow, light brown for faces, a very little reddish brown and 
olive green, a little violet of iron with a touch of the blue added and black 
outlines. For the Boutet tie Monvel children, light brown for faces, white 
stockings and kerchief on heads, black shoes and outlines, kerchiefs on 
shoulders lavender pink, light brown aprons, dull blue in dresses, yellow 
brown hair, the boy has a pink suit and feather, pale yellow sash. You can 
diaper pattern on gold in any dark color. 

Persian design No. 3, November. Upper ground light pinkish ochre, 
lower ground dull dark blue. Dark design bright green, vine pale green, 
flowers red, gold outlines. No. 4, white ground, green vine, small flowers 
dull blue, large flowers dull blue, greyish violet, black and white, dull blue or 
black outlines. No. 6 is similar to No. 3. 

We are not acquainted with the ruby you mention as chipping off, but if you 
find another make that does not chip, you should use that one. Peach blos- 
som and rose if used at all thickly will chip, but if dusted in carefully will be 
all right, but will not stand a second fire. A wash of color strengthened in 
second fire is better than one heavy painting in first firing, and less liable to 
chip. The trouble is rather lack of flux than too much. 

If your Easter lily band is to cover any large space wiih enamel, the gold 
should be cleaned out underneath sufficiently to give the enamel a hold 
directly on the china. Small dots etc. can be applied over gold. 

If your paste work is blackish after burnishing, the gold or brush was 
not clean, or the paste poor or not sufficiently fired or gold too thin or oily. 

Bronzes are chemical mixtures on a gold basis which we do not under- 
stand how to make. 

H. R. — Please always sign full name. Ribbon gold can be procured from 
any dealer in dental supplies, ask your dentist. Coin gold can be used in 
place of ribbon gold, in which case the alloy is left in, the only difference is a 

slight one of color. 

W. K. B.— Please sign full name and address. You can procure nitrate 
Bismuth from any large wholesale druggist, the sub-nitrate is slightly differ- 
ent but can be used in place of the nitrate. The flux for gold will not do for 
colors. 

Turquoise green is a Dresden color. White Rose a Bischoff color. 

The best instruction in figure painting is given in New York. 

We can not give you an address for importing china direct. Write to our 
advertisers of white china and they may order for you so that the china will 
be shipped direct from France or England. Too late for February number. 

J. E. M. — You can use color over lustre before firing but not lustre over 
color, however it is better to fire first. Lustre over fired color gives a bronze 
effect, a dull semi-lustre. 



In your answer to H. H. (February number,) the statement is made that 
"teaching by. correspondence is very unsatisfactory in that the teacher can- 
not see whether the pupil sees correctly." Will you kindly state that this 
disadvantage is entirely overcome by a very simple method which I teach, 
whereby the pupil can tell infallibly whether drawing is correctly done or not 
so far as lines and proportion are concerned. Light and shade and color 
values the trained teacher can at once tell whether correctly observed or not, 
as the ensemble or " hang together " of the study will be disturbed if they are 
out. Actual tints of color are perceived by no two eyes just alike. Practice 
develops the color sense which in its artistic development is mainly a matter 
of correct values and harmonious synthesis. A. G. MARSHALL. 



APRIL MDCCCC Price 35c. Yearly Subscription $3.50 



f 



CONTRIBUTORS 

MR. F. S. BROWNE & * * j* & 

MRS. K, E. CHERRY ^ * * * j» 

MISS MARY ALLISON DOULL j* * 

MISS MIRA BURR EDSON^ Jt j * 

MRS. MAUD BRIGGS KNOWLTON * 

MRS. ANNA B. LEONARD j* j* S j* 

MR. A. G. MARSHALL^ jt j» j» ^ 

MISS F. W. MALEY .* j* ^ j» .* 

MRS. WORTH OSGOOD j» j» ^ ^ 

MRS. ADELAIDE ALSOP-ROBINEAU j» 

MISS JEANNE M. STEWART^ ^ j* 

MISS GRACE W. STEPHENS > j* > 

MRS. MARY TROMM .* jt .*» > j* 

MISS SARA B. VILAS j* j» ^ j» * 

MR. O. A. VAN DER LEEDER* j» ^ 

MRS. CARRIE STOW WAIT ^ ^ ^ 



FOR: 



THE: 






:fIBER: 



Copyrighted 1899 by the Keramic Studio Publishing Co., Syracuse and New York. Entered at the Post Office at Syracuse, N. Y., as Second Class Matter, Aug; 2, 18 



{'The entire contents of this Magazine are cohered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted Without special permission. ] 

CONTENTS FOR APRIL, 1900 



Editorial Notes, 

The School of Application of Sevres, 

A Few Hints to the Firer, 

Golf Cup and Saucer, 

Historical Ornament — Mediaeval, 

Plate (Application of Mediaeval Ornament), 

The Application of Ornament (Fifth Paper), 

Treatment of Russian Plate (Supplement), 

Berry Plate in Gooseberries, 

Study of Geraniums, 

League Notes, 

Club News, 

In the Studios — In the Shops, 

Pansy Plate, 

Tray, 

Mountain Ash Design, 

Etymology of the Word Porcelain, 

Salad Plate, Chicory, 

Design for Plate, 

Violet Cup and Saucer, 

Art of Pyrography (third paper), 

Carved and Burnt-wood Table, 

The Collector, 

Auction Sale of Old China, 

Answers to Correspondents, 

A Few More Monograms, 





PAGE 




241 




242-243 




243 


F. Browne, ' . 


• 243 


Adelaide Alsop-Robineau, 


244-246 


Sara B. Vilas, 


246 


A. G. Marshall, 


247 


K. E. Cherry, 


248 


Jeanne M. Stewart, 


248 


Mary Allison Doull, 


249 


Mrs. Worth Osgood, 


. 250 




250 




. 251 


F. W. Maley, . 


251 


Grace W. Stephens, 


252 


Maude Briggs Knowlton, 


252-253 




254 


Adelaide Alsop-Robineau, 


254 


Mira Burr Edson, 


255 


Anna B. Leonard, 


255 


O. A. Van der Leeden, 

i 


256-257 


Mary Tromm, 


257 


Carrie Stow Wait, 


258-259 




259 




259-260 




260 




SYRACUSE, N. Y. 



Vol. I, No. 12 



NEW YORK AND SYRACUSE 



April 1900 




HE present issue completes our first year. We 
not only feel that we have reason to congrat- 
ulate ourselves on our success as a magazine 
and the large number of good friends we have 
made, but we feel especially gratified at find- 
ing among our readers a real and active desire 
to make their work conform to received principles of art and 
decoration. This has been our ambition — to help our faithful 
and conscientious workers to raise the standard of the keramic 
art of this country where it may no longer deserve the 
opprobrium it now receives from artists and connoisseurs at 
large. 

We have tried to give something of every style of decora- 
tion in every number of the KERAMIC STUDIO,not because we 
fully approve of every style, but because many have not yet 
arrived at the highest judgment in art, and we trust to their 
innate taste to select, in time, the best, having always 
something of the best for them to see, so that they will 
become familiar with it, and so the change and development 
will come to them in this way without any rude shock. 

With the May issue we begin a new year, and as we have 
more than kept all our promises made in the initial number we 
hope in our next year to do even better. Everything depends 
upon the loyalty of our readers. If we can, as we hope, keep 
them all with us, and they bring to us still more friends as 
they have the past year, we shall hope Avith this support to be 
able to give them in return, as soon as possible, the long 
desired color study every month. We will not give a cheap 
color study, what we give is of the best, we employ the best 
lithographers and artists we can find, and we will not give 
anything that has not merit. 

A partial account of what we have planned for the com- 
ing year will be found elsewhere. 

We are very happy to announce to our readers that Mrs. 
Horace C. Wait is to be one of our interesting and valuable 
contributors in the "Collectors' Department." Mrs. Wait has 
visited the potteries and old haunts of Europe picking up 
interesting bits here and there. She has also a valuable col- 
lection of American china. 

To appreciate more fully the beauties of pottery and 
porcelain, one should begin to "collect." The moment one 
owns even a single good piece, at that moment the interest in 
it and everything pertaining to it increases. 

This is not intended to create a craze for collecting indis- 
criminately, but to show that collecting, intelligently followed, 
brings much pleasure to those who can once in a while add a 
treasure to their stores. It keeps the interest alert and one 
goes deeper and deeper into the study of keramics, then there 
is a whole new world open to those who pursue the study 
with intelligence. 

Aside from the matter of glazes, enamels and color, there 
is the historical side to be learned, whole histories of nations 
and people have been handed down to us in old porcelains, 



and there is nothing in modern decoration that excels the 
coloring of the orientals. 

We were glad to hear Mrs. Koehler express such opti- 
mistic views of American decorations as these: "While color 
in decorative porcelains seems to be a lost art since the fine 
old things given us from the Orient, yet I believe the Amer- 
icans are reviving it and that there is no limit to what they 
can and will do in the future, if the study is taken seriously." 
Mrs. Koehler's enthusiasm and courage on these lines appeal 
directly to artists. 

She does not mean that one is to go to the oriental 
decorations for copies, but one must study them and under- 
stand them to obtain the proper foundation upon which to 
build an individual style. Why should it not be necessary to 
receive a long course of training in keramic decoration as in 
every other branch of art? 

Look at the years of preparation art students undergo in 
learning to paint the human form. Look at the students of 
architecture, mural decoration, etc. 

Everything requires training, yet the so-called " china 
painter," after six lessons from some one who does not even un- 
derstand the first principle of decorative art, feels herself fully 
equipped with knowledge of keramics, and will defy every 
known law of decoration, believing absolutely in her own ideas 
and ability. All this is what has degraded the art heretofore. 
The Keramic Studio publishes a list of reference books each 
month for students and implores all decorators to take advan- 
tage of every opportunity for progression, and to give to the 
world something that is truly artistic as well as individual. 

& *• 

FLORIDA'S RICH KAOLIN DEPOSITS 

ALTHOUGH Florida has never occupied a very prominent 
position as a manufacturing centre, there seems to be 
little doubt but what the next year or so will find it advanced 
several grades in this direction. It is due to English capital 
and enterprise that the treasure is to be made the foundation 
of one of the most extensive manufacturing interests in the 
world, namely, the manufacture of the highest grade tile, pot- 
tery and glass, from the exceedingly valuable deposits of 
kaolin, or china clay, near Leesburg, in Lake County. The 
supply of kaolin used in this country is imported from Eng- 
land, at a cost of 50 shillings per ton, and hereafter can be 
obtained from Florida at the same cost, giving the consumers 
a more valuable material. 

The beds in Florida have been a puzzle to geologists, as 
kaolin has been found heretofore in mountainous regions 
only, and is a product of the feldspar. The theory advanced 
in this case is the decomposition of sand. Another remarka- 
ble feature is the valuable quality of the sand associated with 
it, which has also been pronounced the finest for glass and 
other manufactures. Underneath the layers of the sand the 
clay extends to the depth of perhaps forty feet and is most 
easy of access. — China, Glass and Pottery Review. 



242 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




THE SCHOOL OF APPLICATION OF SEVRES 

HE school of application, which has been ad- 
ded to the Manufacture Nationale de Por- 
celaine de Sevres, has completed its first 
cycle of studies lasting five years. For the 
first time since its establishment, graduates 
have left the school, and it is interesting to 
note the results of this instruction of five 
years, organized on an excellent plan. These results are 
highly satisfactory, showing that the new graduates are finished 
keramists, not only knowing how to adapt a decoration to a 
determined form or medium, but capable of carrying out their 
own original conceptions, and knowing all the secrets of the 
laboratory, as well as those of modeling and firing. The 
four graduates who left the school found immediately, well 
r> Q id positions in private factories. 




VASE (OVBRGLAZB)— TH. CADILHAT. 

There is no doubt that a school of this kind, being a part 
of the Manufacture de Sevres itself, has advantages which it 
could not find anywhere else. In the administrators for theo- 
retical and general instruction, and in the managers of the 
workrooms for practical studies, it has a personel of teachers 
which could hardly be improved. The tuition is free, the 
candidates being admitted to the school after a concourse. 
The Administration of Sevres has even created twenty 
"bourses," or funds to help support the young artists who 
seem worthy of entering the school some day. 

The first two years are devoted to preparatory instruction, 
mathematics, chemistry, design, water color, modeling, turn- 
ing, besides lectures on History of Art and History of Ker- 
amics. The students have also free access to the fine library 
of the Manufacture, and to its magnificent Museum of Ker- 



amics, the collections of which are unfortunately very little 
known by the public at large. 

During the last three years, although historical and theo- 
retical instruction is continued, technical instruction takes the 
first place. Students are no more confined to modeling vases. 
They must themselves prepare their pastes, glazes and colors, 
learn to make a piece of pottery entirely, to use the different 
processes of decoration, and to fire. They also study the con- 
struction of kilns and muffles, the questions of combustion and 
heating, so that not a part of their art is left unexplored. 

At the end of every year there is a concourse where a 
given subject must be treated by all students. For students 
of the first year the 1899 concourse was some water color 
studies after plants and animals. For the second year stu- 
dents the subject was water color studies of an umbrella stand 
and of a bath room tiling to be carried out in pottery. The 
third year students had to create a shape of a vase and to 
decorate it, and some of the pieces made at this concourse 
were truly original and good. 

The fourth year concourse was of course more important. 
Here students had to make three tea-sets, decorated by dif- 
ferent processes, one modeled in relief, another decorated 
overglaze, the third one underglaze. Among interesting work 
done at this concourse is mentioned a tea-set by Mr. Grode- 
coeur, of a very sober and graceful shape and excellent paste, 
quietly decorated underglaze with bees and small sprigs. 

The fifth year concourse, the last before the students left 
the school, offered many interesting pieces. We reproduce 
here vases by three graduates, Messrs. Lagriffoul, Cadilhat and 
Ballanger, all of fine shape, appropriately decorated, one under- 
glaze, the two others overglaze. 

The opening of the new school of Sevres will undoubtedly 
give a great impetus to the development of Keramics in 




VASE I UNDERGLAZE) — ED. BALLANGER, 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



243 



France, and it is to be hoped that we will also have in this 
country in the near future schools which will form potters as 
well as decorators. The instruction received by the average 
American decorator is frightfully superficial, and the amount 
of money spent by pupils, wandering from studio to studio 
and looking at a fashionable teacher, while he or she decorates 
for them a piece of china at so much an hour, is entirely out 




VASE (OVER('.LAZR)-B. LAGRIFFOUL. 

of proportion with the results obtained. The same sum and 
probably much less would be more usefully spent in a school 
where the student would learn all the details of the potter's 
art, instead of being the pale imitator of a successful overglaze 
decorator. 

The class in pottery making and underglaze decoration 



opened recently by the Newcomb College in New Orleans is 
a step in the right direction, but we need schools of this kind 
in the Eastern and Western States, where china and pottery 
decoration have the greatest development and where a great 
deal of talent and lifelong effort are wasted for lack of proper 
instruction. 

A FEW HINTS TO THE FIRER 

IT should be unnecessary to state that each piece of china 
must be carefully looked over in order to remove all spots 
or blemishes that may have adhered to the surface accidentally 
or through carelessness. Yet the professional firer has con- 
stantly to remove spots or stains from the bottom of pieces 
sent to be fired. 

If a piece has been tinted with color in the powder form, 
be careful to blow off all superfluous color so that no speck 
of it may fall upon anything after it has been placed in the kiln, 
for if the color flies it will mar any piece upon which it settles. 

It should be the aim of those who do the firing, to obtain 
a perfect glaze, or union between the color and the body of 
porcelain, otherwise the colors will scale off, or oxydize in 
time. Gold will turn dark if underfired, and the colors will 
collect dirt and dust, not having the glaze to protect them. 

There is no beauty in porcelain that is underfired, and on 
the other hand, colors will lose strength if overfired, yet this 
is a rare fault with amateurs. 

Professionals fire harder than amateurs, but they make 
allowances for that in using colors in greater strength. 

The writer prefers stacking plates one upon another, yet 
many firers prefer standing them on edge. 

If there should be many wet things in the kiln it is better 
to heat it gradually, giving the moisture time to evaporate, 
otherwise little drops may settle upon the china and roll 
down, carrying the color with it. 

Raised paste and enamel should look dull and dry before 
putting in the kiln. We have found it best not to dry them 
artificially. 

Carmines will stand the same degree of heat that is re- 
quired for gold and enamels (we use for general use the hard 
enamels.) Blues require a hard fire to glaze them, especially 
in tints. Iron Reds require a lighter fire, as it is easy to sap 
out the life of these colors in too strong firing. 

If the firing pot is of iron, it is better to whitewash it on 
the inside. 



GOLF CUP AND SAUCER— F. BROWNE 




244 



KERAMIC STUDIO 














HISTORICAL ORNAMENT— MEDIAEVAL 

URING the Middle Ages, the decorative style was a mixture of the Celtic and 
Byzantine styles, with occasional borrowings from the Persian. Later, the 
Gothic influence was felt. The ornamentation, from being a mere interlacing 
effect, became elaborated, with grotesque animals introduced ( No. 7). Then 
appeared the floral terminals with foliations ( Nos. 1 and 5). The acanthus 
leaf disappeared to be replaced with quaint conventionalizations of flowers 
and leaves. The ornaments were composed of continuous stems throwing off leaves on the 
outer side and terminating in a flower. 

The early English ornament was the most perfect, both in principle and execution. It 
was in perfect harmony with the structural forms and grew naturally from them. This style 
remained perfect only so long as it continued to be strictly conventional. As the style became 
more directly in imitation of nature, its peculiar beauty disappeared and ceased to be orna- 
mentation. The color and form 
became too minute and elaborate. 
Finally all unity of design was 
abandoned, natural and conven- 
tional flowers were drawn on the 
same stem, flowers and insects 
casting shadows on the pages. 
The style could go no further 
and died out. This period lasted 
from the Xth to the XVth Cen- 
tury, and in it we find the same 
conditions as in the arts of all 
other nations: the earlier and 
middle periods of development f, 
are more perfect than the later, 
the tendency is always to over- 
develop, which brings the natural 
reaction to simplicity. 

The all-over ground patterns No. 1 

( Nos. 2, 3, 4, and 6) of continuous interlacing ornaments are particularly interesting, having an 
oriental feeling. Variations of what is called the pine apple motif ( No. 6) was most frequently 
used. Heavily jewelled designs were frequent, the coloring was rich, but heavy, much gold in 
grounds, shading and outlines. The style, as a rule, is not easily adapted to keramics, as it is 
too massive. 

PUNCH BOW I 




Application 

to Modern 



BORDER. 

We would hardly suggest following the 
original coloring for this. Rather use your 
, own taste. If you wish something simple, 
* treat the design in dull blues and greens 
with, perhaps, a touch of orange. For something rich and 
massive, use rich reds, blues and greens, some orange on a gold 
ground, outlined in black. The flower ornaments could be 
used, dotted at regular intervals over the rest of the bowl. 
This border is made from No. 1. 

CUP AND SAUCER. 
This can be treated very simply, any color, outlined 
either in a darker self tone, or with black or gold : or two or 

three harmonizing colors could be used; for instance, dull violet, green with a touch of reddish 
orange. The all-over pattern No. 2 supplied the motif for this design. 




KERAMIC STUDIO 



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KERAM1C STUDIO 



247 



THE APPLICATION OF ORNAMENT 

A. G.Marsha// 

SIXTH PAPER. 

pplied ornament may be classified as all-over 
patterns, borders, center pieces or detached 
ornaments, and special designs. Of these 
four classes, all-over patterns are the most 
extensively used, forming, probably, forty- 
nine fiftieths of all wall, floor and textile decoration, and 
though much more restricted in their application to keramics, 
constituting a very important branch of decorative material, 
which within its proper limits is the easiest of use for the 
mineral painter. All-over patterns may be divided into 
stripes (plain, enriched, straight, waved, zigzag, &c), diapers 




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(including plaids, checks, basket, fretwork and "scale" or "tile" 
patterns, as well as ordinary "repeats") and powderings. The 
term diaper is restricted to patterns formed of connected 
figures of any kind, placed at regular intervals over a surface. 
Stripes and powderings are sometimes combined, as in old- 
fashioned wall hangings and striped-and-flowered dress fabrics. 
The underlying idea with all varieties of all-over patterns is 
exceedingly simple : the agreeable diversifying of a surface by 
the repetition of a well-chosen unit or an alternation of two 
(rarely more) such units, at equal distances. The basis of all 
such patterns, excepting stripes, is a groundwork of simple 
forms, as squares, oblongs, lozenges, triangles, circles or 
ellipses, arranged either in horizontal rows, making what is 
technically called a "plain" or "square match" (Fig. 1), or in 
diagonal rows, forming a "drop match" (Fig. 2). 

The orientals made much use of diapering on porcelain and 
metals, often in a very quaint and pleasing manner. The 
possibilities of these simple decorative ideas for keramic pur- 





poses seem to have been largely overlooked by European and 
American artists. Much of real beauty can be done with 
diapers, powderings and simple bands or edgings, by decora- 
tors possessed of little skill in drawing or broad handling. 
The East is also peculiarly happy in another form of all-over 
decoration which is between the diaper and the special design, 
the surface being closely covered by enrichment in which there 
is no exact repetition, the units exhibiting continual variety, 



usually conventional flowers and leaves, connected by curving 
or interlacing stems. This form of decoration carries richness 
to excess, and must be very skilfully managed. The details, 
as in the best Japanese work in this style, should be not too 
large or too separate, but lose themselves at a short distance 
in a bloom of vibrating color. The interest of a diaper, and 
more especially of a powdering, when it is the principal deco- 
ration, is often enhanced by varying the repeated units, keep- 
ing them, however of the same general form and size. The 
Chinese and Japanese have another quaint and effective way 
of using all-over patterns in oddly shaped patches, set together 
much after the fashion of "crazy patchwork," sometimes joined 
in more regular style, separated usually with gold lines and 
the details often being touched or accented with gold. 
Japanese, Chinese, Hindoo, Persian, Arabian, Turkish and 
Moorish designs in lacquer, porcelain and metal abound in 
examples of this lavish surface adornment, growing less fan- 
tastic and more inclined to formal symmetry as we proceed 
westward from China. 

It is not at all advisable to attempt following their ideas 
literally. Our fancy does not flow through the same channels 
as theirs, and any direct imitations of these surcharged and 
barbaric styles would miss the spirit of the originals and pro- 
duce but a dull and over-elaborated result. We can, however, 
take similar motives for original application and borrow hints 
where they can be assimilated with our own feeling. 

Chief among the things not to be done with all-over pat- 
terns, is forcing them around angles and abrupt curves. They 
should also be kept off from narrow necks, handles, spouts, 
feet, and all places where there is not sufficient surface to dis- 
play more of the repeated units than can be readily counted. 
In such situations they look poor and cheap. They always 
require room to spread out to some extent in all directions. 
If the place they adorn is of regular, symmetrical shape, care 
should be taken that the units are disposed symmetrically, 
and not haphazard, leaving more space at one side than the 
other. It must be borne in mind that all-over patterns are of 
the nature of enriched backgrounds, and are lacking in the 
elements of strong contrasts that count so much for effect in 
decoration. Hence it is not often that they will be found 
desirable for the sole ornament of an object. At least a 
strong border or a contrasting plain space will be generally 
required in combination. On the other hand, a diaper or pow- 
dering must not be employed with other more important fea- 
tures when they will be crowded or rendered less effective by the 
association. A good general rule is to consider such patterns 
as a richer kind of shading or tinting, and to employ them 
instead of flat tints where a richer effect is desirable. Acting 
on this idea, it will be found that in keramic decoration they 
generally go best with the simplest schemes, the exceptions 
being their use as backgrounds or fillings to panels or medal- 
lion-like framed spaces in rich scroll designs, shields, &c, and 
on draperies, or replacing tints in conventional figures, foliage, 
&c. When used, they must be executed very neatly. The 
chief danger to be guarded against in introducing them into 
bold designs is the tendency to a finicky effect. But judi- 
ciously used they both enrich and soften away the harshness 
and crudity of bold and heavy schemes, and also give weight 
and color to thin and wiry designs. 

[TO BE CONTINUED.] 

Flux — A liquid used with colors either to weaken them 
or enable them to have an easier fire, 



2 4 8 KERAMIC STUDIO 

TREATMENT OF RUSSIAN PLATE 

(SUPPLEMENT) K. E. Cherry 



DIVIDE the plate into ten parts ; make a tracing of the two 
designs and transfer them on to the plate, then use 
Brunswick black thinned with lavender oil (so when using it 
thin it will make a soft gray line) and go over the design care- 
fully, then fire so not to lose design. Then dust the edge 
with matt Turkish blue. Next do the paste and use gold for 
background. The gold design is outlined in black in order 
to throw out the design. 



LUSTRE 

IRIDESCENT ROSE 

Iridescent Rose padded makes a pink and blue changeable 
color, painted on in two coats, it is a deep green blue with a 
rose lustre. Be careful to avoid dust or dampness with this 
color as it spots easily. It looks well with orange, or green 
over it. 

BLACK 

Black has always a gold sheen, and is useful anywhere 
that black is needed in a design, it is also effective in combi- 
nation with raised gold and jewels. 








BERRY PLATE IN GOOSEBERRIES— JEANNE M. STEWART 

PALETTE for berries— Yellow, Blue and Olive Greens, Yel- The first painting should be simple washes representing 

low Brown and Pompadour. Palette for leaves— Blue light and shade, leaving detail for second fire. 
Green, Grey for flowers, Yellow Brown, Chestnut Brown, Add shadow leaves and berries around prominent portion 

Pompadour, Olive, Brown and Shading Greens. Apply thin of design in the warm grey tones, while the upper trailing 

washes of color on berries, aiming for clearness and transpar- sprays should be kept in cooler grey greens. The woody 

ency, taking out high lights with fine pointed shader. Leaves stems may be painted in yellow green with chestnut brown 

should be painted in green with exception of one most prom- for shadows and thorns. 

inent, to which the yellow and red brown tones may be added Shade background from delicate blue greens to brown 

to represent the withered and dried edges. green with chestnut brown and pompadour in darkest tones. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



249 



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KERAMIC STUDIO 



LEAGUE The readers of League Notes, especially 

NOTES those who have share d in the work of prepar- 
ing and sending the National League's exhibit 
to Paris will, perhaps, be interested in knowing that the busi- 
ness connected with the various shipments on this side of the 
Atlantic has been completed. The third and fourth ship- 
ments were made two weeks later than the shipments of 
china, and consisted of the cases, plate glass, hangings for 
walls and velours for displaying the exhibit. Mr. Charles 
Volkmar kindly undertook the supervision of our cases. They 
were built in New York and are in every way satisfactory. 
They are of good material, finished in ebony with serviceable 
locks and hinges, and are constructed on measurements to 
display the entire collection to good advantage. A perfect 
plan of arrangement accompanies these cases, which places 
each exhibit and insures to each exhibitor the exact amount 
of space applied for. 

Much care has been taken to bring out a good display as 
a whole, by not allowing conflicting exhibits to be placed 
together. The faience and pottery is separated from the 
decorated china, and when the electric lights are properly 
placed, we feel sure of a most satisfactory effect. 

Clement Chaussegros, M. D., has accepted the office of 
Honorary Advisor to the League in Paris during the Exposi- 
tion. Dr. Chaussegros is a member of the League and will 
be able to advance our interests abroad. Verified lists of 
articles sent in each consignment have been filed with Mrs. 
Wagner, League Chairman of Exhibition. Duplicate lists are 
held here. Insurance has been placed on all property in- 
trusted to our care, in short, every precautionary measure that 
the thought of the officers could suggest has been taken. In 
spite of all this there will undoubtedly occur losses which will 
cause regret. In collecting this exhibit we have faithfully 
endeavored to place before our members the risks that they 
necessarily take. You have our pledge to care for your prop- 
erty in the manner agreed upon by the authorities; and the 
privilege of knowing exactly what precautions have been, 
and are being taken. The serious minded men and women of 
our League are aroused to active co-operation and are earnestly 
striving to give to the keramic profession of this country, a 
national organization which will be both lasting and efficient. 
But picture to yourself the stride we could make if our four 
hundred members were animated with this same desire and 
were united in maintaining the keramic interests of the whole 
country. We need more workers imbued with a broad 
patriotic desire, first to conserve the rights of the clubs, and 
finally to make America independent in keramic art, combined 
with a lofty faith in their own resources for success, no 
matter how discouraging the outlook. We have just received 
proof of what faith in our own resources can produce. After 
honoring the insurance, freight and many other heavy ex- 
penses incurred, the financial committee faced with dismay a 
much depleted bank account. With confidence born of pre- 
vious success Miss Helen Montfort threw her energy into a 
project for adding to our funds for Paris Exposition expenses. 
Under the auspices of the New York Society of Keramic Art 
a benefit was given at the Waldorf-Astoria which resulted in 
placing a snug sum to our credit in Paris. You can well im- 
agine the relief from anxiety that this act has afforded. 

Due notice of the installation of our exhibit will be found 
in these columns. Breakage and damage incurred in shipping 
will be reported to the owners of the pieces by Mrs. Wagner. 
If you have any printed history or description of work which 
you wish distributed to visitors during the Exposition, you 



may forward r it prepaid, directly to Mrs. M. L. Wagner, care 
of American Express Co., 6 Rue Halevy, Paris, France. 

With the closing of exhibition work comes the necessity 
of urging forward the League work at home, which has unfor- 
tunately dropped a little behind. We regret that the circular 
of instruction, for the preparing and sending in of designs for 
Government table service competition cannot appear in this 
issue. If any League reader wishing to compete has not 
already received this circular, it will be sent immediately upon 
application. Mrs. Worth Osgood, 

President. 

£LUB The New York Society of Keramic Arts 

NEWS ^ aVe a P r °g ressive euchre party at the Wal- 
dorf-Astoria for the benefit of the Paris fund 
for the National Leagueof Mineral Painters. While the exhibi- 
tors have paid for the space, etc., yet there were many outside 
expenses to be met, such as insurance, cases, wall covering, 
etc. As usual the New York Society has come to the aid in 
a most liberal way. There were four hundred and sixty 
players. The prizes, thirty in number, were the work of 
members of the Society and were donated by them. The 
whole entertainment was organized and managed by Miss 
Montfort, whose executive ability is acknowledged as 
supreme. 

The Poughkeepsie Keramic Art Club gave a very delight- 
ful entertainment Feb. 27th at its own club rooms. Illness 
prevented our representative from attending, but we are told 
that the exhibition was very artistic and that the work was 
extremely interesting. Miss Horlocker has been the instruc- 
tor of the club since its organization. 

The Jersey City Keramic Art Club held its last meeting 
at the residence of Mrs. Baker, one of its members. One 
dozen tankards with fruit decorations were brought in for 
criticism, but owing to the absence of the judge, they will be 
criticised next month. 

The annual meeting of the Brooklyn Society of Mineral 
Painters was held March 7th at the residence of Mrs. W. W. 
Marston, and was well attended. The following officers were 
elected: Mrs. E. P. Camp, President; Miss Ida A. Johnson, 
Vice President; Miss M. L. Clarke, Recording Secretary; Mrs. 
E. B. Proctor, Corresponding Secretary; Miss Alice P. Ander- 
son, Treasurer. The subject of the day was Current Keramic 
Literature, and after a very excellent paper by Mrs. Theo. 
Field and a delightful social chat, the meeting was adjourned. 

The New York Society of Keramic Arts held its monthly 
meeting at the Waldorf-Astoria, Monday, March 12th. The 
guest of honor was Mrs. Florence D. Koehler, whose work is 
stirring up such an interest among decorators. Mrs. Koehler 
spoke of the serious study that should be given to keramics, 
and that decorators could do so much for themselves if the 
right books and motifs were used. 

The Mineral Art League of Boston held its annual exhi- 
bition at the Hotel Thorndike the week of March 5th. It 
varied its usual course by having each one's work by itself. 
which seemed very satisfactory to the visitors, who were 
indeed many. The whole effect was rich and artistic, the walls 
being draped with a creamy crepe and the tables covered with 
a soft gray green velour. The lighting was especially fine. 
The work showed a marked improvement, and more originality 
of design, there being more pieces done with conventional 
decorations, also a good deal of lustre work. The whole 
tone of the exhibit was of general excellence, but possibly 




"RUSSIAN TLATE-k. E. CHERRY 

KERAMIC STUDIO PUBLISHING CO. 



SUPPLEMENT TO KERAMIC STUDIO 
APRIL 1900 



KERAMC STUDIO 



2P 



the following members may be mentioned as being most favor- 
ably commented on : Miss McKay, Mrs. Beebe, Mr^. Bakeman, 
Mrs. Davis, Mrs. Swift, Mr. Callowhill, Miss Page, Miss Fair- 
banks and Mrs. Safford. 



TN THE Miss Leta Horlocker will close her studio 

< ,_ TT _^ T ^„ the first of July, when she sails for Europe with 

a party of artists to visit the art centers there. 

The artists of New York are enjoying the work of Mrs. 
Koehler, who is at present teaching in Mrs. Leonard's studio, 
28 East Twenty-third street. Mrs. Koehler is the first one to 
start pupils upon the basis of design and color. She really 
prefers several weeks of study before beginning the actual 
work. Decorators will never be recognized by the art world 
until this method is more fully understood and carried out. 

We have heard of several teachers who will change their 
method of teaching next year, and give instructions by the 
month instead of by the lesson. 

Mrs. Anna B. Leonard invited the artists of New York to 
a private view in her studio of the conventionally decorated 
porcelains of Mrs. Florence Koehler and her pupils — a few 
members of the Atlan Club of Chicago. Mrs. Koehler teaches 
and criticises from the very highest standard of decorative 



art, and those who follow her faithfully, generally have to 
give up the very things that have been generally admired by 
devoted friends. But in many cases it would be wise to say, 
" Heaven save us from our friends." While Mrs. Koehler 
undoubtedly has drawn her inspiration from the orientals, yet 
her work of to-day is much more free and individual than it 
was ten years ago, and this shows also in her pupils' work. 
This same work will be exhibited at the Teachers' College, 
also in connection with Columbia University, as a department 
of keramics has just been started, and there is much interest 
shown in this advanced work by Mrs. Koehler. The Keramic 
STUDIO cannot say too much in praise of this artist, who so 
bravely stands by her convictions and is doing what no other 
decorator has done — teaching how to study keramics. She 
will have classes in New York at Mrs. Leonard's studio, two 
weeks longer. She is planning to take the class to the Metro- 
politan Museum for sketching of some of the old porcelains 
and for general talks upon the colors, glazes and adaptability 
of design. 



I 



N THE 
SHOPS 



Miss Wynne's china shop, which has been 
for years the mecca for china painters in New 
York, is at last about to be removed to 1 1 

E. 20th street. We wish her all possible luck in her new 

quarters. 




• , 



PANSY PLATE— F. W. MALEY 



KERAMC STUDIO 




TRAY— GRACE W. STEPHENS 



TREATMENT OF TRAY 

Grace II '. Stephens 

DRAW the design accurately with India ink. Tint the cen- 
ter with Brown No. 3. Make the red by mixing one 
part Capucine Red with two parts of Deep Red Brown, the 
green, one part Emerald Stone Green to two parts Dark 
Green No. 7, and lastly put on the Orange Lustre, great care 
being taken to bring it up close to the edges, laying it on as 
smoothly as possible. 

Use as large a square shader as can be conveniently han- 
dled. Put a thin wash of gold on the edge, and fire hard. 

For the second fire deepen all the colors, using a little 
Brown No. 4 with the first named brown, Deep Green No. 7 
over the green and Deep Red Brown on the red. Go over 
the lustre with another thin wash and outline the entire 
design with Outlining Black. Put another wash of gold on 
the edge and if the tray is again fired hard, it will come out 
with a uniform high glaze. 

Should this not be the case, strengthen all your colors 
with a thin wash of the last named tints mixing plenty of 
fat oil with your tinting oil which will help to give a glaze, 
and fire again. 

MOUNTAIN ASH DESIGN 

Maude Briggs Knowlton 

IN painting the berries of the mountain ash, use yellow red, 
blood red and ruby, with ruby and a touch of black in 
very darkest shadow parts of darkest cluster. The principal 



bunch of berries should be kept almost wholly in yellow red, 
used thin and thick, with blood red used on the shadow side very 
sparingly. The medium dark bunches of berries should be 
painted with yellow red used thicker, and shaded with blood 
red, while the darkest bunches should be done in ruby, and 
shadowy one in gold grey. Be careful in painting them the 
first time, not to model each individual berry too much, but 
more in masses. The leaves should be kept in cool greyish 
and bluish greens, except the spray most prominent, in which 
can be introduced the warmer shades of green, made with 
moss green and shaded with brown green. Shadow leaves 
should be kept a cool greyish color. 

The stems directly attached to the berries and supporting 
each cluster, are made with moss green shaded with brown 
green, while the main stems are made with Copenhagen blue 
used thin, and shaded with same and a touch of finishing 
brown. 

After firing, the berries should be modeled somewhat in 
same colors as used at first, and the leaves and stems strength- 
ened, and after firing a second time, if the clusters of berries 
look cut up, wash over the shadow side yellow red and blood 
red, while those that were painted with the ruby may have a 
wash of ruby, blood red and Copenhagen. 

Do not forget the small black dot on each little berry 
which is conspicuous, as this is characteristic of the fruit. 

The background, if the design is used on a vase, is very 
pleasing when made of Russian green at top and running 
down to a very dark color made of Copenhagen blue, and used 
quite thick at the lowest part, even adding a touch of a shading 
green at the verv base. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



2^3 







% ; i. &J 




MOUNTAIN ASH DESIGN-MAUDE BRIGGS KNOWLTON 



^4 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



ETYMOLOGY OF THE WORD PORCELAIN 

John Gets 
J T is a singular fact that China, although the creator of so 
1 marvelous a product, so pleasant to the eye, so worthy as 
an adjunct to our most luxurious surroundings, should not 
likewise have given it its name. It remained for western 
countries to call it porcelain. 

The word "pourcelain" is often found in medieval 
French inventories, applied to many different objects, and 
evidently was used to specify all kinds of carved vases or 
utensils made of shells or mother-of-pearls 

The word has undergone sundry unimportant transfor- 
mations at the hands of writers of past ages, who gave the 
name to Oriental porcelain, probably because it resembled 
shell. At least, this seems to be the accepted hypothesis. 
The word porcelain is possibly of Italian origin, and derived 
from the similarity of the glazed white surface to that of 
the cowrie shell (porcellana.) 

Jacquemart and Fignier believed the word porcelain 
to be derived from the Portuguese porcelana, or porcolla, 
vessel. 

In China porcelain is termed Yao, a word signifying an 
object baked in a kiln, whether glazed porcelain or glazed pot- 
tery. This word came into use from the Thang dynasty (A. 
D. 618), when the paste became translucent and white, 
through the use of kaolin. The word Thao was used before 



that epoch, and probably refers to a primitive kind of pottery 
or stone ware. The Chinese also called a kind of porcelain 
"Tse," whence some writers erroneously interpret the word 
Tse-khi as porcelain, ignorant of the fact that this word desig- 
nated a porcelain made from a stone called Tse-chi, found in 
the district Tse-tcheou. 

In A. D. 1171 we first find a clear mention of porcelain 
outside of China. In that year Saladin sent to Mueddin a 
present of forty pieces of Chinese porcelain. 

The port of Canton was visited by the Arabs about the 
ninth century, and they probably were the first to bring por- 
celains from China. At that epoch porcelain is said to have 
been more or less gray, that is, not made wholly from kaolin. A 
century later pieces appeared in Europe that were nearly white. 

Marco Polo, in 1280, visited one of the sites of porcelain 
manufacture, and states that it was exported to all parts of 
the world. It was probably he through whom the attention 
of his countrymen was called to the product of the far East. 

Other travelers, of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, 
likewise noted it. It probably reached Europe through 
Egypt. At any rate, a present of porcelain vases was sent by 
the Sultan of Egypt, in 1487, to Lorenzo de Medici. The 
Portuguese, however, doubtless made the first direct importa- 
tion of Chinese wares in Europe, after which the various India 
Companies of Holland, England, France and Sweden soon 
followed. 




SALAD PLATE, CHICORY— ADELAIDE ALSOP ROBINEAU 



THE decorative head can be used in every alternate orna- 
ment in this border, or in only one medallion as sug- 
gested, or if the head seems too difficult it can be omitted and 
the flower design alone be used. 



We would suggest a simple treatment of blue and white 
with darker blue outlines or a dull green with the chicory 
flower in blue, the face and hands a pale brown, the whole 
outlined in dark blue. 



KERAMIC STUDIO. 



^5 




VIOLET CUP AND SAUCER— ANNA B. LEONARD 



THE violets are painted in the natural colors. Light and Stone green, or they may be painted in gold with the outlines 

dark violet of gold (La Croix) with a little deep blue and veins in dark green. Or the whole design may be in flat 

green and dark blue to tone. The leaves and stems may be natural colors outlined in gold, with either a plain white 

painted in dull greens, Brown Green, Moss Green and Emerald background or a dull gold background. 



2^6 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




ART OF PYROGRAPHY OR BURNT WOOD ETCHING 

O. A. Vau dcr Leeden 

THIRD PAPER 
T IS absolutely necessary for the pupil to thor- 
oughly understand the lines, so he will have no 
difficulty in making them in any direction, with- 
out moving the wood. The point should always 
be kept as hot as possible, the best results being 
then obtained. 
In illustration No. I, Fig. A, a few lines are shown which 
the beginner should practice carefully. The curved lines 
shown are produced by holding the point in a slightly slant- 
ing position, turning the handle in the fingers, starting quickly 
and lightly, with a swinging motion, and ending lightly, put- 
ting the pressure in the middle of the line. These lines, 
which should be made an inch long are similar to the curved 
lines described in the February issue of the KERAMIC Studio, 
and which are shown in Fig. D of this issue. 



ttc 




%* 




Another line is obtained by holding the point in a medium 
straight position, putting the pressure upon the wood at the 
beginning of the stroke, and ending lightly, as shown in Fig. 
E. Practice these until you can do them perfectly, then 
practice the opposite stroke, by holding the point in the same 
position, starting lightly and putting the pressure at the end 
of the stroke ( Fig. C). Any extra care taken by the pupil at 
the beginning of his " pyro career" will more than repay him 
later. 

Next practice making half-circles, holding the point 
straight, and then turning the handle loosely in the fingers 
Practice these half-circles to the left, and right, as shown in 
illustration No. 2. Having become familiar with these half- 
curves, next practice circles. Turn the handle continuously 
in the fingers, and keep the line of the same thickness 
throughout. In making these curves, be careful that the hot 
air opening, on the upper surface of the point, is not down- 
ward, thus scorching the wood, as shown in illustration No. 3. 
When practicing these curves, always move the hand in the 



direction of the curve, never holding the point so that it comes 
under the hand, as in so doing the heat is thrown into the 
hand. In making a circle, burn as much as possible of it, 







>0O0C 




*JW 



before taking the point'off the surface of the wood. When 
you can make these circles with ease and regularity, outline 
some simple scroll or leaf, as shown in illustration No. 2. 
making the outlines clear and sharp and of medium thickness, 
Having the figure outlined, put in one of the backgrounds. 

In illustration No. 4, a simple design for a border is 
given. The design should be first outlined carefully. Then 
a light brown background, slightly curving instead of straight, 
should be put in. 



#f 



Around the outer 
edge put a narrow 
darker background. 
To^make this back- 
ground, hold the 
point in a medium 
slanting position, 
making four to five 
short strokes in one 
directions, and four 
in the opposite di- 
rection, following the 
outer edge of the 
border. To finish 
the inner edge of 

border, make a dark background, obtained by holding the 
point flat. When carefully burnt, and the light and dark 
tones preserved, this border is very effective. 

By combining different backgrounds, beautiful effects 
may be produced. The rich contrasting effects between the 
very light, fine backgrounds and the coarser, heavy ones well 
repays the student for the care expended. In the accom- 
panying illustration No. 7, a very effective background suita- 




KERAMIC STUDIO 



m 




able for tabourettes, boxes and Jarge 
pieces, is shown. This background is 
obtained by holding the point straight, 
first making four vertical strokes of the 
same thickness and length, and then 
making four horizontal strokes. Allow 
no white spaces to appear. When used 
for tabourettes, this background should 
be burned in quite deeply. 
Another background, suitable for large pieces, and similar 
to the one just described, is obtained by holding the point in 
the same position, making the four downward straight strokes 
of same thickness and length, and then making three curved 
strokes of the same length as the four strokes, but burning 
the curved strokes much deeper. This is an especially effec- 
tive background. 

[TO BE CONTINUED.] 







CARVED AND BURNT WOOD TABLE— MRS. MARY TROMM 



This is an oblong table, such as used by the peasants of the 
XVth century. The legs are very heavy and solid, 
connected at the bottom by a wide rest for the feet. The 
design at the top is first heavily outlined with the pyrographic 
needle, then the background is carved out so that the design 



shows in bold relief, the ground burnt evenly and the edges 
smoothed. Finally the entire design is carefully shaded and 
burnt deeply, so as to give a strong and effective tone. After 
having been burnt, the legs and edges of the table top should 
be stained and well waxed. 



2^8 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



THE COLLECTOR 



We are hoping to mak 
lectors, and we ask all win 
of interest. As soon as w 
matter, we will establish a 
will be able to make exchai 



the Collector's Department of practical value to col- 
are collecting old and rare china to send us any notes 
find enough subscribers taking a real interest in the 
I exchange column, so that any one having duplicates 



THE ART OF COLLECTING 

Mrs. Carrie Stow Wait 

THE "gentle disease" of collecting comes upon one "ere 
he is aware." The seeking habit turns the eye wistfully 
towards the window of every antique store and even robs a 
pawnbroker's establishment of its unsavory qualities. The 
desire to have and to hold rare bits of porcelain, old pewter, 
quaint copper or brass objects, usually commences when the 
fancy is caught by some little thing of personal interest. If 
the attraction comes to a person of intelligence he leaves no 
stone unturned until he possesses the treasure and afterwards 
informs himself as to its relation to other things. This is the 
usual development of the " collector's fever," but admiration 
and fancy are soon held in check by knowledge and the 
pleasure of acquisition declines if it does not stand Keat'sTest 
"as a joy forever." It may be kept by the law of selection 
and exclusion if it is an oddity or rare. 

1 remember well when the subtle charm of collecting 
stole upon me, brought about by a little piece of blue Staf- 
fordshire, which was in some way connected with the associa- 
tions of childhood. Turning it over I found the words 

Adams, Warranted Staffordshire. I little thought then that 
that small saucer would later take me across the water and 
land me in the "black country," where for ten miles the chim- 
neys mark the spots where much of our rarest and daintiest 
household ware was and is still created, the home of Josiah 
Wedgewood, who made the potter into the artist and a trade 
a profession. 

My advice to all collectors is first to study the potter's 
art that the pastes and glazes may be quickly distinguished. 
This is best done at good potteries, where entrance is usu- 
ally easy and one can make observations at leisure. As a 
rule collecting begins without much information, and as a 
result one soon needs to cull out much that is undesirable. 
In reputable shops one usually finds the dealer reliable, but 
in America we are not liable to find as large a variety of old 
porcelain as we do in England, nor the display of pewter or 
copper that is shown in Holland. But the selection is often 
choicer, and if one is looking for a special curio he is pretty 
sure to find it somewhere in New York. To buy in the shops 
is often cheaper than in rural homes, where false values have 
been assumed. Of course one sometimes chances upon a bar- 
gain in the country, but this often results from a desire for 
money, ignorance of value, or preference for new things. I 
well remember the dear old white-capped mother at Laren, 
Holland, who parted with her Delft cups at a small price but 
wept bitterly when the buyer dropped one upon the tiled floor. 
She was willing to receive the price but not to witness the de- 
mise of her cups. 

In a recent trip to England I acquired in the old town of 
King's Lynn the silver lustre tea-pot here illustrated. It is 
about ten inches high. No photograph can give any idea of 
its beautiful tone. So perfect is it in design and coloring that 
it is difficult to persuade my friends that I have not an antique 
silver pot among my porcelains. I have no idea of its age 
but have traced it to the early part of the century. 

The lustre is upon a soft red clay. I learned its fragile 



quality by a sad experience. Even the dealer could not pack- 
it securely and it arrived in America with a hole in its side. 




SILVER LUSTRE TEAPOT 

Another piece of lustre in my possession is most unique. 
It is a harvest pitcher. The body was white glazed porcelain 
upon which was printed in delightful disregard of perspective 
or arrangement, in true Japanese fashion, a blue grain field, 
hay cart, scythe, Ruth and Boaz in rare confusion —each 
separated and left upon the white background, all the remain- 
ing surfaces being covered very evenly with a brilliant silver 
lustre. I have never found another specimen at all like it 
although I have made many inquiries. 

The copper lustres are more common and some of the 
pitchers have white bands around them upon which are poly- 
chrome decorations, occasionally with raised figures after the 
style of Capo di Monte. 

The pitcher shown is about ten inches high and upon the 
white band are colored decorations. The roses are in pink 
lustre. 




COPPER LUSTRE PITCHER 

The Doulton pottery, at Lambeth, has recently pro- 
duced some fine designs in dull finished copper. They are 
excellent models of old tankards. One in my possession is a 
perfect copy in design of an old leather jack. So well is the 
work done that the seams which are banded and fastened with 
imitation nails easily deceive by their slight green touches for 
corrosion. 

This piece is said to have been designed for the World's 
Fair and was surely a successful representation of the Lam- 
beth art. 

At the recent Marsh sale one unusual piece of silver 
lustre deserved special attention. It was evident that a dealer 
knew its value, for he paid sixteen dollars for it, and doubtless, 
he will sell it at a good advance. It was a spoon holder, quite 
unique in design, being urn-shaped ydth two slender handles 
on either side. It was fine in color and delightful in lines. 
Another piece that brought a good price, showing how much 
copper lustre pitchers are sought for, was very like the speci- 
men illustrated, although not more than half its size. It had 



KERAM1C STUDIO 



2^9 



the white band with colored floral decorations and was sold 
for twelve dollars. I have recently seen a fine collection of 
these pitchers, which, hanging upon a rack in a dining room, 
not only gratify the eye but form an interesting study to the 
collector. These pitchers are said to be extremely rare, 
although once common household utensils, and while some 
dealers will tell you they are of little value, " the proof of the 
pudding is in the eating," as was shown by the prices at sale 
of those in Prof. Marsh's collection. 

*• -f 
AUCTION SALES OF OLD CHINA 

WE have to record again this month some important sales 
of old china, especially from the collections of Wer- 
nicke, the dealer in Antiques, and of the late Prof. Marsh of 
Yale University. The china in the Wernicke collection was 
all imported and consisted chiefly of old Dresden, Berlin, 
Worcester, Sevres, Delft, no Anglo-American ware whatever. 
The two most noticeable features in the Marsh collection 
were a large and varied selection of Chinese and Japanese 
ware, both antique and modern, and a choice lot of old blue 
Staffordshire. 

American collectors are not very much interested in old 
European china and prices at the Wernicke sale were gener- 
ally low, Dresden and Berlin cups and saucers selling from $i 
to $3, a few bringing between $3 and $5. We noticed as 
rather low figures a Sevres dish of the First Empire epoch, 
decorated with the Napoleonic N and border in gold, selling 
for $2.50, while a large bouillon cup and saucer of the same 
set brought only $3. 

Some old Chinese blue and white from the Marsh collec- 
tion sold at fair prices, Hawthorn ginger jars, beaker shaped 
vases and other pieces with the Khang-hi period mark bringing 
from $13 to $55. But fine specimens of old Satsuma and old 
Cloisonne' sold ridiculously low. It may be clue to the fact 
that for old Satsuma and Cloisonne more than for any other 
Japanese ware, one never knows whether the piece is genuine 
or an imitation. However the Marsh pieces were probably 
genuine, and the old Cloisonne dishes, with their enamels so 
much more restful than the bright enamels of modern 
Cloisonne, ought to bring more than $1 or $2, whether genuine 
or imitation. It would not pay even a Japanese artist to 
make such clever imitations for such a price. 

Here are prices brought by interesting pieces of old 
Anglo-American china, most of them from the Marsh col- 
lection : 

Park Theater, plate, 10 inch $22.00 

Dr. Syntax, 4 plates, 10 inch each 21.00 

McDonough's Victory, 3 plates, 9 and 10 inch #12.00 and 17.00 

Cadmus plate, 10 inch 16.00 

Lafayette at Wahsington's Tomb, plate, 10 inch 16.00 

Niagara, old Clifton House, plate, 10 inch 16.00 

First Steamboat on Hudson, 2 plates, 9 and 10 inch $14 00 and 16.00 

Steamboat Chief Justice Marshall, plate, 8% inch 12.00 

La Grange, plate, 10 inch 1 1.00 

Landing of the Fathers, 3 plates. 9 and to inch each 1 1.00 

Winter View of Pittsburgh, plate 9.50 

Landing of Lafayette, 2 plates, 6'4 and 9 inch $6.00 and 9.00 

Niagara, Table Rock, 4 plates, 10 inch each 8.00 

Quebec, plate, 9 inch 8.00 

City Hall (Ridgway), 2 plates, 10 inch each 6.00 

Lafayette at Tomb of Franklin, plate 5 so 

Wadsworth Tower, saucer 4.00 

Hartford, Monte Video, sepia red plate, 7 inch 5.00 

Quadrupeds, plate, 10 inch 13.00 

St. Peter's, Rome, plate, 10 inch 11.00 

Regents Park, plate, 10 inch 10 00 

Windsor Castle, platter, 18 inch 1200 



States pattern, to plates, 10 14 inch each 1200 

States pattern, 3 plates, 9 inch each 5.00 

States pattern, 3 plates, 6'A inch each 5.00 

States pattern, t i plates, $)4 inch each 300 

States pattern, 10 plates, 4^ inch eaoh 2.50 

States pattern, platters, according to size from $1 1.00 to 21.00 

Old blue pitcher, " At the Well " 13-00 

Old blue pitcher, Arms of the United States it. 00 

Old blue pitcher, States pattern (White House) t 1.00 

Old blue sugar bowl, Arms of the United States 8.00 

Old blue sugar bowl, Washington 7.00 

Old blue teapots, Colonial Subjects $7 00 and 9.00 

Copper lustre pitcher, Polychrome Band 12.00 

Silver lustie spoon holder 16.00 

Silver lustre cream pitchers $4. 00 and 8 00 

Silver lustre bowl 7-°o 

Silver lustre teapot and sugar bowl each 6.00 

Delft vases, according to size and condit'on from #4.00 to 15 co 

Delft beer mug, pewter mountings, date 1732 1800 




ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS 

to lie answered by this department must be seat 
the month preceding issue. 



the loth at 



H. E. B.— The conventional poppy border is very good, well balanced and 
in proportion, the buds and leaves are not drawn quite right. You will need 
to study the forms directly from nature when you have the opportunity. 
Then you may exaggerate any point to suit your design, if necessary. 

Your water color studies are both too much worked over. 

Prepare your wet paper on a wet blotter, as directed by Mrs. Nicholls in 
the first number. Study your color well before putting it on the paper. Then 
use as clean and pure a color as possible, mixing on your palette, not on the 
paper. Your studies have a chalky look, as if you had used opaque white 
and then rubbed it off. This comes from fussing too much. Your shells are 
better painted than before, but have all the strength of color worked out and 
have a blackish tone in the shades. The green on the leaves of the Frisia is 
too crude, it is not the real color. The arrangement of the flowers is very 
pleasing and would suit the form to which you have applied the study. The 
vases in the March number by Valentine, Daly, McDonald and the right 
hand vases of Mrs- Alsop-Robineau's exhibit are on Japanese lines. 

You will find that Cobalt blue, Rose Madder, Yellow Ochre should be 
used in every water color study, Hooker's greens in flower painting, what- 
ever other colors may be used. 

MRS. G. C. P. — Peach blossom if dusted on lightly and carefully may 
stand all right in repeated fires, but if uneven or painted on heavily is liable 
to chip. We have no objection to the use of raised paste, in fact it adds greatly 
to some styles of decoration. We object as a general rule to Rococo orna- 
ment, especially in irregular unbalanced scroll work, but where the scrolls 
are reversed and balanced as in the designs like Mrs. Cherry's plate, it 
ceases to be Rococo pure and simple, and can be used with dainty and pleas- 
ing effect. 

H. C. R.— If vour gold came out dark when burnished, the brushes or 
palette knife or palette could not have been perfectly clean, or your paste was 
poor. Certainly one can make more gold out of a five dollar gold piece than 
can be bought for five dollars, otherwise no one would make gold, as they 
would not be paid for their time or trouble. We cannot tell you the exact 
amount saved, it will pay you to try. 

If your green ground is too green you can change it by covering with 
fine black or gold or white enamel dots according to the effect desired. If the 
color is not too heavy, you could dust a second thin coat of dark green 7. 

Good color studies for china are very difficult to procure. You can only 
pick them up here and there when you happen to run across them. Write to 
our advertisers of art materials. 

MRS. J. B. L.— You will find a list of reference bonks for keramics on 
the publisher's page, the first page in the magazine. For the study of Ker- 
amic Art in general we would suggest "The Ceramic Art," by Young 
(Harper Bros.) and "Pottery and Porcelain," by Litchfield (Truslove, 
Hanson & Comba.) 

S. M. M.— For the tall slender vase with handles we would suggest a 
decorative figure in lustres with black outlines— a male figure on one side and 
a female figure on the other— or if you prefer flowers, yellow jonquils in lus- 



260 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



tres outlined in black, growing up from the base, or fleur de lis. For jon- 
quils, use yellow and orange, light and dark green, shading in two or three 
fires to get sufficient depth of color ; for fleur de lis, use violet, ruby, rose and 
blue grey, yellow and orange, light and dark green, two rather heavy coats 
of rose and a medium fire produces a deep blue. 

E. L. V.— In regard to the Pompadour red rubbing off after a hard fire ; 
we think it very likely that you may never have that experience again. Iron 
Reds, such as Red Brown, Carnation, Pompadour Red, etc., have this pecu- 
liarity, that ninety-nine times out of a hundred they will fire all right, then 
suddenly rub off. It may be dampness in the kiln or something on the china, 
we do not know, but very likely you may have perfect success hereafter, if 
not. use a little extra flux. Possibly the color was painted on too thinly to 
hold. 

We gave a dragon design on a vase in the January number. If that is 
not sufficient, we will try to publish another dragon design as soon as we 
have space. 

MRS. E. R. C. — We have given several articles on the use of enamels 
during the last year, you will find them in the back numbers. Enamels are 
being used very widely and are particularly effective for conventional work. 
For general use, Aufsetweis in tubes is by far the most reliable, as it will 
stand repeated firings, this can be tinted any desired shade with tube or pow- 
der colors, add about an eighth of flux. Dusted color needs to be fired first 
unless you wish the enamels to sink into the color somewhat. The enamels 
can be applied over tinting safely for first fire. There are some fine colors in 
soft enamels, but they can be applied with perfect safety only for the last fire. 

S. S. H.-We thank you for the sketches of Dutchman's pipe and would 
be pleased if you made the tobacco jar design with that motif. We will keep 
the sketches to publish with the design when it comes. 

Conventional flowers, or any flower or other subject, applied to china in 
any form except as a panel to be framed as a picture is china decoration. 
We would not say "merely decoration," as it is one of the highest forms of 
applied designs, if rightly thought out. Figures, flowers, landscapes, any 
subject, treated naturally, is china paintimg, but should never be applied to 
anything but a flat surface suitable for framing. Other forms should be 
decorated, the design being in a manner subservient to the form. 

You must not expect judges affairs to know anything about art principles. 
As a rule, they award prizes to the competitors with whom they are ac- 
quainted or who have some kind of influence either personally or through 
friends. Originality of design or treatment would have no effect on them a s 
they do not know hackneyed subjects when they see them. Or like many 
without any art education, they like what " reminds them of something they 
have seen before." The World would stand " stock still " if they had their 
way. 

J. M. McC— Mix your paste and enamel (powder) just the same. First 
use a little Dresden thick oil, enough to mix all through it without making a 
paste, just enough to change the character of it. Then thin with lavender 
oil and rub to a smooth paste. Breath on this mixture three or four times, 
then rub again until the paste stays just where you want it. It should be 
soft enough to smooth itself, and the dots or lines should not have any sharp 
points or edges. If you use enamel in powder use the Aufsetweis two-thirds, 
and best English enamel one-third. 



A 

FEW 

MORE 

MONOGRAMS 










iay. 



ESTABLISHED 1789. 



"FOOTPRINTS '»™ SANDS of TIME" 



HARSCHTNGS 
i ROMAN COLD 



mm 



ROWfJEY'S . 

COLOURS yos -'-Pcrm am 

FOR SALE" BY ALL' 
HIGH CLASS ART DEALERS. 



IMPORTED BY 

The F. W. c De<voe and C. T. %aynoids Co., 

Wl Fulton Street, SNLew York. 

Favor, %uhl & Co., 

123 West Houston Street, SNs-m York. 

AND OTHERS. 



MARSCHINQ'S GOLD .-. 

Costs more because worth more 
than others ^. 

It is endorsed by all leading china painters and 
by A. Laeroix. of Paris, the famous chemist and 
authority on china colors and gold. 

It is sold everywhere, because it is in demand 
everywhere. Lacroix Colors and Marsching's 
Gold for sale by all dealer? in Artists' Materials. 

FAVOR, RUHL & CO. 

WHOLESALE AGENTS, 

123 West Houston Street, New York City. 



Keramic Studio Supplements : 

1899 

May — "Tankard Study," Mrs. Adelaide Alsop-Robineau 
June — "Roses," . . . Marshal Fry, Jr. 

July — "Chocolate Pot," . Airs. Anna B. Leonard 

August — "Stein with Decoration oj Currants," 

Miss Jeanne M. Stewart 
September — "Chrysanthemums J . F. B. Aulicli 

October — "Thistles" . . Miss Jeanne M. Stewart 

November — "Study of Hops," . . Marshal Fry, Jr. 

December — "Holly and Mistletoe," Adelaide Alsop-Robineau 
"Plate, Arabian Design," Anna B. Leonard 

1900 

January — "Plate Divider," . Isabel May Wightman 
"Silver Pheasant," From the German 

February — "Poppies," . . Mary Chase Perry 

March — " Poster esquc Placque" Henrietta Barclay Wright 
April — Plate, Russian Design, . J Irs. K. E. Cherry 
May—" Pine Cones," . . Marshal Fry, Jr. 



We are now ready to furnish a portfolio bound in Art 
Linen and stamped on cover, BLEB, AMIC STUDIO 1S99-1900 
VOLUME I, large enough to contain the twelve numbers, for 



$1.25 



delivered to any part of the United States or Canada; 
colors light brown or drab. Also bound in Leather, stamped 
as above in Gold, for $3.50. 



MRS. ANNA B. LEONARD'S 



GOLD PUT UP IN POWDER FORM. 



28 East 23rd Street, New York. 



SEND $J.OO * <# 



FOR 



^_THREE MONTHS' TRIAL SUBSCRIPTION.. 



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